Paul McLaughlin, Mikhail Bakunin: The Philosophical Basis of His Anarchism, 2002.



Oeuvres Completes CD-ROM (Amsterdam: International Institute of Social History, 2000). [The definitive collection of Bakunin's writings. Includes and supplements the excellent Archives Bakounine collection.]

Archives Bakounine, I-VII, ed. Arthur Lehning (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1961-1981).

Oeuvres Completes, I-VIII, ed. Arthur Lehning (Paris: Editions Champs Libres, 1973-1982). [Less expensive version of the above series. The volume numbers differ because Archives Bakounine, I is published in two parts which correspond to volumes I and II in Oeuvres Completes.]

Oeuvres, I-VI, ed. Max Nettlau and James Guillaume (Paris: P.V. Stock, 1895-1913). [The standard edition of Bakunin's later writings before Archives Bakounine appeared. Includes some writings not published in that series. Volume I has been republished twice, relatively recently (Paris: P.V. Stock, 1972 and 1980).]

Sobranie sochinenii i pisem, I-IV, ed. Iurii Mikhailovich Steklov (Moscow: Izdatel'stvo vsesoiuznogo obshchestva politkatorzhan i ssyl'no-poselentsev, 1934-1936). [The standard edition of Bakunin's early writings. Another incomplete series.]

Izbrrannye sochineniia, I-V (Petrograd-Moscow: Golos Truda, 1919-1921). [Another major Russian-language series.]

Pis'ma MA.Bakunina k A. I. Gertsenui N. P. Ogarevu, ed. Mikhail Petrovich Dragomanov (Geneva: Ukrainskaia Tipografiia, 1896). [Another volume of importance.]

English Translations Consulted

Michael Bakunin: Selected Writings, ed. Arthur Lehning, trans. Steven Cox and Olive Stevens (London: Jonathan Cape, 1973). [The best English-language anthology.]

The Political Philosophy of Bakunin: Scientific Anarchism, ed. G.P. Maximoff (Glencoe: Free Press of Glencoe, 1953). [Quantitatively, the best English-language anthology, but poorly edited.]

The Basic Bakunin: Writings 1869-1871, ed. Robert M. Cutler (Buffalo: Prometheus, 1992). [A useful anthology, well edited and translated (by the editor) with an excellent bibliography. There is an earlier edition: From Out of the Dustbin (Ann Arbor: Ardis, 1985).]

Statism and Anarchy, ed. Marshall M. Shatz (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991). [Excellent edition.]

The Confession of Mikhail Bakunin: With the Marginal Comments of Tsar Nicholas I, ed. Lawrence D. Orton (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1977). [Again, an excellent edition.]

Marxism, Freedom, and the State, ed. K. J. Kenafick (London: Freedom Press, 1990). [Quite useful, but too short and poorly edited. Originally published by the same publisher in 1950.]

Bakunin on Anarchy, ed. Sam Dolgoff, Revised Edition (Montreal: Black Rose Books, 1980). [Disappointing anthology. Badly edited and translated. The original edition appeared some years earlier (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1971).]

God and the State, ed. Paul Avrich (New York: Dover, 1970).


Aldred, Guy. Bakunin, Communist (Glasgow: Spur, 1920).

Aldred, Guy. Bakunin (Glasgow: Strickland Press, 1940).

Anderson, Thornton. Russian Political Thought: An Introduction (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1967).

Arvon, Henri. L'anarchisme, Ninth Edition (Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1987).

Arvon, Henri. Bakounine: absolu et revolution (Paris: Editions du Cerf, 1972).

Arvon, Henri. "Bakounine (Michel)", Encyclopaedia Universalis, II (Paris, 1980).

Arvon, Henri. Michel Bakounine, ou la vie contre science (Paris: Seghers, 1966).

Avrich, Paul. "Anarchism and Anti-Intellectualism in Russia", Journal of the History of Ideas, XXVII (1966), pp. 381-90.

Avrich, Paul. "Bakunin and His Writings", Canadian-American Slavic Studies, X (1976), pp. 591-96.

Avrich, Paul. Anarchist Portraits (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988).

Barer, Shlomo. The Doctors of Revolution (London: Thames and Hudson, 2000).

Berdyaev, Nicolas. The Origin of Russian Communism, trans. R.M. French (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1960).

Berlin, Isaiah. Russian Thinkers, ed. Henry Hardy and Aileen Kelly (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1978).

Bookchin, Murray. Social Anarchism or Lifestyle Anarchism An Unbridgeable Chasm (Edinburgh: A.K. Press, 1995).

Camus, Albert. The Rebel, trans. Anthony Bower (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1971).

Carr, E.H. Michael Bakunin (New York: Octagon Books, 1975).

Carr, E.H. "Bakunin, Mikhail Aleksandrovich", Collier's Encyclopedia, III (New York: P. F. Collier, 1993), pp. 471-72.

Carr, E.H. "Bakunin, Mikhail Aleksandrovich", Encyclopaedia Britannica, Fifteenth Edition, I (Chicago, 1997), pp. 817-18.

Carter, April. The Political Theory of Anarchism (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1971).

Carter, Alan B. Marx: A Radical Critique (Brighton: Wheatsheaf, 1988).

Catteau, Jacques, ed. Bakounine: Combats et dibats (Paris: Institut d'etudes slaves, 1979).

Chomsky, Noam. For Reasons of State (London: Fontana, 1973).

Clark, John. "Marx, Bakunin, and the Problem of Social Transformation", Telos, XLII (1979), pp. 80-97.

Confino, Michael. "Varieties of Anarchism", The Russian Review, XLVIII (1989), pp. 403-12.

Cole, G.D.H. A History of Socialist Thought, II, Marxism and Anarchism: 1850-1890 (London: Macmillan, 1954).

Cranston, Maurice. Political Dialogues (London: B.B.C., 1968).

Crowder, George. Classical Anarchism: The Political Thought of Godwin, Proudhon, Bakunin, and Kropotkin (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991).

Del Giudice, Martine. "Bakunin's 'Preface to Hegel's Gymnasia 1 Lectures': The Problem of Alienation and the Reconciliation with Reality", Canadian-American Slavic Studies, XVI (1982), pp. 161-89.

Drachkovitch, Milorad M., ed. The Revolutionary Internationals: 1864-1943 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1966).

Dubois, Felix. The Anarchist Peril, ed. Ralph Derechef (London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1894).

Duclos, Jacques. Bakounine et Marx: ombre et lumitre (Paris: Plon, 1974).

Eaton, Henry. "Marx and the Russians", Journal of the History of Ideas, XLI (1980), pp. 89-112.

Fleming, Marie. The Geography of Freedom: The Odyssey of Elisee Reclus (Montreal: Black Rose Books, 1988).

Fowler, R.B. "The Anarchist Tradition of Political Thought", Western Political Quarterly, XXV (1972), pp. 738-52.

Gay, Kathlyn and Martin K. Gay. Encyclopedia of Political Anarchy (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 1999).

Grawitz, Madeleine. Michel Bakounine (Paris: Plon, 1990).

Gray, Alexander. The Socialist Tradition: Moses to Lenin (London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1946).

Guerin, Daniel. Anarchism: From Theory to Practice, trans. Mary Klopper (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1970).

Hare, Richard. Portraits of Russian Personalities Between Reform and Revolution (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1959).

Heider, Ulrike. Anarchism: Left, Right, and Green, trans. Danny Lewis and Ulrike Bode (San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1994).

Herzen, Alexander. My Past and Thoughts, III, trans. Constance Garnett, revised by Humphrey Higgins (London: Chatto fa Windus, 1968).

Joll, James. The Anarchists (London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1964).

Kaminski, Hanns Erich. Bakounine: la vie d'un revolutionnaire (Paris: Belibaste, 1971).

Kelly, Aileen. Mikhail Bakunin: A Study in the Psychology and Politics of Utopianism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982).

Kelly, Aileen. "Bakunin, Mikhail Aleksandrovich", Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, I, ed. Edward Craig (London: Routledge, 1998), pp. 645 47.

Kenafick, K.J. Michael Bakunin and Karl Marx (Melbourne: A. Mailer, 1948).

Kofman, M. "The Reaction of Two Anarchists to Nationalism: Proudhon and Bakunin on the Polish Question", Labour History, XIV (1968), pp. 34-45.

Kolakowski, Leszek. Main Currents of Marxism: Its Rise, Growth, and Dissolution, I, trans. P.S. Falla (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978).

Kropotkin, Peter. Two Essays: Anarchism and Anarchist Communism (London: Freedom Press, 1993).

Lampert, E. Studies in Rebellion (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1957).

Lehning, Arthur. "Bakunin", New Society, XVI (1970), pp. 450-52.

Lehning, Arthur. From Buonarroti to Bakunin: Studies in International Socialism (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1970).

Lehning, Arthur. "Michel Bakounine: Theorie et Practique du Federalisme Anti etatique en 1870-1871", Intemational Review of Social History, XVII (1972), pp. 455-73.

Lehning, Arthur. "Bakunin's Conceptions of Revolutionary Organizations and Their Role: A Study of His 'Secret Societies'", Essays in Honour of E. H. Carr, ed. C. Abramsky (London: Macmillan, 1974).

Lehning, Arthur, ed. Michel Bakounine et les autres (Paris: Union generale d'edi-tions, 1976).

Lichtheim, George. A Short History of Socialism (London: Weidenfield & Nicolson, 1970).

Marshall, Peter. Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism (London: Fontana Press, 1993).

Masaryk, Thomas Garrigue. The Spirit of Russia, I, Second Edition, trans. Eden and Cedar Paul (London: Allen &c Unwin, 1955).

Masters, Anthony. Bakunin: The Father of Anarchism (London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1974).

Mendel, Arthur P. "Bakunin: A View from Within", Canadian-American Slavic Studies, X (1976), pp. 466-88.

Mendel, Arthur P. Michael Bakunin: Roots of Apocalypse (New York: Praeger, 1981).

Miller, David. Anarchism (London: J.M. Dent & Sons, 1984).

Morland, David. Demanding the Impossible? Human Nature and Politics in Nineteenth-Century Social Anarchism (London: Cassell, 1998).

Morris, Brian. Bakunin: The Philosophy of Freedom (Montreal: Black Rose Books, 1993).

Nettlau, Max. Michael Bakunin. EineBiographie, 3 vols (London: n.p., 1896-1900).

Nettlau, Max. "Bakunin, Michael", Encydopeadia of the Social Sciences, II (New York: Macmillan, 1935), pp. 393-94.

Nettlau, Max. Writings on Bakunin (London: Carl Slienger, 1976).

Nettlau, Max. A Short History of Anarchism, trans. Ida Pilat Isca (London: Freedom Press, 1996).

Nomad, Max. Apostles of Revolution (New York: Collier, 1933).

Nursey-Bray, Paul, Jim Jose, and Robyn Williams. Anarchist Thinkers and Thought: An Annotated Bibliography (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1992).

Pirumova, Natal'ia. "Bakunin and Herzen: An Analysis of Their Ideological Disagreements at the End of the 1860s", Canadian-American Slavic Studies, X (1976), pp. 552-69.

Plechanoff, George. Anarchism and Socialism, trans. Eleanor Marx-Aveling (Chicago: Charles H. Kerr & Co., 1909).

Pyziur, Eugene. The Doctrine of Anarchism of Michael A. Bakunin (Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 1955).

Ravindranathan, T. R. "Bakunin in Naples: An Assessment", Journal of Modern History, LIII (1981), pp. 189-212.

Ravindranathan, T. R. "The Paris Commune and the First International in Italy: Republicanism versus Socialism, 1871-1872", International History Review, III (1981), pp. 482-516.

Ravindranathan, T. R. Bakunin and the Italians (Kingston and Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1988).

Reszler, Andre. "An Essay on Political Myths: Anarchist Myths of Revolt", Diogenes, XCIV (1976), pp. 34-52.

Ritter, Alan. Anarchism: A Theoretical Analysis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980).

Rude, Fernand. "Bakounine en 1870-1871", Cahiers d'Histoire, XXIV (1979), pp. 75-85.

Rude, Fernand. "Le 'Testament Spirituel' de Bakounine", Cahiers d'Histoire, XXXI (1986), pp. 157-69.

Russell, Bertrand. Roads to Freedom: Socialism, Anarchism, and Syndicalism (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1918).

Saltman, Richard B. The Social and Political Thought of Michael Bakunin (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1983).

Steklov, Yuri. History of the First International, trans. Eden and Cedar Paul (New York: Russell & Russell, 1968).

Strub, Helene. Anarchism: Catologue of XIXth and XXth Centuries: Books and Pamplets from Different Countries (Munich: K.G. Saur, 1993).

Thomas, Paul. Karl Marx and the Anarchists (London: Routledge, 1980).

Ulam, Adam B. Ideologies and Illusions: Revolutionary Thought from Herzen to Solzhenitsyn (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976).

Utechin, S.V. Russian Political Thought: A Concise History (London: J.M. Dent & Sons, 1964).

Varlamov, Volodymyr. Bakunin and the Russian Jacobins and Blanquists as Evaluated by Soviet Historiography, trans. Lois Weinert (New York: Research Program on the USSR, 1955).

Venturi, Franco. Roots of Revolution: A History of the Populist and Socialist Movements in Nineteenth Century Russia, trans. Francis Haskell (London: Weidenfeld, 1960).

Voegelin, Eric. "Bakunin's Confession", Journal of Politics, VIII (1946), pp. 24-43.

Voegelin, Eric. From Enlightenment to Revolution, ed. John H. Hallowell (Durham: Duke University Press, 1975).

Walicki, Andrzej. A History of Russian Thought: From the Enlightenment to Marx, trans. Hilda Andrews-Rusiecka (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1979).

Watt, A.J. "lllich and Anarchism", Educational Philosophy and Theory, XIII (1981), pp. 1-15.

Wilson, Edmund. To the Finland Station (London: Fontana, 1972).

Woodcock, George. "Bakunin, Michael", The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 1 &r II, ed. Paul Edwards (New York: Macmillan, 1967), pp. 244-46.

Woodcock, George. Anarchism A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1975).

Woodcock, George, ed. Anarchism and Anarchists (Kingston: Quarry Press, 1992).

Yemel'ian Mikhailovic Iaroslavskii, History of Anarchism in Russia (New York: International Publishers, 1937).

Zenkovsky, V.V. A History of Russian Philosophy, I, trans. George L. Kline (New York: Columbia University Press, 1953).

Additional Reading

In general (though exceptions have been made), studies of seven kinds have been excluded: (1) studies which are, by any standards, bad anchor unoriginal; (2) studies which are nationally-oriented (which deal, for instance, with Bakunin and Italy or Poland); (3) studies of the Nechaev affair; (4) studies of the First International; (5) studies of Bakunin's relations with specific individuals (e.g., Herzen or Mazzini); (6) studies of specific events or periods in Bakunin's life (e.g., his stays in Scandinavia or Japan); and (7) studies of particular "peculiarities" of Bakunin's character (e.g., incestuous desire). The grounds for such exclusion are that (a) such studies are, by and large, irrelevant to philosophical analysis of Bakunin, and (b) in certain cases (especially in the case of studies of the seventh and, obviously, the first kinds) too poor to justify inclusion. General biographies are included (in a number of cases, reluctantly) for the simple reason that they constitute almost the entire field and are, in any event, occasionally (but only occasionally) illuminating.

Studies in French:

Amedee Dunois and Rene Berthier, Michel Bakounine (Paris: Editions du Monde libertaire, 1998) [see Dunois, 1909, below],

Gaston Leval, Bakounine:fondatuer du syndicalisme revolutionnaire (Paris: C.N.T. Region parisienne, 1998) [originally published in the early 1970s].

Rene Berthier, Bakounine politique: revolution et contre-revolution en Europe centrale (Paris: Editions du Monde libertaire, 1991).

Madeleine Grawitz, Bakounine (Paris: Plon, 1990) [recently translated into German: Bakunin: Ein Leben fur die Freiheit, trans. Andreas Lohrer (Hamburg: Nautilus, 1999)].

Gaston Leval, Michel Bakounine (Le Havre: Groupe Etienne de la Boetie, 1989).

Tanguy L'Aminot, "Bakounine: Critique de Rousseau", Dix-Huitieme Silcle, IXX (1987), pp. 351-65.

Miklos Kun, "Un tournant decisif dans la vie de Bakounine: donnees inedites sur son evolution ideologique et sur son activite conspiratrice", Acta Historica, XXVI (1980), pp. 27-75.

Jacques Catteau, ed., Bakounine: Combats et ddbats (Paris: Institut d'etudes slaves, 1979).

Philippe Oyhamburu, La revanche de Bakounine, ou De I'anarchisme a lautogestion (Paris: Entente, 1975) [Spanish: La m'ancha de Bakunin (Madrid: Campo Abierto, 1977)].

Arthur Lehning, ed., Michel Bakounine etlesautres:esquisseset portraits contemporains d'un rivolutionnaire (Paris: Union generale d'editions, 1976).

Gaston Leval, Lapenste constructive de Bakounine (Paris: Rene Lefeuvre, 1976).

Jeanne-Marie V., Michel Bakounine: une vie d'homme (Geneva: Association Noir, 1976).

Jacques Duclos, Bakounine et Marx: ombre et lumitre (Paris: Plon, 1974).

Henri Arvon, Bakounine: absolu et revolution (Paris: Editions du Cerf, 1972).

Arthur Lehning, "Michel Bakounine: Theorie et Practique du Federalisme Anti-etatique en 1870-1871", International Review of Social History, XVII (1972), pp. 455-73.

Henri Arvon, Michel Bakounine, ou la Vie contre la science (Paris: Seghers, 1966).

Hem Day, Michel Bakounine: aspects de son oeuvre (Paris: Pensee et action, 1966).

Arthur Lehning, introductions and notes to Archives Bakounine, I - VII (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1961-1981) [reprinted as the introductions and notes to Oeuvres Completes, I - VIII (Paris: Editions Champ Libre, 1973-1982)].

Benolt P. Hepner, Bakounine et la panslavisme rtvolutionnaire; cinq essais sur I'histoire des idles en Russie et en Europe (Paris: Marcel Riviere, 1950).

Etienne Porges, Bakounine (Paris: Editions des Portes de France, 1946).

Hanns-Erich Kaminski, Bakounine: la vie d'un rdvolutionnaire (Paris: Aubier, 1938) [there is also a reprint (Paris: Belibaste, 1971)].

Elena Aleksandrovna Izvol'skaya (Helene Iswolsky), La vie de Bakounine (Paris: Librairie Gallimard, 1930).

Amedee Dunois, "Michel Bakounine", Portraits d'hier, VI (1909), pp. 163-91.

Victor Dave, "Michel Bakounine et Karl Marx", L'Humanite Nouvelle, XXXIII (1900), pp. 257-80 [various translations],

Albert Francois, Michel Bakounine et la philosophic de l'anarchie (Brussels: H. Lamer-tin, 1900).

Emile de Laveleye, "L'apotre de la destruction universelle", Revue des Daix Mondes, 1880, pp. 546-82.

Studies in German:

Markus Heinlein, Klassicher Anarchismus und Erziehung. Libertdre Padogogik bei William Godwin, Michael Bakunin und Peter Kropotkin (Wurzburg: Ergon, 1998).

Irene Lawen, Konzeptionen der Freiheit. Zum Stellenwert der Freiheitsidee in der Soziale-thik John Stuart Mills und Michail A. Bakunins (Saarbriicken: Saarbriicken Ver-lag fur Entwicklungspolitik, 1996).

Herbert Berger, Negative Kausalitctt. Soziale Welt bei Hume und Bakunin (Cuxhaven: Trande Junghans, 1995).

Wolfgang Eckhardt, Michail A. Bakunin (1814-1876). Bibliographie der Primar- und Sekundar Literatur in deutscher Sprache (Cologne: Libertad, 1994).

Arthur Lehning, ed., Unterhaltungen mit Bakunin, trans. Rolf Binner and Gerd Muller (Nordlingen: Greno, 1987) [there is a newer edition (Leipzig: Reclam-Verlag, 1991)].

Wim van Dooren, Bakunin zur Einfurung (Hamburg: Junius-Verlag, 1985).

Gerd Koch, Marx und Bakunin zur Pariser Kommune. Zerstdrt den Staat (Hamburg: Association, 1974).

Justus Franz Wittkop, Michail A. Bakunin. Mit Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten (Reinbek: Rowohlt, 1974) [republished by the same publisher in 1987 and 1994],

G. Bartsch, Kommunismus, Sozialismus, Anarchismus und Karl Marx (Bonn: Bundeszentrale fur politische Bildung, 1971).

Horst Bienek, Bakunin. Eine Invention (Munich: C. Hanser, 1970) [republished (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1982)].

Peter Scheibert, Von Bakunin zu Lenin. Geschichte der russischen revolutionaren Ideologien 1840-1895,1 (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1956).

Joseph Pfitzner, Bakuninstudien (Prague: Verlag der Deutschen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften und Kiinste fur die Tschechoslowakische Republik, 1932) [republished (Berlin: Karin Kramer, 1977)].

Joseph Billig, "Der Zusammenbruch des deutschen Idealismus bei den russischen Romantikem (Bjelinski, Bakunin)", Archiv fur systematische Philosophie und Soziologie, XXXIV (1930).

Fritz Brupbacher, Michael Bakunin, der Satan der Revolte (Zurich: Neuer deutscher Verlag, 1929) [republished (Berlin: Libertad-Verlag, 1979)].

Max Nettlau, Der Anarchismus von Proudhon zu Kropotkin: seine historische Entwicklung in den Jahren 1859-1880 (Berlin: Der Syndikalist, 1927) [republished (Vaduz: Topos, 1984)].

Ricarda Huch, Michael Bakunin und die Anarchie (Leipzig: Insel-Verlag, 1923) [republished recently (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1988), having been republished twice already by this publisher (1972 and 1980)].

Hans Mtiller, Michael Bakunin. Der revolutiondre Anarchismus (Zurich: Sozialistische Verlagsgenossenschaft, 1919).

Fritz Brupbacher, Marx und Bakunin (Munich: G. Birk & Co., 1913) [republications (from Berlin: Verlag Die Aktion, 1922, to Berlin: Karin Kramer, 1976)].

Iurii Mikhailovich Steklov, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Bakunin. Ein Lebensbild (Stuttgart: Dietz, 1913) [republished by the same publisher in 1920].

Max Nettlau, Michael Bakunin. Eine biographische Skizze (Berlin: P. Pawlowitsch, 1901).

Max Nettlau, Michael Bakunin. Eine Biographie, I-III (London: n.p„ 1896 1900).

Studies in Russian:

Natal'ia Mikhailovna Pirumova, Sotsial'naia doktrina MA. Bakunina (Moscow: Nauka, 1990).

V.F. Pustarnakova, ed., Filosofiia, sotsiologiia, politika (Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Pravda, 1989 [an anthology of Bakunin's writings rather than a secondary work, but interesting for its timing if nothing else],

Vladimir Georgievich Grafskii, Bakunin (Moscow: Iuridicheskaia literatura, 1985).

Pavel Innokent'evich Moiseev, Kritikafilosofii M. Bakunina i sovremennost' (Irkutsk: Vostochno-Sibirskoe knizhnoe izd-vo, 1981).

Vladimir Gurgenovich Dzhangirian, Kritika anglo-amerikanskoi burzhuaznoi is-triografii MA. Bakunina i bakunizma (Moscow: Mysl', 1978).

Fedor Iakovlevich Polianskii, Kritika ekonomicheskikh anarkhizma (Izdatel'stvo Moskovskogo universiteta, 1976).

Mikhail Ivanovich Mikhailov, Bor'ba protiv bakunizma v I Internationale (Moscow: Nauka, 1976).

Natal'ia Mikhailovna Pirumova, Bakunin (Moscow: Molodaia gvardiia, 1970).

Isaak Borisovich Zil'berman, Politicheskaia teoriia anarkhizma M.A. Bakunina (Leningrad: Izdatel'stvo Leningradskogo univeriteta, 1969).

R.N. Blium, "Vzgliady M.A. Bakunina na revoliutsiiu", UchenyezapiskiTartuskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 225 (1969).

Natal'ia Mikhailovna Pirumova, Mikhail Bakunin: zhizn' i deiatel'nost' (Moscow: Nauka, 1966).

Valentina A. Tvardovskaia and N. Iu. Kolpinskii, "Bakunin v russkom i mezhdunarodom osvoboditel'nom dvizhenii", Voprosy istorii, X (1964), pp. 69-95.

Iurii Mikhailovich Steklov, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Bakunin. Ego zhizn'i deiatel'nost', 1814-1876, Second Edition, I-IV (Moscow: Izd-vo Kommunisticeskoi Akademii, 1926-27).

Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Kornilov, Gody stranstvii Mikhaila Bakunina (Leningrad-Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe Izdatel'stvo, 1925).

Viacheslav Pavlovich Polonskii, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Bakunin. Zhizn', deiatel'nost', myshlenie (Moscow-Leningrad: Gosudarstvennoe Izdatel'stvo, 1925).

Viacheslav Pavlovich Polonskii, Materialy dlia biograii M. Bakunina, I-III (Moscow-Leningrad: Gosudarstvennoe Izdatel'stvo, 1923-33).

Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Kornilov, Molodye gody Mikhaila Bakunina (Moscow: Izd. M. i S. Sabashnikovykh, 1915).

Studies in other languages:

Roberto Giulianelli, Bakunin e la rivoluzione anarchica (Salerno: Galzerano, 1998).

Giuseppe Turco Liveri, II cane difuocoel'aristocratico da letamaio: dispute nellospazio tra Marx, Nietzsche ed altri (Rome: A. Armando, 1998).

Ramon Liarte, Bakunin: la emancipation del pueblo (Barcelona: Editorial Salud, 1995).

Wlodzimierz Rydzewski, Powrdt Bakunina: szhice o 'rosyjskiej idei' i mitach lewicy (Krakow: Wydawnictwo BUS, 1993).

Demetrio Velasco Criado, Etica y poder politico en M. Bakunin (Bilbao: Universidad de Deusto, 1993).

Dimitur Ivanov, Ot Platon do Bakunin: osnovni politicheski idei (Sofia: Universitetsko izd-vo Sv. Kliment Okhridski, 1991).

Renato Pernice, L'etica della rivoluzione in M. Bakunin (Rome: Lo Faro, 1987).

Bergljot Hobt Haff, Jeg, Bakunin: bruddstykker av en urostifters liv og levned (Oslo: Gyldendal, 1983).

Miklos Kun, Utban azanarchizmusfele: Mihail Bakunyin politikai pdlyakepe es esz/nei fejlodeseazl860-as tvek kdzepen (Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1982).

Ange J. Cappelletti, "Materialismo Y Dialectica En Bakunin", Pensamiento, XXXVII (1982), pp. 207-10.

Tomas Cano Ruiz, Miguel Bakunin: su vida y su obra (Naucalpan de Juarez: Ideas, 1980).

Arthur Lehning, ed., Bakoenin:een biographie in tijdsdocumenten (Baarn: Wereldven-ster, 1977).

Aulo Casamayor, ed., Bakunin, Marx: al margen de una polemica (Paris: Ruedo Iberico, 1977).

Bakunin cent'anni dopo: atti del convergo internazionale di studi bakuniniani (Milan: Edizioni Antistato, 1977).

Giuseppe Rose, Bibliografia di Bakunin (Catania: Edizioni della Rivista 'Anarchismo', 1976).

Victor Garcia, Bakunin, hoy (Rosario: Grupo ed. de estudios sociales, 1974).

Willy Hoffman, Analyse van de politieke filosofie van de anarchist Michael Bakunin (Ghent: Rijksuniversiteit, 1973).

Vladimir Kasik, MA. Bakunin (Prague: Svoboda, 1969).

Hanna Temkinowa, Bakunin i antynomie wolnosci (Warsaw: Ksiazka i Wiedza, 1964).

Anton L. Constandse, Michael Bakoenin. Russisch rebel (Amsterdam: Holdert, 1948) [republished (Groningen: St. Pamflet, 1976)].

Jaroslav Vozka, Michal Bakunin: vecny revoluciondr (Prague: Delnicke nakl., 1947).

C.J. Bjorklund, Mickael Bakunin. Tankaren och kampen (Stockholm: Holmstrom, 1915).

Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis, Michael Bakunine, 1814-1876 (Blaricum: Storch, 1909).

Rudolf Rocker, Mikhayl Bakunin a biyografishe skitse (Leeds: Lidzer Anarkhistische Gruppe, 1902).