DEDICATION

This book is dedicated to the Ukrainian community in Great Britain on the occasion of its centenary in 1991, and specifically to one of its smaller but vibrant components the Ukrainian community in Wolverhampton, thanks to which the author and his sister Jaroslawa were able to learn the language, and about the history and culture, of the land of their parents and ancestors. Our parents, Olha and Wolodymyr Nahaylo, had eagerly awaited the appearance of this book but, sadly, did not live long enough to see its publication. May this work also honour their memory, and especially their example of love, dedication and unflagging faith that one day Ukraine would achieve its independence.


BOHDAN NAHAYLO

The Ukrainian Resurgence

University of Toronto Press

Toronto Buffalo 1999

First published in 1999 by C. Hurst & Co. (Publishers) Ltd.


CONTENTS

Preface
1. Historical Background
Early history
The making of modern Ukraine 6
Soviet Ukraine
Between Stalin and Hitler
2. Ukraine in the Post-Stalin Period
Khrushchev and measured de-Stalinization
Shelest and renewed Ukrainian assertiveness
Shelest's removal
Shcherbytsky and 'normalization'
Stagnation
3. Gorbachev, Chornobyl and the Writers' Challenge
Gorbachev takes over but Shcherbytsky remains 53
The first glimmers ofglasnost 56
The Chornobyl nuclear disaster and the political fallout 59
The writers broaden their campaign 65
The CPU's conservatism comes under fire 67
The struggle for greater glasnost 70
The writers defy the CPU leadership 73
4. The Rebirth of Independent Public and Cultural Life
The Ukrainian Catholics emerge from the underground 85
Unofficial groups in Lviv and Kyiv become catalysts 88
The widening rift between the writers and the CPU leadership
Defending the bastion of stagnation
5. National Renewal
Facing up to the enormity of the task 109
The affirmation of national identity 112
Independent public and religious activity 122
6. The Growth of Democratic Opposition
Baltic echoes 128
Ten days that shook Lviv 132
The Nineteenth Party Conference 136
Hopes raised 139
Hopes dashed 146
7. The Birth of Rukh
The writers launch a new effort to create a popular movement 156
The emergence ofKravchuk 164
The battle over the Popular Movement's programme 167
The democratic opposition makes headway 175
8. Psychological and Political Breakthrough
Victories in the first multi-candidate elections 183
Rukh takes hold in Western Ukraine 188
The national democratic opposition consolidates 195
The miners' revolt 207
Cracks in the empire 210
9. The Struggle for Democracy and Sovereignty
Rukh's inaugural congress 217
Ivashko replaces Shcherbytsky 225
Ukraine's Supreme Soviet makes adjustments 233
The battle is resumed 240
Dissension in the Party ranks 250
The parliamentary elections become a watershed 255
10. The New Parliamentary Politics and the Debate over Sovereignty
New battle lines are drawn 259
Parliament becomes the primary battleground 269
The forces regroup 279
The scope of sovereignty is debated 286
11. Ukraine Asserts its Sovereignty
The declaration of sovereignty 292
More progress amid renewed confrontation 300
The Ukrainian October near-revolution 307
The CPU counter-attacks 319
External relations and Russia . 324
12. Zig-zagging towards Independence
Ukraine rejects Gorbachev's draft Union treaty 332
Sovereignty Communists versus imperial Communists 338
Kravchuk steers an independent course 343
Ukraine votes for sovereign statehood 350
Laying the foundations of sovereign and democratic statehood
Ukraine sticks to its chosen path 364
13. Independence and the Dissolution of the USSR
'Mortal danger': Ukraine and the attempted coup in Moscow 373
Ukraine declares independence 384
Immediate problems: The CPU, Russian reactions and national security 392
14. T h e Realization of Independence and International Recognition
Consolidating independence 400
The presidential and referendum campaigns 406
Towards an orderly separation from the Union 413
Ukraine confirms its historic choice 419
Ukraine and the creation of the CIS 423
15. T h e First Years of Independence
Domestic politics: a promising start falters 432
Early foreign and security policy challenges 440
Courting disaster 447
Security dilemmas 456
On the verge of catastrophe 465
16. Kuchma at the Helm 473 Kuchma's remedial efforts
The struggle over the division of powers 482
Bumpy progress 491
17. Self-determination Refined
Perseverance 501
Crimea, Moscow and Sevastopol 504
The Chomobyl factor, Marchuk's removal and the constitutional struggle 508
Balancing between East and West but gravitating westward 515
The struggle for the new constitution is finally won 520
18. The Strategic Oudook
The fifth anniversary of independence 525
The Ukrainian-Russian impasse 530
Neighbours, friends, partners and antagonists 536
Achievements and challenges 547
Postscript
Select Bibliography
Index

MAPS

Geographical and Historical References 16

Administrative Divisions and Population 49

Ethnic Composition by Region 113

Language Affiliation by Region 239

Main Oil and Gas Pipelines 437

ILLUSTRATIONS between pages 240 and 241

Petro Shelest
Oles Honchar
Volodymyr Shcherbytsky
Vitalii Malanchuk
Shcherbytsky welcomes Gorbachev to Kyiv, June 1985
Vasyl Stus
Vyacheslav Chornovil
Chornobyl, April 1986; the stricken fourth reactor
Children being evacuated from Kyiv after the Chornobyl nuclear disaster
Ivan Drach
Dmytro Pavlychko
Borys Oliinyk
Ivan Dzyuba
Yurii Yelchenko
Leonid Kravchuk
Glasnost. Shcherbytsky-style
Unauthorised public meeting in Lviv, 26 February 1989
The banned blue and yellow national colours appear in Kyiv, 22 May 1989
Mykola Zhulynsky
Volodymr Yavorivsky
Ivan Drach addresses Rukh's inaugural congress, September 1989
Procession for the reburial of Stus, Tykhy and Lytvyn, 19 November 1990
The human chain from Kyiv to Lviv: the scene in Kyiv, 21 January 1990
Volodymyr Ivashko Ihor Yukhnovsky
Democratic deputies confer during a crisis in the parliament, 4 June 1990
Inaugural meeting of the People's Council, 4 June 1990
National democratic deputies - Levko Lukyanenko, Ivan Zayets and Mykhalo Hory.
Democratic deputies Bohdan Horyn and Serhii Holovaty at celebrations after adoption of the Declaration of State Sovereignty, 16 July 1990
Jubilation as the blue and yellow flag is raised at Kyiv City Hall, 20 July 1990
Confrontation outside the Verkhovna Rada, October 1990
Student hunger strike protest in central Kyiv, October 1990
Yes to independence: a rally in Kyiv in support of Lithuania's bid for independence
A relieved gathering in Kyiv welcomes news of the failure of the attempted coup in Moscow, 22 August 1991
CPU leader Stanislav Hurenko attempts to defend his party during the historic extraordinary session of parliament, on 24 August 1991
Kravchuk votes in the referendum on independence, 1 December 1991
The creation of new national armed forces begins Presidents Kravchuk and Yeltsin attempt to patch up Ukrainian-Russian relations in Dagomys, 23 June 1992
Changing the pilot: President Kravchuk hands over to Leonid Kuchma, July 1994
President Kuchma and Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada Oleksandr Moroz after the signing of the law on the adoption of Ukraine's new constitution, 12 July 1996