Political Heretics:
From Plato to Mao Tse-tung

BY MAX NOMAD

1963


CONTENTS

Introduction 1

Chapter I: THE DREAMERS 9

Ancient Utopians -- Thomas More's Utopia -- Thomas Campanella's City of the Sun -- Gerrard Winstanley -- Mably and Morelly -- The Saint-Simonians -- Charles Fourier -- Robert Owen -- The Icarians -- Louis Blanc -- Edward Bellamy and William Morris -- The Anti-Utopias

Chapter II: THE REBELS 38

Babeuf and the "Equals" -- Sylvain Marechal -- Buonarrotti -- Auguste Blanqui -- Wilhelm Weitling -- Michael Bakunin -- Nechayev: the "Tiger Cub" -- Populists and "Nihilists" -- Enter Plekhanov -- Lenin and Martov -- The "Economists" -- "What Is To Be Done?" -- The Revolutions of 1905-1917

Chapter III: THE CRITICS 74

William Thompson -- John Francis Bray -- Proudhon, the An-Archist -- Rodbertus, the Tory Socialist -- Karl Marx -- Marxism -- Eugen Duhring -- Henry George -- Thorstein Veblen

Chapter IV: THE GRADUALISTS 101

PART I The European Continent 101
Ferdinand Lassalle -- Bebel and Liebknecht -- Bernstein and Kautsky -- Power -- The Rise of Nazism -- The Bonn Republic -- The Austrian Socialists -- Socialism in France -- Free-For-All -- Unification -- Leon Blum -- The "Neo-Socialist" Interlude -- The United Front -- Popular Front -- Munich and After -- The Fourth Republic -- Guy Mollet -- Italian Socialism -- The Spanish Socialists -- Belgium, Holland, and Scandinavia -- The Czechs and the Poles

PART II -- The Anglo-Saxon and the Asian Orbits 150
Socialism in England -- William Godwin and Thomas Spence -- Machine Wreckers and Trade Unions -- Owenism and Proto -- Syndicalism -- Chartism -- British Marxism -- The Socialist League of England -- The Fabian Society -- The New Unionism -- The Independent Labour Party -- The Labour Party -- The Labour Party Between Two World Wars -- In Power -- A Gallery of Leaders -- The Dominions -- The United States -- Daniel De Leon -- Eugene Debs and the Socialist Party -- Growth and Decline -- Morris Hillquit -- Norman Thomas -- "Militants" vs "Old Guard" -- World War II and After -- Japan -- China -- The Ex -- Colonies -- Indonesia -- Burma and Israel -- MAPAI

Chapter V: THE ULTRAS 201

Peter Kropotkin -- "Propaganda by the Deed" -- Enrico Malatesta -- Revolutionary Syndicalism -- Georges Sorel -- Pierre Monatte and Leon Jouhaux -- Anarcho-Syndicalism -- Syndicalism Outside France -- I.W.W. -- Haywood and Giovannitti -- Samuel Gompers -- American Anarchists -- Johann Most -- Emma Goldman -- Eclipse -- The Spanish Anarchists -- Anarchism in Russia -- Makhnovism and Anarcho -- Bolshevism -- Anarchism in England -- British Syndicalism and Guild Socialism -- The "Workers' Conspiracy"

Chapter VI: THE NEW MASTERS 242

Lenin or Trotsky? -- The Bolsheviks Take Over -- "NEP" and After -- "Revolutionary Dictatorship" -- Communism and Equality of Incomes -- Dropping the Mask -- The Ethics of Power -- The New Freedom -- The "Classless Society" -- After Stalin

Chapter VII: TOOLS AND DUPES 272

The Communist International -- The German Communists -- French and Italian Communists -- The Small Fry -- Great Britain -- The Satellites -- Fidelismo -- The American Communist Party -- William Z. Foster and His Rivals -- The "Third Period" -- "Popular Front" -- The Moscow-Berlin Pact Interlude -- The Turn-About -- Changing the Line Again -- The Big Four of the Asian Orbit -- Latin America and Australasia -- Curiosities

Chapter VIII: THE COMPETITORS 325

The Fourth International -- Mao Tse-tung

EPILOGUE 341

NOTES 345

INDEX 349