Anarchist Philosophers and Thinkers

GUY ALDRED (1886-1963)

Works by Aldred:

1. Bakunin. 'The Word' Library. Second series, no. 1. Glasgow: Strickland Pr., 1940. Useful discussion of Bakunin, particularly of his relationship with Marx and Marxism.

2. The Chicago Martyrs. With portraits of the comrades who were tried. London: Freedom Pr., 1912. A discussion and description of the Haymarket Meeting with excerpts from the trial speeches.

3. Pioneers of Anti-Parliamentarism. Glasgow: The Strickland Pr., 1940. A selection of short essays written as a tribute to the pioneers of anti- parliamentarianism. Discusses the lives and activities of Bakunin, Morris, Most and Malatesta, with personal reminiscences of them. Aldred asserts an uncompromising faith in true proletarian socialism and opposition to the parliamentary socialism of Labor leaders, whom, he argues, have betrayed the working class.

4- The Possibility and Philosophy of Anarchist Communism. London: Bakunin Pr., 1907. A pamphlet that argues for anarchism as the correct anticipation of the future state of society.

5- Studies in Communism. Glasgow: The Strickland Pr., 1946. Contains several essays by Aldred including "The Case for Anarchism," 5-11, Previously published as The Possibility and Philosophy of Anarchist Communism, op.cit, entry 4.

Works about Aldred:

6. Caldwell, J. T. Come Dungeons Dark: The Life and Times of Guy Aldred, Glasgow Anarchist. Barr, Ayrshire: Luath Pr., 1988. A biography of one of the leading propagandists of the British anarchist movement. Aldred was an active proponent of anti-parliamentary socialism who believed in the non-violent creation of communes. He founded the Strickland Press in 1939. Includes bibliography.

7. Jones, R. W. "Anti-Parliamentarism and Communism in Britain 1917- 1921" The Raven 3,3 (July/Sept. 1990): 245-62. There is some consideration of Guy Aldred's activities in a discussion of the British anti-parliamentary movement in the period preceding the formation of the Anti- Parliamentary Communist Federation in 1921.

8. Walter, N. "Guy A. Aldred 1886-1986." The Raven 1,1 (1986): 77-92. A discussion of the life and ideas of Guy Aldred on the centenary of his birth. Walter describes him as "one of the most energetic and eccentric figures ever involved in the British anarchist movement."


Works by Andrews:

9. Love, Marriage and Divorce, and the Sovereignty of the Individual: A Discussion Between Henry James, Horace Greeley and Stephen Pearl Adams. Boston: 1889. A collection of the pieces written in the course of a controversy that raged in the columns of the New York Tribune in April 1853 following a reply by Andrews to a review of Josiah Warren's Equitable Commerce. Andrews defends Warren's principles vigorously.

10. The Science of Society. Edited by Charles Shively. Weston, Mass.: M & S Pr., 1970. Andrews was an individualist anarchist who was influenced by Josiah Warren and elaborated upon his ideas. The Science of Society was published in New York in 1852 in two parts. This version contains both the first part, "True Constitution of Government in the Sovereignty of the Individual as the Final Development of Protestantism, Democracy and Socialism," and the second, "Cost the Limit of Price: Scientific Measure and Honesty in Trade as one of the Fundamental Principles of the Solutions of the Social Problem." It was regarded by contemporaries as a first class statement of Warren's philosophy. Argues for the need to establish scientific laws for the true constitution of human government on the basis of the sovereignty of the individual. Concludes that people need not govern each other if they each govern themselves.

11. The Sovereignty of the Individual. Berkeley Hts., N.J.: Freeman Pr., 1938. Andrews collaborated with Josiah Warren and was involved with Utopian experiments such as "Modern Times." This is a reprint of the first part of The Science of Society, op.cit., entry 10.

Works about Andrews:

12. Hall, B. N. "The Economic Theories of Stephen Pearl Andrews: Neglected Utopian Writer." South African Journal of Economics 43,1 (March 1975): 45-55. Reviews Andrews' ideas regarding a labor theory of value and his use of the value of labor as the basis for currency, exchange and remuneration.

13. Wish, H. "Stephen Pearl Andrews, American Pioneer Sociologist." Social Forces 19 (May 1941): 477-82.

14. Martin, J. J. Men Against the State: The Expositors of Individualist Anarchism in America, 1827-1908. Colorado Springs: Ralph Myles, 1970. First published Dekalb, 111: Adrian Allen, 1953. Contains a discussion of the ideas of Andrews, of his association with Josiah Warren. See entry 1838.

15. Dorfman, J. "The Philosophical Anarchists: Josiah Warren, Stephen Pearl Andrews." In The Economic Mind in American Civilization. Vol. 2, 671-78. New York: Viking Pr., 1944. A discussion of the economic and social ideas of the two individual anarchist proponents of equitable commerce.

16. Stern, M. B. The Pantarch: A Biography of Stephen Pearl Andrews. Austin: Univ. of Texas Pr., 1971. A biography that discusses the various roles played by Andrews; an American reformer, advocate of civil rights, supporter of reformed spelling and author of pioneering work on sociology. It also considers his dubious status as a crank.

17. Rocker, R. Pioneers of American Freedom. Los Angeles, Rocker Pubns. Comm., 1949. A discussion of the origins of liberal and radical individualist thought in America with a consideration of Stephen Pearl Andrews, 70-85.


Works by Armand:

18. Anarchism and Individualism: Three Essays. London: S. E. Parker, 1962. Armand, who was influenced by Tolstoy, was a Christian anarchist. This short collection of pieces emphasizes the value of autonomy and of the free individual.

19. "Life as Experience." & "Life and Society." In Man! An Anthology of Anarchist Ideas, Essays, Poetry and Commentaries, 4-9. Op.cit., entry 1389. Two essays that deal with the development of the individual and the relation of the individual to society in individualist anarchism.


Works by Bakunin:

20. A mes amis Rwsses et Polonais. Traduit du Russe. Leipzig: 1862.

21. "Bourgeois Socialism." Freedom 24,310 (Feb. 1915). A letter from Bakunin to the Press Committee of the journal Egalite in Geneva, offering several articles on the difference between True Socialism and the "ridiculous socialism" of the bourgeoisie.

22. "Catechisme revolutionnaire". In Ni Dieu Ni maitre, edited by Daniel Guerin. Paris: Editions de Delphes, 1965. Written while Bakunin's association with Nechayev was at its closest his contribution to the authorship of this pamphlet, outlining the duties of a revolutionary dedicated to violence, is the subject of great controversy. See entries 52, 57, 63,97,104,111,112.

23. The Confession of Mikhail Bakunin. With the marginal comments of Tsar Nicholas I. Translated by Robert C. Howes. Notes by Lawrence D. Orton. Ithica, New York: Cornell Univ. Pr., 1977. Written in 1851 to Tsar Nicholas, it was not published in Bakunin's lifetime. Excerpts were published in 1919 and it was published in full, in Russian, in 1921. It covers the period 1840-49, from Bakunin's arrival in Berlin to his arrest and eventual deportation to Russia, charting his philosophical shift away from German idealism.

24. A Criticism of State Socialism. With an afterword on modern state socialism. London: Coptic P. on behalf of Cuddon's Cosmopolitan Review, 1968. Extracted from Bakunin's writings the essay sets out his position on authority, and on revolution, and details his critical attitude to Marx.

25. A Critique of State Socialism. With drawings by Richard Warren. Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Pr., 1981. A cartoon with Bakunin's arguments against state socialism expressed in dialogue.

26. Federalisme, socialisme, antitheologisme. Proposition motive au comitee centrale de la ligue de la paix et de la liberte. Lausanne: Editions l'Age d'Homme, 1971. Also published in Oeuvres I. Paris: 1895. See entry 28.

27. God and the State. With a preface by Carlo Cafiero and Elisee Reclus. Reprint of the 1916 edition. New York: Books for Libraries Pr., Freeport, 1971. Written in February-March 1871 the first part was published in July 1871 as L 'empire knouto-Germanique. The second part was published posthumously in 1908. In 1882 Reclus and Cafiero published an extract from the manuscript under the title Dieu et I'etat. The first correct text in French is in Vol. Ill of Oeuvres. Paris: 1908. The first correct English edition published London: Freedom Pr., 1910, a translation based on that made by Tucker and published in Boston: 1883. Bakunin's classic attack on state authority and the role of religion in its maintenance. Paraphrasing Voltaire he declares that, "if God really existed, it would be necessary to abolish him."

28. Oeuvres. Vol. 1 edited by Max Nettlau; vols. 2-6 edited by James Guillame, Paris: 1895-1913; Paris: Stock, 1972-.

29. The Organisation of the International, 1814-1876. Translated by Freda Cohen. London: Bakunin Pr., 1919. First published 1872 in Almanach du Peuple. Also appears in Mikail Bakunin: From out of the Dustbin, op. cit., entry 43. Asserts that the power of mass organization, combined with science, can accomplish the goals of the people. As well as a statement of grievances, it is a call for unity of purpose and method.

30. The Paris Commune and the Idea of the State. London: Centre International de Recherche sur l'Anarchisme, 1971. Bakunin's essay on the Paris Commune written during June 1871 and found among his papers at his death. Intended by Bakunin as a preamble to the second part of The Knouto-Germanic Empire, it first appeared, in part, in Le Travailleur 2,4 (April/May 1878), published by Elisee Reclus. The essay as a whole was first published by Bernard Lazare in Entretiens Politiaues et Litteraires, 5,29 (1892), and as a separate pamphlet, with a preface by Kropotkin, in 1899.

31. The Polio/ of the International. First instalment appeared in L'Egalite 29,7 (Aug. 1869). London: Bakunin Pr., 1919. It also appears in Mikail Bakunin: From out of the Dustbin, op. cit, entry 43. Argues that the policy of the International must ignore religious beliefs and political affiliations when considering membership, since to focus on such issues is to destroy unity between workers. The aim of the International, it is asserted, must be economic emancipation through practical action, and under no circumstance should an alliance with the bourgeoisie be considered.

32. La revolution sociale ou la dictature militaire,. Presentation par Andre Prudhommeaux. Paris: 1946.

33. "The State and German Social Democracy." Freedom 28,303 (July 1914): 50. A discussion of the German social-democratic party written at Locarno, 3-9 September, 1870.

34. Statism and Anarchy. Translated by C. H. Plummer. Edited by J. F. Harrison. New York: Revisionist Pr., 1976. Bakunin's definitive critique of the State, in particular the Marxist theory of the State. It contains some key ideas regarding intellectuals.

35. La theologie politique de Mazzini et VInternationale. Neuchatel: 1871. Infuriated by Mazzini's condemnation of the Communards Bakunin wrote this pamphlet criticizing him.

36. "An Unpublished Letter: Bakunin and Nechayev." Encounter 39,182 (1972): 80-91 & 85-93. Written in 1870, this very long letter was only recently discovered. It reveals a great deal about the Russian underground movement as well as the nature of Bakunin's differences with Nechayev including his conditions for a reconciliation.


37. Bakunin on Anarchy: Selected Works by the Activist-Founder of World Anarchism. Edited with introduction by Sam Dolgoff. Preface by Paul Avrich. New York: Knopf, 1972. Also with introduction by Paul Avrich. New York: Dover Publications, 1970. An excellent anthology of Bakunin's ideas, drawing on excerpts and selections from his letters, speeches, essays etc. It is, in fact, the most useful of the anthologies of Bakunin's work, setting out his writings in a chronological order that makes sense of the somewhat disparate nature of his oeuvre.

38. Correspondence de Michel Bakounine: Lettres a Herzen et a Ogareff, 1860-1874. Publiees avec preface et annotations par M. Dragomanov. Paris: Perrin et Cie, 1896. Letters written to Alexander Herzen and Nicholas Ogarez.

39. De la guerre a la Commune. Textes de 1870-1871 etablis sur les manuscrits originaux et presentes par Fernand Rude. Paris: Editions Anthropos, 1972.

40. Bakunin's Writings. Edited Guy A. Aldred. New York: Kraus Reprint, 1972. Originally published Indore City: Modern Pubs., 1947. Contains some important texts but these are often presented in a rather fragmented manner.

41. Marxism, Freedom and the State. Translated and edited with a biographical sketch by K. J. Kenafick. London: Freedom Pr., 1950. A brief compilation of some of Bakunin's key views on freedom and the state.

42. Michel Bakounine et ses relations slaves, 1870-1875. Textes, etablis et annotes par Arthur Lehning. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1974.

43. Michel Bakounine sur la guerre Franco-Allemande et la revolution sociale en France: 1870-1871. Ecrits et materiaux, textes etablis et annotes par Arthur Lehning. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1977.

44. Mikhail Bakunin: From out of the Dustbin-Bakunin's Basic Writings 1869-1871. Translated and edited R. M. Cutler. Ann Arbor: Ardis Publishing, 1985. A collection of Bakunin's writings and speeches on revolutionary socialism, setting out his views on the International. Includes an introductory essay by the editor. Also includes annotated bibliography, index and chronology.

45. The Political Philosophy of Bakunin: Scientific Anarchism. Preface by Bert F. Hoselitz. Introduction by Rudolf Rocker. Biographical sketch of Bakunin by Max Nettlau. Edited G. P. Maximoff (Maksimov). New York: Free Pr., 1964. A comprehensive collection of Bakunin's writings by a Russian anarchist who worked as the co-editor of Golos Truda ( Voice of Labor) and its successor, Novy Golos Truda, during the heady days of 1917. The collection is organized thematically with notes, and covers Bakunin's views on anarchism, the state, the individual, science, authority, and revolutionary strategy. This has the virtue of making his writings appear more coherent than they are, but with some loss of historical perspective.

46. Selected Writings [of] Michael Bakunin. Edited by Arthur Lehning. Translation from the French by Steven Cox. Translation from the Russian by Olive Stevens. London: Cape, 1973. A selection of important essays covering Bakunin's theories of state and society, dictatorship, centralization and federalism, Marx and Marxism, socialism, and freedom.

Works about Bakunin:

47. Aldred, G. A. Bakunin. 'The Word' Library. Second series, no. 1. Glasgow: Strickland Pr., 1940. See entry I.

48. Avrich, P. "Anarchism and Anti-Intellectualism in Russia." Journal of The History of. Ideas 27,3 (1966): 381-90. Suggests that the deep seated mistrust of intellectuals in the Russian Anarchist movement in the early twentieth century stemmed primarily from Bakunin's ideas. Also notes, however, the influence of the Marxist idea that workers should be liberated through their own efforts.

49. Avrich, P. "Bakunin and his Writings." Canadian American Slavic Studies 10,4 (1976): 591-97. Very useful bibliographic overview of editions/commentaries of Bakunin's works.

50. Avrich, P. "Bakunin and the United States." International Review of Social History 24,3 (1979): 320-40. Discusses Bakunin's impressions of the United States during his visit in 1861, and evaluates his subsequent influence on its anarchist movement.

51. Avrich, P. "The Legacy of Bakunin." Russian Review 29,2 (1970): 129-42. A discussion of Bakunin's influence on several 20th century writers (Fanon, Debray, Marcuse, Cohn-Bendit). Also covers his dispute with Marx and points to the relevance of his ideas for Third World revolutions.

52. Avrich, P. "The Legacy of Bakunin," "Bakunin and the United States." and "Bakunin and Nechaev." In Anarchist Portraits, 5-15/16-31/32-52. Op.cit., entry 1303. A discussion of various aspects of Bakunin's life and ideas comprising Chapters 1-3 of the book, and containing material previously published. See entries 49 and 50. Some new perspectives are developed particularly with respect to the United States.

53. Benes, V. L. "Bakunin and Palacky's Concept of Austroslavism." Indiana Slavic Studies 2 (1958): 79-113. Comparative analysis of Bakunin's Panslavism and Palacky's Austroslavism which draws heavily on Bakunin's Confession.

54. Berlin, I. "Herzen and Bakunin on Individual Liberty." In Russian Thinkers, 82-113. Op. cit, entry 1317. Focuses mainly on Herzen. Bakunin's ideas are used to cast Herzen's views on liberty in a favorable light.

55. Bienek, H. Bakunin, an Invention. Translated from the German by Ralph R. Read. London: Gollancz, 1977. An awkward book which attempts to demonstrate the painful process of researching a book, in this instance on Bakunin.

56. Bowlt, J. E. "A Monument To Bakunin: Morolev's Cubo-Futurist Statue Of 1919." Canadian American Slavic Studies 10,4 (1976): 577-91. One of the results of Lenin's programme of dismantling monuments to Tzarist heroes and erecting statues of progressive figures was Korolev's statue of Bakunin. Popular outrage forced its dismantling even before it was formally unveiled.

57. Carr, E. H. The Romantic Exiles: A Nineteenth Century Portrait Gallery. Harmondsworth: Penguin Bks., 1933. Chapters 10, 11 and 14 discuss Bakunin, in particular his relationship with Nechayev.

58. Carr, E. H. Michael Bakunin. London: Macmillan, 1937. Standard English-language biography which, though a bit dated, still remains very useful. Excellent historical detail.

59. Chadwick, W. "The Mailed Fist vs. the Invisible Hand." Reason 10,5 (1978): 18-23. Compares the positions of Proudhon, Bakunin and Kropotkin on state power and individual autonomy.

60. Chastain, J. G. "Bakunin as a French Secret Agent in 1848." History Today 31 (Aug. 1981): 5-9. Argues that Bakunin was an agent of the French government in 1848.

61. Cipko, S. "Mikhail Bakunin and the National Question." The Raven 3,1 (Jan. 1990): 3-14. Discusses Bakunin's views on national liberation movements, contrasting them with those of Marx and Mazzini.

62. Clark, }. "Marx, Bakunin and the Problem of Social Transformation." Telos 42 (Winter 1979-80): 80-97. Useful comparative analysis sympathetic to Bakunin's advocacy of stringent critiques of science and bureaucracy.

63. Cochrane, S. T. The Collaboration of Nechaev, Ogarev, and Bakunin in 1869: Nechaev's Early Years. Glessen: W. Schmitz, 1977. An analysis of Bakunin's contribution to Nechayev's early years is given in Chapter 3.

64. Confino, M., ed. Daughter of a Revolutionary: Natalie Herzen and the Bakunin-Nechayev Circle. Translated from the Russian by Hilary Sternberg and Lydia Bott. London: Alcove Pr.; 1974. A collection of correspondence, diaries and documents. Includes a useful introduction and a glossary of names.

65. Cranston, M. "A Dialogue on Anarchy: An Imaginary Conversation Between Karl Marx and Michael Bakunin." In Political Dialogues, 116-38. London: British Broadcasting Commission, 1968. Originally a radio broadcast. Published in Anarchy 22 (Dec. 1962). One of a series of imaginary conversations that Cranston uses very effectively to elucidate the viewpoints of the protagonists.

66. Dellijudice, M. "Bakunin's 'Preface' to Hegel's 'Gymnasium Lectures': The Problem of Alienation and the Reconciliation with Reality." Canadian American Slavic Studies 16,2 (1982): 161-89. Argues that, contrary to accepted views, Bakunin regarded education as an important means to unite theory and practice. Draws on Bakunin's early manuscripts, Hegel's published works and some secondary sources.

67. Dunn, P. P. "Belinski and Bakunin: A Psychoanalytic Study of Adolescence in Nineteenth Century Russia." Psychohistory Review 4 (1979). A brief psychoanalytic look at Belinski and Bakunin in which the latter is treated as an overgrown adolescent.

68. Eaton, H. "Marx and the Russians." Journal of the History of Ideas 41,1 (Jan.-March 1980): 89-112. The first half of the essay deals with Bakunin.

69. Fattal, D. "Three Russian Revolutionaries on War." New Review 11,2-4 (1971). Argues for a connection between the views of Bakunin, Tkachev, and Kropotkin on the state and on war.

70. Fischer, G. "The State Begins To Wither Away...': Notes on the Interpretation of the Paris Commune by Bakunin, Engels and Lenin." Australian Journal of Politics and History 25,1 (1979): 29-38. Argues that Bakunin's views on smashing the state apparatus are closer to those of Marx and Engels than to those of Lenin. The writings of Marx and Engels on the Paris Commune form the basis of the argument.

71. Guerin, D. "From Proudhon to Bakunin." Our Generation 17,2 (Spring/Summer 1986): 232-4. Discusses the relationship between Proudhon and Bakunin, their friendship in Paris in the years 1845-47, and the degree of interchange between their ideas.

72. Halbrook, S. P. "Bakunin and Marx on Nationalism." Anarchy Second series, 1,4 (197?): 20-4. Discusses nationalism as a fundamental point of divergence between Marx and Bakunin.

73. Halbrook, S. P. "Lenin's Bakuninism." International Review of History and Political Science 8 (Feb.1971). A Bakuninist side to Lenin is suggested.

74. Hall, B. "Another View of Marx: A Closer Look at Bakuninism." New Politics 7,1 (1968): 78-85. A brief overview of Bakunin's attacks on Marxism.

75. Hardy, D. "Consciousness and Spontaneity, 1875: The Peasant Revolution seen by Tkachev, Lavrov and Bakunin." Canadian Slavic Studies 4 (Winter 1970): 699-720. Relies heavily on Statism and Anarchy for Bakunin's views.

76. Harrison, F. "Bakunin's Theory of Revolution." Our Generation 11,4 (Winter 1976): 27-37. Argues that Bakunin's anarchism, reflecting the preoccupations of Russian populism, brought to the European socialist movement the orientation and goals of a pre-industrial society.

77. Hodges, D. C. "Bakunin's Controversy with Marx: An Analysis of Tensions within Modern Socialism." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 19 (April 1960): 259-74. Looks at the legacy of the Bakunin/Marx dispute and its influence on the views of twentieth century exponents of revolutionary theory and practice.

78. Jakobsh, F. K. "Gunter Eich: Homage To Bakunin." Germano-Slavica 3 (Spring 1974): 37-46. Looks at Bakunin's influence on Eich's poetry.

79. Jourdain, M. "Mikhail Bakunin." Open Court 34 (Oct. 1920). Brief biographical outline with some commentary on Bakunin's ideas.

80. Kelly, A. Michael Bakunin: A Study of the Psychology and Politics of Utopianism. New Haven & London: Yale Univ. Pr., 1987. First published New York: Oxford Univ. Pr., 1982. Unsympathetic but detailed treatment of Bakunin as a millenarian.

81. Kenafick, K. J. Michael Bakunin and Karl Marx. London: Freedom Pr., 1949. Discusses their relationship with the emphasis on Bakunin.

82. Kennard, M. P. "A Russian Anarchist Visits Boston in 1861: Text of an Account Written Some Twenty Years After." New England Quarterly 15 (March 1942): 104-9. Edited by O. Handlin. A contemporary, anecdotal account of Bakunin's visit to the United States.

83. Kofman, M. "The Reaction of Two Anarchists to Nationalism: Proudhon and Bakunin on the Polish Question." Labour History 14 (May 1968): 34-6. Contrasts their respective understandings of the Polish question and their analyses of the social conditions of Eastern Europe.

84. Kostka, E. "Schiller's Impact on Bakunin." Monatshefte 54 (Jan. 1962): 109-16. Discusses Bakunin's reactions to Schiller's prose and its possible influence on him, in the context of a discussion of the Stankevich Circle, especially in the years 1838-40.

85. Kun, M. "Bakunin and Hungary, 1848-1865." Canadian American Slavic Studies 10,4 (1976): 503-35. Draws on unpublished archival material to discuss an area of Bakunin's life that is rarely addressed in English works.

86. Lampert, E. Studies in Rebellion: Belinsky, Bakunin and Herzen. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1957. Very good on Bakunin's ideas but not much attention is given to the historical circumstances that helped form them.

87. Lavrin, J. "Bakunin the Slav and Rebel." Russian Review 25,2 (1966): 135-149. Focuses on the years 1848-49 to evaluate the Slavic theme in his revolutionary theories. Bakunin's anarchism is rarely mentioned.

88. Lehning, A. "Bakunin's Conceptions of Revolutionary Organizations and their Role: A Study of his 'Secret Societies'." In Essays in Honor of E.H. Can, edited by C. Abramsky and Beryl L. Williams, 57-81. Hampden, Conn.; Archon Bks., 1974. A sympathetic overview of Bakunin's theory and practice of revolution drawing on published and unpublished manuscripts.

89. Malatesta, E. "Anarchist Schools of Thought." In Errico Malatesta: His Life and Ideas, edited Vernon Richards, 29-33. London: Freedom Pr., 1977. Bakunin is characterized as a collectivist.

90. Marx, K. "Conspectus of Bakunin's Statism and Anarchy," in Karl Marx: The First International and After: Political Writings, edited by David Fernbach, 333-38. Harmondsworth: Penguin Bks., 1974. Extracts from Marx's critical notes on key passages of Bakunin's Statism And Anarchy.

91. Masters, A. Bakunin: The Father of Anarchism. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1974. Very readable and sympathetic account of Bakunin's ideas, if somewhat simplistic in places.

92. Mendel, A. "Bakunin: A View from within." Canadian American Slavic Studies 10,4 (1976): 466-89. A psychoanalytic assessment concluding that Bakunin's life and actions indicate an unresolved Oedipal complex.

93. Mendel, A. P. Michael Bakunin: Roots of Apocalypse. New York: Praeger, 1981. A patchy psycho-biography, but of some use in explaining Bakunin's early philosophical development. Bibliography and index.

94. Molnar, M. "Bakunin and Marx." The Review: A Quarterly of Pluralist Socialism 53 (1963). Looks at the International in 1871-72 and argues that it was structurally ill-equipped to reconcile the divergent aspirations of different spokespeople from widely different regions.

95. Nettlau, M. "Bakunin's So-Called 'Confession' of 1851." Freedom 35 (Dec. 1921): 75-6. A discussion of Bakunin's motives in writing his "Confession," and a rebuttal of contemporary attacks.

96. Nettlau, M. "Bakunin's 'Confession' to Tsar Nicholas I (1851)." Freedom 36 (May 1922): 28-9. Brief discussion of the circumstances surrounding the writing of the "Confession."

97. Nettlau, M. "Bakunin's 'Revolutionary Catechism'." Freedom 38,418 (June 1924): 30. Argues that Bakunin's authorship of the controversial "Revolutionary Catechism" is proved and that Nechayev, while he may have influenced it, did not write it.

98. Nettlau, M. "Elisee Reclus and Michael Bakunin." In Elisee and Elie Reclus: In Memoriam, edited by Joseph Ishill. Woodcuts by Louis Moreau. Berkeley Heights, N.J.: Oriole Pr., 1927. A discussion of their friendship. A rare book printed by Ishill's private press.

99. Nettlau, M. "An English Life of Bakunin." Spain and the World 2,27/28/29/30 (5 Jan., 21 Jan., 2 Feb., 18 Feb. 1938). A very strident critique of E. H. Carr's biography of Bakunin.

100. Nettlau, M. "A Last Word on Bakunin's 'Confession'." Freedom 29 (Sept. 1925): 42-3. A review of a Russian work on Bakunin's middle years.

101. Nettlau, M. "New Bakunin Documents." Freedom 28 (March-April 1924): 18-19. A review of a collection of Russian documents concerning Bakunin taken from the archives of the Tsarist police and published.

102. Nomad, M. "Marx and Bakunin." Hound and Horn 6 (April-June 1933): 381-418. Concentrates on their dispute within the International.

103. Nomad, M. "Michael Bakunin, 'Apostle of Pan-Destruction'." In Apostles of Revolution, 151-213. New York: Collier Bks., 1961. A study of the life and career of Bakunin focussing on his role as a militant organizer of revolution. Charts his dispute with Marx.

104. Nomad, M. "Sergei Nechayev 'The Possessed'." In Apostles of Revolution, 214-56. New York: Collier Bks., 1961. A discussion of the career of Nechayev that examines his relationship with Bakunin and the writing of the Revolutionary Catechism. See entry 22.

105. Odlozilik, O. "The Slavic Congress of 1848." Polish Review 4,4 (Autumn 1959): 3-15. Review of a volume of sources relating to the Prague Congress of 1848 with a discussion of Bakunin's participation in the Congress.

106. Orton, L. D. "Bakunin's Plan for Slav Federation." Canadian American Slavic Studies 8,1 (1974): 107-116. Translation, with introductions, of the three speeches made by Bakunin at the Prague Congress.

107. Orton, L. D. "The Echo of Bakunin's Appeal to the Slavs." Canadian American Slavic Studies 10,4 (1976): 489-503. A study of the influence of Bakunin's pamphlet, with a discussion of the period.

108. Palmieri, F. A. "A Theorist of the Russian Revolution." Catholic World 110 (Dec. 1919). Argues that the Bolsheviks' anti-religious practices were the outcome of the atheist views of Bakunin, the roots of which can be found in Feuerbach and the early Hegel.

109. Peterson, A. and Johnson, O. M. The Virus of Anarchy: Bakuninism vs. Marxism. New York: New York Labor News Co., 1932. An anti-anarchist pamphlet defending Marxism against the claims of Anarcho-Communism.

110. Pirumova, N. "Bakunin and Herzen: An Analysis of their Ideological Disagreements at the End of the 1860's." Canadian American Slavic Studies 10,4 (1976): 552-70. A patchy assessment of the two thinkers.

111. Pomper, P. "Bakunin, Nechaev and the 'Catechism of a Revolutionary': The Case for Joint Authorship." Canadian American Slavic Studies 10,4 (1976): 535-52. Bases his conclusion for joint authorship on a close textual analysis of the documents.

112. Pomper, P. Sergei Nechaev. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers Univ. Pr., 1979. Tells the story of Nechayev's short but extraordinary life, detailing his activities as a violent revolutionary, including his association with Bakunin. His ideas are condemned unreservedly as dangerous and insane, and the hope is expressed that readers will recognize in Nechayev the threat posed by all radical movements. Includes bibliography and index.

113. Prawdin, M. The Unmentionable Nechaev: A Key to Bolshevism. London: Allen and Unwin, 1961. There is some mention of Nechayev's relationship with Bakunin, but the main thrust of the work is aimed at demonstrating links between Nechayev's ideas and those of the Nihilists, and establishing them as the main source of Leninism.

114. Pyziur, E. The Doctrine of Anarchism of Michael A. Bakunin. 2nd. edition. Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1968. A useful exposition of Bakunin's ideas which are set out thematically with a consideration of Bakunin's contribution to anarchist doctrine.

115. Ravindranathan, T. R. "Bakunin in Naples: An Assessment." Journal of Modern History 53,2 (1981): 189-212. Drawing on archival and published primary sources, the article argues that Bakunin's impact on the emergence and growth of early Italian socialism was substantial.

116. Ravindranathan, T. R. Bakunin and the Italians. Kingston/Montreal: McGill-Queen's Univ Pr., 1988. A detailed historical discussion of the important influence of Bakunin on the development of Italian anarchism, focusing on the 1860s and 1870s.

117. Reichert, W. O. "Art, Nature and Revolution." (Aesthetics of Bakunin, Kropotkin and Proudhon). Arts in Society 9,3 (1972): 409-30. A brief exposition of an anarchist theory of aesthetics which draws on the works of Bakunin, Proudhon, and Kropotkin. Argues that social progress stems from the creative spirit of the people and that it is within aesthetics, not political ideology, that revolutions are created.

118. Reszler, A. "Bakunin, Marx and the Aesthetic Heritage of Socialism." Yearbook of Comparative and General Literature, 22 (1973): 42-50. A brief analysis of the relationship of revolution to art and creativity.

119. Rezneck, S. "Political and Social Theory of Michael Bakunin." American Political Science Review 21 (May 1927): 270-96.

120. Richards, V. "Some Notes on Malatesta and Bakunin." The Raven 1,1 (1986): 38-45. Discusses the relationship between the ideas of the two theorists.

121. Russell, B. "Bakunin and Anarchism." In Proposed Roads to Freedom: Socialism, Anarchism and Syndicalism, 32-55. London: Allen & Unwin, 1918. In an examination of the historical genesis of the three traditions, Bakunin figures as the exemplar of anarchism.

122. Saltman, R. B. The Social and Political Thought of Michael Bakunin. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Pr., 1983. Draws heavily on Bakunin's first- draft manuscripts to argue that Bakunin's anarchist theories were predicated on a concept of natural authority. Focuses mainly on the 1866-74 period, and arranges Bakunin's ideas so that they emerge in a systematic fashion.

123. Senese, D. L. "Bakunin's Last Disciple: Sergei Kravchinskii." Canadian American Slavic Studies 10,4 (1976): 570-77. Traces Bakunin's influence on the views of Kravchinskii.

124. Silberner, E. "Two Studies of Modern Anti-Semitism." Historia Judaica 14 (Oct. 1952). Argues that Bakunin and Marx were anti-Semites and attempts to trace the origin and development of this (alleged) aspect of their philosophies.

125. Svoboda, G. J. "Anarchism in Bohemia: The Prague Anti-Habsburg Revolutionary Society (1868-1872)." East European Quarterly 11,3 (1977): 267- 91. Based on research on archival material in Prague it confirms the existence of an anarchist movement which operated along Bakuninist lines.

126. Venturi, F. "Bakunin" and "Bakunin and Lavrov." In Roots of Revolution: The History of Populist and Socialist Movements in Nineteenth Century Russia, 36-62/429-468. Translated Francis Haskell. Introduction by Isaiah Berlin. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1960. The first piece is an appreciation of Bakunin's ideas and a discussion of his career up to 1850. The second piece discusses the creation of the Russian Brotherhood in 1872 in Zurich, and the disputes that broke out with Petr Lavrovich Lavrov, populist and socialist, over revolutionary tactics.

127. Voegelin, E. "Bakunin's 'Confession'" Journal of Politics 8 (Feb. 1946): 24-43. Summary of the Confession with an appraisal of Bakunin's motives for writing it.

128. Voegelin, E. "Bakunin: The Anarchist." In From Enlightenment to Revolution, edited John H. Hallowell, 217-39. Durham, N.C.: Duke Univ. Pr., 1975. Surveys the post-Bakunin meaning of 'anarchism' and then evaluates his post-1861 activities and some of his writings. Portrays Bakunin in very negative terms.

129. Voegelin, E. "Revolutionary Existence." In From Enlightenment to Revolution, edited by John H. Hallowell, 195-216. Durham, N.C.: Duke Univ. Pr., 1975. Analyzes Bakunin's decision to become a revolutionary activist, and offers a close examination of his metaphysical ideas, commenting on their relation to Marx's philosophy.

130. Walicki, A. "Hegel, Feuerbach and the Russian 'Philosophical Left', 1836-1848." Annali Dell'Instituto Giangiacomo Feltrinelli 6 (1963): 105-136. Briefly discusses Bakunin's encounter with the works of Fichte and Hegel.

131. Weintraub, W. "Mickiewicz and Bakunin." Slavonic and East European Review 28 (Nov. 1949): 72-83. Assesses the significance of their meeting in the light of the Polish question; mainly concerned with Mickiewicz.

132. Wilson, E. "Historical Actors: Bakunin." In To the Finland Station, 260- 87. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1940. A lively account of Bakunin in the 1860s and 1870s, his confrontation with Marx and his relationship with Nechayev.

133. Woodcock, G. "Bakunin: The Destructive Urge." History Today 11 (July 1961): 469-78. A general discussion of Bakunin's life and revolutionary activities.

134. Wright, C. H. "Bakounine." Fortnightly Review 115 (May 1921): 759-71. A biographical discussion with some attention to Bakunin's ideas.


Works by Berkman:

135. A.B.C. of Anarchism. London: Freedom Pr., 1971. Originally published in 1929 under the title Now and After: The ABC of Communist Anarchism? New York: Vanguard Press of the Jewish Anarchist Federation, 1929, and London: Freedom Pr., 1929. Also published with an introduction by Paul Avrich, as What is Communist Anarchism? New York: Dover Publications, 1972. Berkman's classic text outlining the principles of communist anarchism, held by many to be the best available statement of the principles involved. It is clear, succinct and forceful.

136. The Bolshevik Myth. Introduction by Nicolas Walter. London: Pluto Pr., 1989. Originally published New York & London: 1925. The chapters in this book were compiled from the diary Berkman kept while he was in Russia. In it he aims to discuss the inner life of the Revolution revealed in the people, rather than concentrating on its external forms. Records his meeting with Kropotkin and the latter's death.

137. "How to End War." Freedom 23 (March 1932): 2. A reprint, by request, of a short piece by Berkman which argues that to abolish war we must abolish exploitation and authority.

138. "Kronstadt - The Paris Commune of Russia." Freedom 36,393 (March 1922): 18. An account of the Kronstadt Revolt noting the irony that, on March 18, 1921, the Bolsheviks celebrated the Paris Commune as they celebrated their victory at Kronstadt.

139. "The Kronstadt Rebellion." In The Russian Tragedy. Op.cit., entry 145. Published as a separate pamphlet. Berlin: Der Syndikalist, 1922. An account of the anarchists' uprising in Kronstadt and the crushing of it by the Bolsheviks.

140. "The Paris Commune 1871 and Kronstadt 1921." Freedom 35/36/37 (March, April, May 1933): 3/4/3. A comparison of the two events noting their historic and revolutionary significance.

141. Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist. Originally published in 1912 with an introduction by Hutchins Hapgood. New York: Schocken Bks., 1970. Introduction by Paul Goodman. A diary written during Berkman's fourteen years of imprisonment in the United States. Regarded as a classic in the genre of prison memoirs, it presents an anarchist critique of the institution of prisons, and provides important insights into Berkman's political and social theories.

142. "The Russian Revolution and the Communist Party." In The Russian Tragedy. Op.cit., entry 145. Published as a separate pamphlet. Berlin: Der Syndikalist, 1922. Argues in the strongest possible terms for an anarchist solution in Russia, insisting that it is the Communist Party itself which most effectively hinders the revolution through its "bureaucratization of every sphere of human activity and effort."

143. "The Russian Tragedy." In The Russian Tragedy. Op.cit., entry 145. Published as a separate pamphlet. Berlin: Der Syndikalist, 1922. Argues passionately that the great lesson of the Russian Revolution for the workers is that government is inherently destructive of social revolution. Only through their own direct efforts can workers achieve

144. "Some Bolshevik Lies about Russian Anarchists." Freedom 36,394 (April 1922): 24-6. A discussion of Bolshevik dealings with Russian anarchists concentrating on the perfidy of the treatment of Makhno.

145. The Russian Tragedy. Edited by William G. Nowlin Jr. Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Pr., 1976. An edited collection of Berkman's most important pamphlets on the Russian experience of 1917 and after. See entries 139, 142 and 143.

Works about Berkman:

146. Avrich, P. "Alexander Berkman: A Sketch." In Anarchist Portraits, 200- 7. Op.cit., entry 1303. A short appreciation of the life and ideas of Berkman.

147. Detelbaum, W. "Epistolary Politics: The Correspondence of Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman." Prose Studies 8,1 (1986): 30-46. A brief description of the events immediately following the expulsion of Goldman and Berkman from the United States and the anarchist content of their correspondence between 1929 and 1936.

148. Goldberg, H. J. "Goldman and Berkman View the Bolshevik Regime." Slavonic and East European Review 53,131 (1975): 272-6. Explains that until the suppression of the Kronstadt rebellion of 1921 Goldman and Berkman actively supported the Bolsheviks.

149. Graham, M. "Alexander Berkman." In Man!, 584-7. Op.cit., entry 1389. A brief appreciation that appeared in the journal Man! on the occasion of Berkman's death.

150. Walter, N. "Alexander Berkman's Russian Diary." The Raven 1,3 (Nov. 1987): 280-8. Discusses the diary which Berkman kept during his time in Russia and which was only partially reproduced in The Bolshevik Myth.

151. Ward, J. W. "Violence, Anarchy and Alexander Berkman." New York Review of Books 15 (5 Nov. 1970): 25-30. An extended review of Berkman's Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist that discusses his life and ideas while seeking to understand the place of Berkman's anarchism and the politics of violence within the American democratic tradition.


Works by Bookchin:

152. "Against Meliorism." Anarchy 88 (June 1968): 191-2. A polemic in favour of revolutionary anarchism.

153. "Recovering Evolution: A Reply to Eckersley and Fox." Environmental Ethics 12,3 (Fall 1990): 253-74. A response to the critiques of Eckersley and Fox, claiming that they are ignoring much of what he has written, and advancing an argument based on dialectical naturalism that places humanity and nature in a complementary and evolutionary relationship.

154. Crisis in Our Cities. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1965. Examines the urban environment looking at air and water pollution, congestion, stress, urban sprawl etc. All are in epidemic proportions, it is argued, and can only be managed by revolutionary methods of control.

155. "Desire and Need." Anarchy 80 (Oct. 1967): 311-19. A discussion of desire and need in the work of Hegel, Reich and others, concluding that revolutionary libertarianism must not be imprisoned in the realm of Need.

156. "Ecology and Revolutionary Thought." Antipode 10/11, 3/1 (1979): 21- 32. A reprint in the double issue of Antipode on anarchism of part of Post- Scarcity Anarchism, op.cit., entry 165, establishing Bookchin's broad argument.

157. The Ecology of Freedom. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1982. Urges people not to reject but to harness modern technology in order to build an organic society based on individual autonomy and libertarian practices.

158. The Limits of the City. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1986. A political economy of urban development, arguing that the progressive urban spirit of the medieval period, which reflected and promoted human values, has been removed from the modern cities of consumerist, capitalist society. To overcome the urban crisis a change in the social system that is decentralizing and liberating must occur.

159. "Marxism as Bourgeois Sociology." Our Generation 13,3 (Summer 1979): 21-8. Argues that Marx's work, while the most sophisticated critique of capitalism, impedes a revolutionary idea of freedom, since it remains blind to the problem of authority and hierarchy independent of class, and tied to notions of dominating nature.

160. The Modern Crisis. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1987. Argues that the modern social and ecological crisis is caused by consumerism and the destructive and inhuman nature of market society. The only alternative is a society founded on social ecology, a community of sharing individuals living in harmony with themselves and with the world.

161. "New Social Movements: The Anarchic Dimension." In For Anarchism: History, Theory and Practice, 259-74. Op.cit., entry 1385. A review of counter-culture movements since the 1960s, including pacifism, feminism and environmentalism. It concludes that the new social movements have a fundamentally anarchic dimension which, reflecting Kropotkin's ideas, leads towards a totally decentralized society that rejects capitalism and hierarchy, gender domination and ecological destruction, and embraces social ecology, eco-feminism and a radical civic politic.

162. "An Open Letter to the Ecological Movement." Our Generation 14,2 (Summer/Fall 1980): 23-28. A challenging essay arguing that the decade of the 1980s is crucial to the future of the ecology movement and will determine whether a new society will arise based on mutual aid, simple technology, decentralized communities and harmony between humanity and nature.

163. Our Synthetic Environment. Published under the name Lewis Herber. Introduction William A. Albrecht. New York: Knopf, 1962. An early attack on the effect of agricultural chemicals, additives, antibiotics, industrial pollutants and radioactive fallout etc. on the human environment.

164. The Philosophy of Social Ecology. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1990.

165. Post-Scarcity Anarchism. Berkeley, Calif.: Ramparts Pr. 1971. Advances a libertarian theory of the potential for social change in America based on technologically created abundance.

166. "Radical Politics in an Era of Advanced Capitalism." Our Generation. 21,2 (Summer 1990): 1-12. Argues for direct action, community self- management and the creation of local networks involving the transformation of municipal institutions into agencies of freedom.

167. "Reflections on Spanish Anarchism." Our Generation 10,1 (1974): 8-36. An historical analysis that focuses on the role of revolutionary ideas and movements.

168. Remaking Society. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1989. A book in which Bookchin seeks to summarize his views on the need to remake society from an ecological and anarchist standpoint. The book discusses the emergence of hierarchy and modern capitalism, technology, ideals of freedom and radical alternatives, urbanization and communities and the ethics of social ecology. Argues that what is needed is "a truly libertarian society."

169. The Rise of Urbanization and the Decline of Citizenship. New York: Sierra, 1987. An attack on urbanization which Bookchin views as inimical to civic values. Bookchin identifies forces such as nationalism and capitalism as responsible for the process of urbanization and the degeneration of mores, culture and the institutions of civilized, civic life.

170. "Social Ecology versus 'Deep Ecology'. A Challenge for the Ecology Movement." The Raven 1,3 (Nov. 1987): 219-50. An extended attack on Deep Ecology as a " 'black hole' of half-digested, ill-formed, and half-baked ideas," and a statement of the ethics and politics of social ecology as the preferable alternatives.

171. The Spanish Anarchists: The Heroic Years, 1868 - 1936. New York: Free Life Eds., 1977. A study of Spanish anarchism tracing its history from the early days to the opening of the Civil War in 1936. Includes a detailed bibliographic essay.

172. "Theses on Libertarian Municipalism." Our Generation 16, 3&4 (Spring/Summer 1985): 9-22. Advances an argument for libertarian municipalism and a new civic politics following a decentralization of authority and the creation of new confederated communities.

173. "Thinking Ecologically: A Dialectical Approach." Our Generation 18,2 (Spring/Summer 1987): 3-40. A critical review of trends within the ecology movement such as 'deep ecology,' Taoism etc.. Bookchin argues that the real issue is to think ecologically rather than feel ecologically, perceiving humanity and nature to be in a dialectical, not an antagonistic, relationship.

174. 'Towards a Liberatory Technology." Our Generation 7,4 (Sept. 1971): 64- 84. Part 1, 8,182 (Winter/April 1972): 71-90. Part 2. Argues that technology is vital to a dynamic human society but that it must be a technology geared to decentralized community life, scaled to human proportions, and sympathetic to the natural environment.

175. Towards an Ecological Society. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1980. A collection of essays which begins with the premise that true radicalism and genuine ideals of freedom have been lost. Bookchin argues that it is urgent that they be rediscovered and developed in the light of our current evironmental plight.

Works about Bookchin:

176. Albrecht, G. "Social Ecology and Ecological Ethics." In Ecopolitics IV, edited Ken Dyer and John Young, 238-45. Adelaide: Univ. of Adelaide Graduate Centre for Environmental Studies, 1990. An examination of Bookchin's ideas that endorses social ecology as a realistic attempt to solve ecological problems on an objective ethical basis. Deep Ecology is dismissed as mystical and subjective in its orientation.

177. Beresford, M. "Doomsayers and Eco-nuts: A Critique of the Ecology Movement." Politics 12,1 (May 1977): 98-106. A Marxist critique that dismisses the ecology movement in general as bourgeois and the Bookchin of Post-Scarcity Anarchism as idealist.

178. Borrelli, P. "The Ecophilosophers." The Amicus Journal 10,2 (Spring 1988): 30-9. Discusses the work of Bookchin as part of a new wave of radical ecophilosophy.

179. Clark, J. The Anarchist Moment: Reflections on Culture, Nature and Power. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1984. A critique of classical radical theory from an anarchist viewpoint. An analysis of the definition of anarchism includes a discussion of Bookchin's ideas on social ecology.

180. Eckersley, R. "Divining Evolution: The Ecological Ethics of Murray Bookchin." Environmental Ethics 11,2 (Summer 1989): 99-116. A critique of Bookchin that argues that his claim that his ecological ethics offers the greatest freedom to all lifeforms is invalidated by the manner in which he distinguishes between second nature (humanity) and first nature (non- humanity) to the advantage of the former.

181. "The Ecology Manifesto of the Regroupement Ecologique Quebecois, Montreal Region." Our Generation 13,4 (Fall 1979): 7-13. Relevant to Bookchin's ideas on social ecology, the manifesto states that to fight pollution the system of capitalist production based on profit must be vanquished and decentralization to free communal living established.

182. Fox, W. "The Deep Ecology-Ecofeminism Debate and its Parallels." Environmental Ethics 11,1 (Spring 1989): 5-25. In the course of the discussion Bookchin's attack on Deep Ecology is considered and issue is taken with his interpretation and analysis.

183. Freeman, B. "The Ecology Movement and the Radical Project: Ecology versus Marxism." Our Generation 13,4 (Fall 1979): 16-17. Hails the ecology movement as the new radical path while endorsing Bookchin's view of Marxism.

184. Hallam, N. and Potter, D. "Feminism, Anarchism and Ecology and Some Connections." The Raven 3,1 (Jan. 1990): 46-55. Some discussion of Bookchin's ideas in a piece that argues for connections between anarchism and the feminist and ecology movements.

185. Harrison, F. "Science and Anarchism: From Bakunin to Bookchin." Our Generation 20,2 (Spring 1985): 72-84. Discusses the linkages between anarchist ideas and scientific knowledge.

186. Mellos, K. "Discourses on the Crisis of the Ecology Issue." Environments 16,3 (1984): 49-56. An examination of six principal discourses on the eco-crisis covering eco-anarchism and the ideas of Bookchin.

187. Roussopoulos, D. I. "Review of Bookchin's Limits of the City." Our Generation 10,3 (Fall 1974): 50-7. A lengthy review that includes discussion of Bookchin's general philosophy.

188. Salzman, L. "Politics as if Evolution Mattered: Some Thoughts on Deep and Social Ecology." In Ecopolitics IV, edited by Ken Dyer and John Young 260-270. Adelaide: Univ. of Adelaide Graduate Centre for Environmental Studies, 1990. A review of the debate between deep and social ecology that critically examines the ideas of Bookchin.

189. Watson, R. A. "Review of George Bradford. How Deep is Deep Ecology?" (Ojai: Times Change Pr., 1989). Environmental Ethics 12 (Winter 1990): 371-4. A review of anarchist Bradford's critique of Deep Ecology which parallels that of Bookchin, with some discussion of Bookchin's ideas.

190. Wiabley, R. B. J. "Neo-Conservatism and Social Ecology: 1960s to 1980s." Our Generation 20,2 (Spring 1989): 18-53. Discusses the critique of neo- conservatism by social ecology, with some consideration of the work of Bookchin.

MARTIN BUBER (1878-1965)

Works by Buber:

191. Paths in Utopia. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1949. Buber was a German-Jewish religious philosopher who embraced Zionism and founded the journal Der Jude in 1916. His religious anarchism stressed dialogue between human beings and between them and God. Paths in Utopia is an extended discussion of radical theory and the community with chapters on Proudhon, Kropotkin and Landauer. It concludes with the positive view that the Jewish Village Commune, the Kibbutz, has been a successful experiment in communal living.

Works about Buber:

192. Mendes-Flohr, P. M. "Buber's Reception Among the Jews." Modern Judaism 6,2 (1986): 111-26. An account of the reception of the controversial religious, anarchist views of Martin Buber which have divided Jewish opinion.

193. Ramana Murti, V. V. "Buber's Dialogue with Gandhi's Satyagraha." Journal of the History of Ideas 29A (Oct.-Dec. 1968): 605-13. Discusses the polemical exchange between Gandhi and Buber over the Jewish problem on the eve of World War II. Gandhi, addressing the question of how the persecuted Jews of Europe were to resist persecution, advocated non-violent resistance to Nazism. Buber was critical of the application of Satyagraha to Germany, considering it inappropriate.

194. Yassour, A. "Lenin as Seen by Martin Buber." Studies in Soviet Thought 35 (May 1988): 271-86. Buber adopted some of Lenin's ideas on the building of a new society in the development of his anarcho-socialist theories set out in Paths in Utopia, op.cit., entry 191.


Works by Chomsky:

Titles included here are exclusive of Chomsky's work on linguistic philosophy or on American foreign policy except where it is relevant to anarchist themes.

195. American Power and the New Mandarins. London: Chatto & Windus, 1969. Published in USA, New York: Pantheon Bks., 1969. A collection of political essays on foreign policy, the responsibility of intellectuals and resistance.

196. The Culture of Terrorism. London: Pluto Pr., 1989. A discussion of United States foreign policy that raises the question of the maintenance of the 'culture of terrorism' by an ideological, elitist control. See Chapter 15, "Standards for Ourselves," 255-9.

197. For Reasons of State. London: Collins, 1973. A collection of political essays and lectures, already published separately, which covers the role of force in international affairs, Indochina, civil disobedience, the function of the university, psychology and ideology, language and freedom and anarchism.

198. "His Right to Say It: The Faurisson Affair." Social Alternatives 2,3 (1982): 45-8. Reprinted from The Nation, February 28 1981. Chomsky discusses his defense of Prof. Faurisson's right to express his view that the holocaust did not happen.

199. 'Human Rights' and American Foreign Policy. Nottingham: Spokesman Bks., 1978. Essays that discuss the way propaganda systems in advanced industrial countries recruit the intelligensia into systems of indoctrination, legitimization and power to serve the interests of the dominant elite.

200. "Ideological Conformity in America." The Nation 228,3 (27 Jan. 1979): 77-81. Chomsky laments the lack of a socialist voice in the American mass media, claiming that ideological conformity makes the USA a "mirror image" of the Soviet Union.

201. "Intellectuals and the State." In Towards a New Cold War: Essays on the Current Crisis and How We Got There, 60-85. New York: Pantheon Bks., 1982. Examines the role of intellectuals in modern industrial societies, particularly the United States, and their willingness to serve the state in the creation of moral and ideological frameworks.

202. "The Intelligensia and the State." In After the Cataclysm. Postwar Indochina and the Reconstruction of Imperial Ideology. Vol. 2 of The Political Economy of Human Rights, 23-31. Co-author E. S. Herman. Boston: South End Pr., 1975. Discusses the way influential elements in the intelligensia have in the past responded to abuses of state power.

203. Language and Responsibility. New York: Pantheon Bks., 1979. Based on conversations with Mitson Ronat, in which, while Chomsky speaks of his linguistic theories in the main, there is some discussion of the sources and nature of his political ideas.

204. "The Manufacture of Consent." Our Generation 17,1 (Fall/Winter 1985- 6): 85-106. A essay in which Chomsky reflects on the mechanisms for swaying, creating and directing opinion in a modern democracy. Asserts that techniques beyond the dreams of Orwell are used to create a consensual basis for authority in a manner that undermines freedom.

205. Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media. Co- author S. Herman. New York: Pantheon Bks., 1988. Argues that the mass media in America mobilize support for the special interests of either private capital or the state. Discusses how legitimacy and consent are manufactured to support a hierarchical system of power, authority and wealth.

206. Necessary Illusions: Thought Control in Democratic Societies. London: Pluto Pr., 1989. Based on the 1988 Massey lectures, Chomsky examines the role of the media in liberal democratic capitalist societies, arguing that in practice it serves the special interests of the state or large corporations. To secure freedom of thought and speech necessitates a continuing struggle.

207. "Notes on Anarchism." Anarchy 116 (Oct. 1970): 309-21. Reprinted from the New York Review of Books, 21 May 1970, this revised version of the introduction to Daniel Guerin's Anarchism: From Theory to Practice op.cit, entry 457, was also collected in For Reasons of State, op.cit., entry 197, 151- 166. It is a general discussion of the importance of anarchism and libertarian socialism, which will remain relevant, Chomsky believes, so long as economic exploitation and political enslavement are with us.

208. "Objectivity and Liberal Scholarship." In American Power and the New Mandarins, 23-129. Op.cit., entry 195. A critical analysis of the various ways in which intellectuals and academics, the "new Mandarins," subordinate their talents to the service of the State for counter-revolutionary ends. Draws on examples arising from the Vietnamese struggle for national self- determination and the Spanish Civil War.

209. "Philosophers and Public Philosophy." Ethics 79,1 (Oct. 1968): 1-9. Chomsky expresses his views on the professional responsibilities of philosophers towards political morality and political power. For responses see entries 221 and 223.

210. Pirates and Emperors: International Terrorism in the Real World. New York: Claremont Research and Pubns., 1986. Chomsky argues that the attention paid to individual acts of terrorism obscures the terror committed by the United States and its client states which in turn reflects the bankruptcy of the system. His argument raises the question of the state use of force as against the use of force by private individuals or agencies.

211. Problems of Knowledge and Freedom. The Russell Lectures. New York: Pantheon Bks., 1972. The second lecture takes, as a point of departure, Russell's discussion of social problems and develops into a discussion of Chomsky's own political philosophy.

212. "The Responsibility of Intellectuals." In The Dissenting Academy, edited by Theodore Roszak, 227-64. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969. First published in the New York Review of Books, 23 February 1967, this piece analyzes and discusses the particular responsibilities of intellectuals in Western society with respect to speaking out in defense of the truth, and exposing the lies of governments These are responsibilities often shirked, in Chomsky's view, by modern intellectuals.

213. "Some Thoughts on Intellectuals and the Schools." In American Power and the New Mandarins, 247-55. Op.cit., entry 195. Chomsky argues that schools must encourage more critical thought on national policy given the abdication of intellectuals from their role as objective critics.

214. "The Soviet Union versus Socialism." Our Generation 17,2 (Spring/Summer 1986): 47-52. Argues that the society created by Lenin, Stalin and their successors is the contradiction of libertarian socialism.

215. "What Is Anarchism?" Our Generation 8,2 (Winter/April 1972): 58-70. Provides an interesting insight into Chomsky's political philosophy. For him anarchism is libertarian socialism, an amalgam, he notes citing Rocker, of the two great traditions that since 1789 have informed the intellectual life of Europe, socialism and liberalism.


216. The Chomsky Reader, edited by J. Peck. New York: Pantheon Bks., 1987. A collection of essays focussing on the role of intellectuals, and various political issues which are, in the main, involved with American foreign policy.

217. Language and Politics edited by Carol P. Otero. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1988.

218. Radical Priorities, edited by C. P. Otero. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1981. A useful collection of Chomsky's writings on U.S. foreign policy, state power, and the contemporary role and influence of intellectuals. In "The Relevance of Anarcho-Syndicalism" there is a brief account of modes of libertarian organization appropriate to advanced industrial countries, while in "Some Tasks for the Left" it is argued that self-management and co- operation should be recognized as essential human rights.

Works about Chomsky:

219. Coker, C. 'The Mandarin and the Commissar: The Political Thought of Noam Chomsky." In Noam Chomsky: Consensus and Controversy, edited by Sohan Modgil and Celia Modgil, 269-78. Lewes, East Sussex and New York: Falmer Pr., 1987. A general survey of Chomsky's political philosophy.

220. D'Agostino, F. Chomsky's System of Ideas. Oxford: Clarendon Pr., 1986. A section entitled "Chomsky's Libertarianism," 206-14, suggests that Chomsky's libertarian socialism and his views on the nature of an ideal society can be derived from his account of linguistic phenomena. Bibliography.

221. Earle, W. "The Political Responsibilities of Philosophers." Ethics 79,,1 (Oct. 1968): 10-13. A discussion with reference to Chomsky's piece, entry 209, in the same issue, of the professional and political responsibilities of philosophers.

222. Leiber, J. Noam Chomsky: A Philosophic Overview. Boston: Twayne Pubs., 1975. Mainly concerned with Chomsky's work on language the work does contain a short appreciation of his political philosophy, 178-83.

223. Silber, J. R. "Soul Politics and Political Morality." Ethics 79,1 (Oct. 1968): 14-23. A critical discussion of Chomsky's view, expressed in an article in the same issue of the journal of intellectuals and their ability to influence power. See entry 209.

224. Woodcock, G. "Chomsky's Anarchism." Freedom 16 (Nov. 1974): 4-5. Published in the New York Review of Books, 21 June 1970, Anarchy 116 (Oct. 1970), Our Generation 8,2 (Winter 1971). A critique of Chomsky's views as expressed in his introduction to Daniel Guerin's Anarchism, New York: Monthly Review Pr., 1970.


Works by De Cleyre:

225. Anarchism and American Tradition. Chicago: Free Society Group, 1932. An interesting pamphlet that links the ideals of anarchism with the revolutionary doctrines of eighteenth century America.

226. "Anarchism." In Man!, 30-4. Op.cit, entry 1389. A short piece by De Cleyre, collected by Graham in the anthology of pieces from the journal Man! that discusses systems of property and communal organization.

227. Crime and Punishment. Philadelphia: Social Science Club, 1903. Lecture delivered before the Social Science Club of Philadelphia, 15 March 1903.

228. Direct Action. New York: Mother Earth Pubg. Assn., 1912. A lecture delivered in Chicago, 21 January 1912 on anarchism, trade unionism and the need for direct action.

229. The Dominant Idea. New York: Mother Earth Pubg. Assn., 1910.

230. The Gods and the People. San Francisco: Free Society, 189-?

231. The Haymarket Speeches, 1895-1910. Edited with introduction and notes by Paul Avrich. Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Pr., 1980. Voltairine de Cleyre, moved by the fate of the Haymarket anarchists, gave a memorial oration for them nearly every November from 1895 onwards. Most of the speeches were delivered in Chicago, although some were given in Boston, New York and Philadelphia. Avrich has brought those extant together in a valuable collection.

232. "In Defense of Emma Goldman". In Selected Works of Voltairine de Cleyre, edited Alexander Berkman, 205-19. Op.cit., entry 235. Originally published in Philadelphia in 1894, this is a piece written on the occasion of Emma Goldman's arrest in that city in 1893, prior to the delivery of a speech to the unemployed. Goldman had already given a speech to a large crowd in Union Square, New York, in which, it was alleged, she had called for the immediate appropriation of property. Voltairine de Cleyre asserts that the authorities did not fear what Goldman was but what she might become.

233. Sex Slavery. Valley Falls, Kan.: Lucifer Pubg. Co., n.d. Voltairine de Cleyre denounced not just conventional marriage and the nuclear family, but any long term relationship as tending to create emotional enslavement.

234. The Worm Turns. Philadelphia: Innes and Sons, 1900. A collection of Voltairine de Cleyre's poetry.


235. Selected Works of Voltairine de Cleyre. Edited by Alexander Berkman. New York: Mother Earth Pubg. Assn., 1914. A collection of the prose and verse of Voltairine de Cleyre published after her death. It contains a biographical sketch by Hippolyte Havel. Issued as a photocopy, Ann Arbor, Michigan: Univ. Microfilms, 1967.

Works about de Cleyre:

236. Avrich, P. An American Anarchist: The Life of Voltairine de Cleyre. Princeton N.J.: Princeton Univ. Pr., 1978. A look at the anarchism of Voltairine de Cleyre through letters, memoirs, journals and oral testimonies.

237. Goldman, E. Voltairine de Cleyre. Berkeley Hts. N.J.: Oriole Pr., 1932. A biographical sketch of Goldman's anarchist contemporary with whom she was in political accord, but who viewed Goldman's romantic adventures with some measure of disapproval.

238. March, M. "Voltairine de Cleyre." In Anarchist Women, 1870-1920, 122- 50. Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Pr., 1987. A discussion of the life and work of Voltairine de Cleyre, who, named after Voltaire by her French socialist father, became an anarchist after the Haymarket trial. At first drawn to the American individualist anarchist tradition, with its defense of the rights of private property, she was later to adopt the communist anarchism of Kropotkin.


Works by Galleani:

239. The End of Anarchism? Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Pr., 1982. Luigi Galleani and Saverio Merlino were militant anarchists working together in the 1880's. When Merlino later declared himself to be a "libertarian socialist," and in an interview expressed his belief that anarchism as a force was at an end, Galleani responded with this series of articles in which he turned the statement into a question. Includes an introduction which locates the debate historically and reproduces the original interview with Merlino. Merlino, at this later stage in his career, also debated with Malatesta on the question of the utility of elections. See: Malatesta, Gli Anarchici e la Questione Elettorale: Un Dibattito, op.cit., entry 617.

WILLIAM GODWIN (1756-1836)

Works by Godwin: Philosophy:

240. Considerations on Lord Greville's and Mr. Pitts' Bills Concerning Treasonable and Seditious Practices, and Unlawful Assemblies. By a Lover of Order. London: J. Johnson, November, 1795. In Uncollected Writings, 1785-1822, op.cit., entry 260. Godwin's attack on the Bills was based on the belief that the government was forcing people to surrender important rights and freedoms.

241. Cursory Strictures on Lord Chief Justice Eyre's Charge to the Grand Jury, October 2, 1794. London: D. I. Eaton, 1794. In Uncollected Writings, 1785-1822, op.cit., entry 260. Shows that Godwin applied his political principles in practice. He attacked the government's attempt to change the legal definition of treason, and influenced public opinion in favour of the prisoners on trial for treasonable writings. The result of the trial was the establishment of the important principle in English law that one cannot be convicted of treason on the basis of what one speaks or writes.

242. The Enquirer: Reflections on Education, Manners and Literature. Facsimile of the original London edition of 1797. New York: A. M. Kelly, 1965. A series of essays in which Godwin addresses such topics as education (which he believes is the basis of freedom) and morality, as well as economic and social questions. The arguments continue and extend those of Political Justice.

243. An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice, and its Influence on General Virtue and Happiness. Edited and abridged by Raymond A. Preston. Reproduction of 1st edition of 1793. New York: A. Knopf, 1926. Godwin's definitive work on anarchism set in the form of an enquiry into the philosophical basis of all government. This edition is abridged and the reproduction makes difficult reading.

244. Enquiry Concerning Political Justice and its Influence on Morals and Happiness. 3rd Edition. Corrected and edited, with variant readings of the 1st and 2nd editions. With a critical introduction and notes by F. E. L. Priestley. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Pr., 1946. Reprinted 1962, 1969. In three volumes, the first two being facsimile reproductions of Godwin's work and the third a thorough-going attempt to locate Godwin in the eighteenth century philosophical tradition, assessing the influences on him and his aims in writing Political Justice. This facsimile reproduction makes very difficult reading.

245. An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice. Edited by Isaac Kramnick. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1976. This unabridged version has a useful introduction which gives a detailed assessment of Godwin's anarchism as a philosophy of individual moral autonomy.

246. Essay on Sepulchres: or, A Proposal for Erecting Some Memorial of the Illustrious Dead in All Ages on the Spot Where Their Remains Have Been Interred. London: W. Miller, 1809. Written and published at his own expense it called for greater reverence for noble ancestors. Godwin also addresses a wider range of philosophical questions.

247. Essays... Never Before Published. Facsimile of the original London edition of 1873. New York: Folcroft Library Editions, 1976. Essays written in the last years of his life. Although entrusted to his daughter, Mrs. Shelley, she was unable, for a number of reasons, to get them published, and they did not appear until 1873. The content is largely concerned with moral and theological issues.

248. Four Early Pamphlets, 1783-84. Facsimile reproductions with an introduction by Burton R. Pollin. Gainesville, Florida: Scholar's Facsimiles and Reprints, 1966. (i) An Account of the Seminary; (ii) A Defence of the Rockingham Party; (iii) Instructions to a Statesman; (iv) The Herald of Literature (Literary satire). Offers an insight into Godwin's interests and ideas a decade before his major works began to appear.

249. History of the Commonwealth of England. From its Commencement, to the Restoration of Charles the Second. 4 vols. London: Colburn, 1824-28. Based on extensive research of primary sources it is a large work in which Godwin not only narrates the main events but attempts to assign motives, and discuss causation. The fourth volume, devoted to Cromwell, is the first history of the period written from a republican perspective.

250. The History of the Life of William Pitt, Earl of Chatham. 2nd edition. London: G. Kearsley, 1783. Although not highly regarded as a biography of Pitt, it provides a glimpse of the early Godwin. He discusses Pitt's first Tory administration and his opposition to American Independence.

251. Letters of Verax, to the Editor of the Morning Chronicle, on the Question of a War to be Commenced for the Purpose of Putting an End to the Supreme Power in France of Napoleon Bonaparte. London: R. & A. Taylor, 1815. In Uncollected Writings, 1785-1822, op.cit., entry 260. An anti- war polemic inspired by events after the return of Napoleon from Elba.

252. Life of Geoffrey Chaucer, the Early English Poet, including Memoirs of his Near Friend and Kinsman, John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster: With Sketches of the Manners, Opinions, Arts and Literature of England in the Fourteenth Century. 2 vols. London: R. Phillips, 1803. As well as a history and criticism of all of Chaucer's works it contains details of life in fourteenth century England.

253. Lives of Edward and John Phillips, Nephews and Pupils of Milton. Including Various Particulars of the Literary and Political History of Their Times. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown, 1815. Of more interest than the lives and works of the subjects of the essay are Godwin's political and literary observations.

254. The Lives of the Necromancers: or, An Account of the Most Eminent Persons in Successive Ages, Who Have Claimed for Themselves, or to Whom Has Been Imputed by Others, the Exercises of Magical Power. London: F. J. Mason, 1834. Looks at the conflict between reason and the irrational forces at work in people, concluding that it is not to the supernatural but to themselves that people must look for guidance in how they must behave.

255. Memoirs of the Author of a Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Facsimile of the 1798 first edition. Introduction by Gina Luria. New York: Garland Publishing, 1974. The frankness of these memoirs, written following his wife's death, provoked some controversy. They show enormous love and respect for her.

256. Of Population: An Enquiry Concerning the Power of Increase in the Numbers of Mankind, Being an Answer to Mr. Malthus's Essay on That Subject. Facsimile of the original London edition of 1820. New York: A. M. Kelly, 1964. A comprehensive refutation of Malthus whose theories seriously challenged Godwin's doctrine of perfectability.

257. Sketches of History: In Six Sermons. London: T. Cadell, 1784. Brings together sermons delivered when he was a dissenting minister from 1779- 1783, one of which includes the famous sentence "God himself has not a right to be a tyrant."

258. Thoughts Occasioned by the Perusal of Dr. Parr's Spital Sermon... Being a Reply to the Attacks of Dr. Parr, Mr. Mackintosh, the Author of an Essay on Population [i.e. T.R. Malthus] and Others. London: G. G. & J. Robinson, June 12 1801. In Uncollected Writings, 1785-1822, op.cit., entry 260. In defending the principles of Political Justice from attack Godwin disavows the French Revolution and makes a plea for gradual change on the basis of reason. But, improvement in the human condition, he insists against Malthus, is possible.

259. Thoughts on Man, His Nature, Productions and Discoveries. Interspersed with Some Particulars respecting the Author. Fascimile of the original London edition of 1831. New York: A. M. Kelly, 1969. A series of essays which are the product of mature reflection and contain a reaffirmation of Godwin's faith in the perfectability of human beings. Significantly, Godwin's views on familial relations and sociability temper his earlier, and bleaker, view of individual autonomy.

260. Uncollected Writings, 1785-1822. Facsimile reproductions with introductions by J. W. Marken and B. R. Pollin. Gainesville, Florida: Scholar's Facsimiles and Reprints, 1968. Contains articles from periodicals and six pamphlets with brief but essential notes which locate the pieces in their historical contexts. In addition to the major pieces cited above numerous letters and newspaper articles are reprinted.

Works by Godwin : Novels and Letters:

261. Antonio: A Tragedy in Five Acts. London: G. G. & J. Robinson, 1800. A melodrama which failed miserably. Godwin regarded it as an unjustly condemned masterpiece.

262. Cloudesley. A Tale. 3 vols. London: Colburn & Bentley, 1830. A sentimental story of family intrigue.

263. Damon and Delia. London: T. Hookham, 1783. To be republished by the British Library. Godwin's first novel, it was short and well received. Its theme is that of ill-fated love and he employs a popular mixture of satire and sentimentality to make broad, sweeping social comments.

264. Deloraine. 3 vols. London: R. Bentley, 1833. His last novel, it deals with Godwin's continuing theme of the individual at odds with society. The character of Emilia was his last portrait of Mary Wollstonecraft.

265. The Elopement of Percy Bysshe Shelley and Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin. As Narrated in a Letter of 27th August, 1814, to John Taylor. Commentary by H. Buxton Foreman. Boston?: Privately printed, 1911.

266. Faulkener: A Tragedy. London: R. Phillips, 1807. A play on a theme adapted from the life of Richard Savage.

267. Fleetwood; or, The New Man of Feeling. 3 vols. London: R. Phillips, 1805. 2nd. edition, R. Bentley, 1832. Intended as a condemnation of libertines and jealousy.

268. Imogen: A Pastoral Romance from the Ancient British. London: W. Lane, 1784. Edited with an introduction by J. W. Marken and a critical discussion by M. W. England et al. New York: New York Public Library, 1963. The latter edition contains a helpful introduction to the book which portrays an ideal druidical society isolated from modern evils. In the introduction it is suggested that it may make a useful complement to his later major works of Political Justice and Caleb Williams.

269. Italian Letters; or, The History of the Count De St. Julian. 2 vols. London: G. Robinson, 1784. Edited with introduction by Burton R. Pollin. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Pr., 1965. Of Godwin's nine novels this was the only one to use the epistolary form popular at the time. Its theme is seduction and betrayal, while it also aims to demonstrate the importance of education.

270. Mandeville. A Tale of the Seventeenth Century in England. 3 vols. Edinburgh & London: A. Constable & Co. & Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown, 1817. Depicts the conflict between society and the individual but argues for forbearance rather than hatred. An early study of madness and moral conflict.

271. St. Leon: A Tale of the Sixteenth Century. 3 vols. London: 1799. A reproduction of the 1831 edition, with a foreword by Devenora P. Varma and an introduction by Juliet Beckett. New York: Arno Pr., 1972. A Gothic romance which is also concerned with moral philosophy.

272. Things as They Are; or, The Adventures of Caleb Williams. 3 vols. London: G. G. & J. Robinson, 1794. With an introduction by Ernest A. Baker, London: Four Square Bks., 1966. Edited with an introduction by D. McCracken, London: Oxford Univ. Pr., 1970. Generally seen as a fictional version of Political Justice, it eschews false ideals of honor and condemns existing institutions by which "man becomes the destroyer of man." As the title suggests the intention is to attack "things as they are."

273. "Letters of Godwin and Mary Wollstonecraft." In Godwin and Mary, edited Ralph M. Wardle. Lawrence: Univ. of Kansas Pr., 1966. Gives some insight into how they were both enriched by their association.

Works by Godwin under Pseudonyms:

274. Under pseudonym of Edward Baldwin. Fables, Ancient and Modern. Adapted for the Use of Children. 2 vols. London: T. Hodgkins, 1805. Godwin adapted some of the best known fables for very young children and contrived happy endings. He combined natural history and moral enlightenment in the belief that children are keen learners if their interests and sympathies are excited.

275. Under pseudonym of Edward Baldwin. The History of England. For the Use of Schools and Young Persons. London: T. Hodgkins, 1806. Traces the great landmarks of English history in which he welcomes the Commonwealth, the Glorious Revolution and the American War of Independence, and defends the French Revolution. It was used as a text in schools.

276. Under pseudonym of Edward Baldwin. The History of Rome: From the Building of the City to the Ruin of the Republic. London: M. J. Godwin & Co., 1809. Less concerned with historical accuracy than moral education, Godwin explores the reasons behind the rise and fall of Rome making obvious his attitudes to property, wealth and power. Aimed at young readers.

277. Under pseudonym of Edward Baldwin. The History of Greece. London: M. J. Godwin & Co., 1811. The last book written for the Juvenile Library it was intended as a replacement for an earlier school text. Godwin displays great admiration for the achievements of the Greeks and devotes considerable time to praising Spartan institutions.

278. Under pseudonym of Theophilus Marcliffe. The Life of Lady Jane Grey, and of Guildford Dudley, Her Husband. London: T. Hodgkins, 1806. Aimed at young readers it tells a tragic story which concludes with a plea for religious toleration.

279. Under pseudonym of Theophilus Marcliffe. The Looking Glass: A True History of the Early Years of an Artist. London: T. Hodgkins, 1805. Written with the aim of encouraging young people to emulate people who have achieved excellence, especially in the cultivation of the fine arts.

280. Under pseudonym of Edward Baldwin. Mylius's School Dictionary of the English Language. To Which Is Prefixed "A New Guide to the English Tongue." London: M. J. Godwin & Co., 1809. An extensive revision of Mylius's dictionary. Godwin aimed at improving the efficiency with which language and grammar was learnt. His definitions of words like "politics," anarchy," "Pope," "God" and "novel" make an interesting study.

281. Under pseudonym of Edward Baldwin. The Pantheon, or Ancient History of the Gods of Greece and Rome. London: T. Hodgkins, 1806. A study of ancient mythology which was intended to elucidate the works of the poets and awaken the imagination. The tales and engravings, having been stripped of their "licentious coloring," were widely used as a basic text in schools.

Works about Godwin:

282. Barrell, J. Shelley and the Thought of his Time: A Study in the History of Ideas. New Haven: Yale Univ. Pr., 1947. Examines the importance of the influence of romantic radicalism and romantic Hellenism on Shelley's work and credits Godwin with having had a significant impact in the first area.

283. Brailsford, H. N. Shelley, Godwin, and their Circle. London: Williams & Norgate, 1913. Offers a brief discussion of Godwin's ideas and his influence on Shelley. An excellent short introduction to Godwin and the period.

284. Brown, F. K. The Life of William Godwin. London: Dent, 1926. While in many ways a useful biography it lacks any systematic discussion of Godwin's ideas. It is more useful in sketching the contemporary background of his life and times.

285. Claeys, G. "The Concept of 'Political Justice' in Godwin's Political Justice: A Reconsideration." Political Theory 11,4 (Nov. 1983): 565-84. Argues that Godwin's notion of political justice was an attempt to create a moral norm based on Christian maxims that was to be practiced by the individuals of the future, rather than, as in the past, being enforced by the state.

286. Claeys, G. "The Effect of Property on Godwin's Theory of Justice." Journal of the History of Philosophy 22,1 (Jan. 1984): 81-101. Surveys Godwin's views on property as they unfold in Political Justice. Suggests that Godwin accepted the idea of a right to private property and that the only basis in justice for unequal property rights lay in the use of property in the realization of the social good.

287. Clark, J. P. "On Anarchism in an Unreal World: Kramnick's View of Godwin and the Anarchists." American Political Science Review 69,1 (1975): 162-7. A defense of Godwin and his anarchism in response to Kramnick, entry 302. Clark argues that anarchism is not elitist.

288. Clark, J. P. The Philosophical Anarchism of William Godwin. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Pr., 1977. A comprehensive analysis of Godwin's philosophy and its application to social and political issues.

289. Clark, J. P. "Rejoinder to "Comment" by Isaac Kramnick." American Political Science Review 69,1 (1975): 169-70. A final response in the Kramnick/Clark debate. See entries 287,300 and 302.

290. Fearn, M. "William Godwin and the 'Wilds Of Literature'." British Journal of Educational Studies 29,3 (Oct. 1981): 247-57. Suggests that Godwin's concern for the proper education of the young naturally led to his career in the writing and publishing of books for children.

291. Fleisher, D. William Godwin: A Study in Liberalism. London: Allen & Unwin, 1951. An analysis of Godwin's Political Justice against the background of the development of English liberalism with some comments on his views on religion.

292. Furbank, P. N. "Godwin's Novels." Essays in Criticism 5,3 (July 1955): 214-28. With particular reference to Caleb Williams it argues that Godwin's novels complement and illuminate his political writings, especially Political Justice. Likens Godwin to Dostoevsky, calling them "historians of conscience."

293. Garrett, R. W. "Anarchism or Political Democracy: The Case of William Godwin." Social Theory and Practice 1 (Spring 1971): 111-20. Analyzes Godwin's arguments against national legislatures etc. and, although critical of Godwin's reasoning, finds that Godwin's arguments are valuable for demonstrating the restrictiveness of some democratic institutions.

294. Grylls, R. G. William Godwin and his Work. London: Odhams Pr., 1953. A patchy account of Godwin's ideas, life and times, covering the period 1794 to 1836.

295. Hazlitt, W. "William Godwin." In The Spirit of the Age, edited by E.D. Mackerness, 19-38. London: Collins 1969. Contains a contemporary essay on Godwin's ideas and influence, which applauds Godwin's philosophy while satirizing his person.

296. Hodgart, M. "Radical Prose in the Eighteenth Century." In The English Mind: Studies in The English Moralists, (Presented to Basil Willey), edited by Hugh Sykes Da vies and George Watson, 146-52. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1964. Deals with the connections between the political thought and literary styles of Thomas Paine in The Rights of Man and William Godwin in Political Justice. It is generally critical of Godwin's literary skills and describes him as a metaphysical revolutionary.

297. James, C. L. Anarchism and Malthus. New York: Mother Earth Pubg. Assoc., I9io. Discusses the debate between Malthus and Godwin, noting the ultimate triumph of Malthus's views, and arguing that, in order to defeat Malthus, an anarchism that embraces the emancipation of women is needed.

298. Jenkins, P. "Varieties of Enlightenment Criminology: Beccaria, Godwin, De Sade." British Journal of Criminology 24,2 (1984): 112-30. Suggests that Beccaria's ideas on the nature of crime were in fact deeply conservative. The work of de Sade and Godwin are cited as representative of the radicalism which condemned society before the criminal.

299. Kirschner, J. "Civic Education and the Anarchist Critique of William Godwin." Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Philosophy of Education Society 32 (1976): 221-31. Discusses Godwin's attitude to education in relation to his belief that the unfettered mind can discern truth and justice, and that, in consequence, reason is the necessary basis of a society.

300. Kramnick, I. "Comment on Clark's 'On Anarchism in an Unreal World'." American Political Science Review 69,1 (1975): 168-69. A very brief reply which concedes little. See entries 287, 289 and 302.

301. Kramnick, I. "The Left and Edmund Burke." Political Theory 11,2 (1983): 189-214. Suggests that Godwin found some of Burke's views relevant for his own theories.

302. Kramnick, I. "On Anarchism and the Real World: William Godwin and Radical England." American Political Science Review 66,1 (1972): 114-28. Points out what are seen as problems in Godwin's anarchist philosophy by giving an outline of it in the context of his debate with Thelwall. It is suggested that Godwin was less than enthusiastic about some reform measures, and was guilty of elitism. While advocating radicalism in theory he was conservative in practice. See entries 287, 289 and 300.

303. Locke, D. A Fantasy of Reason: Life and Thought of William Godwin. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980. A detailed study of Godwin's life and works set in the context of his times which seeks both to account for Godwin's relative obscurity and to discuss and analyze his philosophy.

304. Luria, G. "Mary Hays's Letters and Manuscripts." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 3,2 (1977): 524-30. A discussion of the work of Mary Hays as a dissenting radical and aspiring novelist. Adopted by Godwin as a pupil, he became her "tutelary genius." Her novel Memoirs of Emma Courtney, 1796, had an early and strong feminist element. A fragment of correspondence between Hays and Godwin is included. Also see A. F. Wedd, ed. The Love Letters of Mary Hays, 1779-1780. London: Methuen, 1925.

305. Marshall, P. H. William Godwin: Philosopher, Novelist, Revolutionary. New Haven: Yale Univ. Pr., 1984. A detailed look at the life and writings of Godwin which disputes the image of him as the naive, abstract philosopher. Argues that a depiction of him as a complete man must include consideration of Godwin the revolutionary. Excellent bibliography, index.

306. McCracken, D. "Godwin's Literary Theory: The Alliance between Fiction and Political Philosophy." Philological Quarterly 49 (Jan. 1970): 113- 33. Argues that Godwin's two styles of writing showed great versatility but should be understood as part of one single vocation in which he demonstrated that reason and imagination were complementary.

307. Monro, D. H. "Archbishop Fenelon versus My Mother." Australasian Journal of Philosophy 28,3 (Dec. 1950): 154-73. An analysis of the debate generated by Godwin's concern with the justification for moral choices in the elucidation of his principle of justice.

308. Monro, D. H. "Godwin, Oakeshott and Mrs. Bloomer." Journal of the History of Ideas 35,4 (1974): 611-24. Discusses Godwin's and Oakeshott's divergent views on whether it is possible or desirable to disregard tradition. It concludes that Oakeshott's argument fails to undermine Godwin's rationalist position that tradition can be disregarded.

309. Monro, D. H. Godwin's Moral Philosophy: An Interpretation of William Godwin, London: Oxford Univ. Pr., 1953. Analyzes many of the conventional criticisms of Godwin and dismisses them as facile, but goes on to suggest that his philosophy is still deeply flawed. Godwin's ideas are explored within the context of English utilitarianism.

310. Murry, J. M. Heaven and Earth. London: Jonathan Cape, 1938. From a profoundly Christian perspective this book looks at the growth of the modern world through the minds of some of its great thinkers, a category in which Godwin is included.

311. Ousby, I. "'My Servant Caleb': Godwin's Caleb Williams and the Political Trials of the 1790's." University of Toronto Quarterly 44,1 (1974): 47-55. Suggests a new dimension to Godwin's criticism of Caleb's conduct as a detective or spy, arguing that Godwin disliked spies (largely because of their role in the political trials of the time). Concludes that Falkland's tyrannical behavior in the latter half of the book and Caleb's earlier rashness and deceit are both condemned.

312. Paul, C. K. William Godwin: His Friends and Contemporaries. 2 vols. London: H. S. King, 1876. One of the best sources for biographical research, containing a great amount of Godwin's correspondence, extracts from his journals and other writings. There is narrative and commentary to link Godwin's writings.

313. Pollin, B. R. Godwin Criticism: A Synoptic Bibliography. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Pr., 1967. Includes articles from British, French, German and American periodicals. Over 2,000 entries.

314. Pollin, B. R. "Godwin's 'Letters of Verax1." Journal of the History of Ideas 25,3 (1964): 253-73. A review of a very rare pamphlet of 1815 in which Godwin engages in anti-war polemics on the subject of the struggle against Bonaparte. See entry 251.

315. Preu, J. A. The Dean and the Anarchist. Tallahasse: Florida State University Studies 33 (1959). Examines Johnathon Swift's influence on Godwin.

316. Preu, J. "Swift's Influence on Godwin's Doctrine of Anarchism." Journal of the History of Ideas 15,3 (June 1954): 371-83. Suggests that Swift's A Voyage To The Houyhnhnms influenced Godwin's work but that his admiration for Swift was based on a misunderstanding and a distortion of Swift's intention.

317. Priestman, D. G. "Godwin, Schiller and the Polemics of Coleridge's Osorio." Bulletin of Research in the Humanities 82,2 (Summer 1979): 236- 49. Discusses Osorio as a critical response to Godwin's Political Justice.

318. Ritter, A. "Godwin, Proudhon and the Anarchist Justification of Punishment." Political Theory 3,1 (1975): 68-87. Argues that anarchists do not have to eschew punishment if it is non-legal, and compares Godwin's utilitarian rationale with Proudhon's view that it may be necessary on deontological grounds. It is argued that both agreed that reparation was preferable to punishment.

319. Rodway, A. E. Godwin and the Age of Transition. London: Harrap, 1952. A selection of articles by people like Burke, Wordsworth, Hazlitt, Shelley, Paine and Priestley intended to reflect the times in which Godwin wrote and the people he influenced. Includes a select bibliography and chronological table.

320. Rosen, F. "The Principle of Population as Political Theory: Godwin's Of Population and the Malthusian Controversy." Journal of the History of Ideas 31,1 (1970): 33-48. Argues that Godwin regarded himself as the first to respond to all the implications of Malthus' theory, not just the moral implications alone, by appealing to earlier theories of population and using them against Malthus.

321. Scrivener, M. H. "Godwin's Philosophy: A Revaluation." Journal of the History of Ideas 39,4 (1978): 615-26. Outlines Godwin's gradualist position which in essence asserts that the elevation of consciousness is the revolution.

322. Sherburn, G. "Godwin's Later Novels." Studies in Romanticism 1 (Winter 1962): 65-82. Comments at length on evidence in Godwin's later novels, such as Fleetwood and Mandeville, which suggests an obsession with guilt arising from misanthropy.

323. Smith, E. E. and Smith, E. G. William Godwin. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1965. An attempt to address all facets of Godwin's work and assess his influence on other thinkers. It is sympathetic but critical. Concludes that it is in his conception of evil that his greatest strengths and weaknesses as a philosopher are manifest. Includes a chronology, bibliography and index.

324. St Clair, W. The Godwins and the Shelleys: The Biography of a Family. London: Faber and Faber, 1989. A well-reviewed, detailed biographical work that focuses on Godwin, but with his familial relations in high relief.

325. Stafford, W. "Dissenting Religion Translated into Politics: Godwin's Political Justice." History of Political Thought 1,2 (1980): 279-301. Suggests that argument pursued by Godwin in Political Justice should be seen as influenced by the debate between the Sandemanians and Methodists. Dissenting culture is an important ingredient of Godwin's philosophy.

326. Tysdahl, B. J. William Godwin as a Novelist. London: Athlone Pr., 1981. A discussion of Godwin's fiction in relation to his works of political philosophy.

327. Williams, D. A. "William Godwin's Problem of Autonomy, 1790-1800." In The Consortium on Revolutionary Europe, edited by L. Kennett. Gainesville: U. of Florida Pr., 1973. Suggests that both Godwin's political philosophy and his novels must be studied in concert to create a comprehensive understanding of his thought. Such a study reveals a person whose insistence on the value of personal autonomy jarred with his aspirations to found a new social order.

328. Woodcock, G. William Godwin: A Biographical Study. Originally published London: Porcupine Pr., 1946, with a foreword by Herbert Read. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1989 A useful critical study of Godwin's life and political philosophy, that considers his influence in his lifetime and the relevance of his ideas to the present.

EMMA GOLDMAN (1869-1940)

Works by Goldman:

329. Anarchism and Other Essays. Introduction by Richard Drinnon. New York: Dover Pubns., 1969. Originally published in 1911 this contains some important essays. Also contains a biographical sketch by Hippolyte Havel. Includes the classic essays "Anarchism," 'The Traffic in Women," "Woman Suffrage", "The Tragedy of Woman's Emancipation," "Anarchism: What It Really Stands for", 'The Psychology of Political Violence" and "Prisons: A Social Crime and Failure."

330. Anarchism: What It really Stands For. New York: Mother Earth Pubg. Assn., 1914. Goldman's definitive analysis of anarchist principles and practices. Reprinted in several anthologies. See Red Emma Speaks, 47-63. Op.cit., entry 360. Originally published in Anarchism and Other Essays, 47- 67- Op.cit, entry 329.

331. Anarchism on Trial. New York: Mother Earth Pubg. Assn., 1917. The speeches by Goldman and Alexander Berkman during their trial, in the U.S. District Court, New York, in July 1917, for their public advocacy of opposition to conscription in the 1914-18 war. Reprinted in Red Emma Speaks, 311-27. Op.cit., entry 360.

332. The Crushing of the Russian Revolution. London: Freedom Pr., 1922. An analysis of the Revolution based on her two years in Russia. Includes details about the lives of the people and special characters such as Kropotkin. The experience confirmed her belief that "all a dead weight that paralyses the free spirit and activities of the masses." The piece ends optimistically, however, with the suggestion that the people are disillusioned with political processes and will attempt more direct action in the future.

333. Deportation, its Meaning and Menace; Last Message to the People of America. With Alexander Berkman. New York: E. M. Fitzgerald, 1919. Written on the occasion of the deportation of Goldman and Berkman from the United States, after two years in jail for obstructing the military draft.

334. Living my Life. Edited by Richard and Anna Maria Drinnon. New York: New American Library, 1977. Abridged version of Goldman's autobiography till 1924 which was originally published in two volumes by Alfred A. Knopf in 1931, and reprinted unabridged New York: Dover Pr., 1970 and Salt Lake City: Peregrine Smith, 1982, with an introduction by Candice Falk. Gives details of her time in Russia, including her impressions of Kropotkin.

335. Marriage and Love. New York: Mother Earth Pubg. Assn., 1911. A critique of the institution of marriage, arguing that marriage is primarily an economic arrangement with no necessary connection to love, since the latter presupposes a relationship between free and equal human beings. Reprinted in several anthologies.

336. My Disillusionment in Russia. With a biographical sketch by Frank Harris, and an introduction by Rebecca West. New York: Crowell, 1970. An analysis of the Russian Revolution and the statist policies pursued by the Bolsheviks, based on her own experiences in Russia from 1919-1921. This work was originally titled My Two Years in Russia but was changed, without Goldman's permission, by the publisher.

337. My Further Disillusionment in Russia. New York: Doubleday, Page & Co., 1924. When Goldman wrote My Two Years in Russia it was published as My Disillusionment in Russia with the last twelve chapters missing. These were later published in a separate volume entitled My Further Disillusionment in Russia which included her "Afterword" on the forces behind the Russian Revolution. She reiterated her views on the Revolution in "There Is No Communism in Russia." American Mercury 34 (April 1935).

338. Nowhere at Home: Letters from Exile of Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman. Edited by Richard and Anna Maria Drinnon. New York: Schocken Bks., 1975. A wide selection of the letters of Goldman and Berkman, to each other and to their comrades, covering the post 1919 period. Arranged chronologically within five broad thematic areas. Useful introduction by the editors.

339. Patriotism: A Menace to Liberty. New York: Mother Earth Pubg. Assn., 1908? An early critique of patriotism in which its causes are held to be rooted in the need to harness popular support for military protection of commercial activities. Reprinted in Anarchism and Other Essays. Op.cit., entry 329.

340. Philosophy of Atheism and the Failure of Christianity. New York: Mother Earth Pubg. Assn., 1916. Originally delivered as separate lectures, "Philosophy of Atheism," February 1916 and "The Failure of Christianity," April 1913. In the "Philosophy of Atheism" Goldman argues that such a philosophy has its roots in the material world, does not presuppose the prior or concurrent existence of a divine regulator, and hence affirms the responsibility of human beings for their own lives. Reprinted in Red Emma Speaks, 186-202. Op.cit., entry 360.

341. The Place of the Individual in Society. Chicago: The Free Society Forum, 193-. Argues that there is no legitimate authority outside the individual, but tempers this with a strong defense of collectivism. Reprinted as "The Individual, Society and the State" in Red Emma Speaks, 86-100. Op.cit.,-entry 360.

342. Preparedness, the Road to Universal Slaughter. New York: Mother Earth Pubg. Assn., 1917. A strong critique of rationalizations for the arms race, the justifications then being used for U.S. entry into the 1914-1918 war, and the institution of militarism. Reprinted in Red Emma Speaks, 301-10. Op.cit., entry 360.

343. The Psychology of Political Violence. New York: Gordon Pr., 1974. Provides a sharp analysis of the causation of terrorist acts, arguing that such acts must be seen in the context of the material conditions that engender them. Reprinted in several anthologies.

344. The Social Significance of the Modern Drama. Boston: Badger, 1914. Goldman examines the radical potential of modern literature and drama, examining the work of, among others, Hauptmann, Wedekind, Ibsen and Shaw. Reprinted in Anarchims and Other Essays, 241-71. Op.cit., entry 329.

345. "The Story of Bolshevik Tyranny." Freedom 36,396/397/398 (June/July/Aug. 1922): 37-41/47-51/54-5. A discussion of the events in Russia arguing that the Bolshevik's attempt to create communism has been a failure. Includes an account of a visit to Kropotkin.

346. Syndicalism: The Modern Menace to Capitalism. New York: Mother Earth Pubg. Assn., 1913. A discussion of syndicalism noting with approval the advocacy of direct action and its agreement with anarchism on the need to base social organization on voluntary associations. Reprinted as "Syndicalism: Its Theory and Practice" in Red Emma Speaks, 64-77. Op.cit., entry 360.

347. The Tragedy of Woman's Emancipation. New York: Mother Earth Pubg. Assn., 1910. Argues that women's servitude is created by the nature of the social order. An emancipation movement limited only to gaining the vote for women is a betrayal of the movement for emancipation in its fullest sense. Reprinted in several anthologies. See Red Emma Speaks, 133- 42. Op.cit., entry 360.

348. Trotsky Protests Too Much. Glasgow: Anarchist-Communist Fedn., 1938. A pamphlet that grew out of an article for the New York anarchist monthly, Vanguard, July 1938, in which she criticizes Trotsky's attempts to distance himself from the suppression of the Kronstadt uprising and blame it on Stalin. Argues that Trotsky was also responsible and is now falsifying the facts.

349. The Truth about the Bolsheviks. New York: Mother Earth Pubg. Assn, 1918. An early defense of the Russian Revolution and the Bolshevik regime.

350. "An Unpublished Letter." Anarchy 114 (Aug. 1970): 245-6. A letter to Vernon Richards, 10 September 1938.

351. Victims of Morality and the Failure of Christianity. New York: Mother Earth Pubg. Assn., 1913. Originally presented as two separate lectures - "Victims of Morality", March 1913, and "The Failure of Christianity", April 1913. The former looks at the effects and the hypocrisy of the imposition of prevailing moral standards on women. The latter essay examines the slave- mentality of Christianity, arguing that its shortcomings are part of its very being and concluding that it is "the conspiracy of ignorance against reason" and hence incapable of providing a way out of the poverty produced by exploitation. Reprinted separately in Red Emma Speaks, 126-32 and 186-94. Op.cit, entry 36.

352. "Vladimir Ilyich Lenin." Freedom 38,416 (March-April 1924): 14-15. Goldman takes issue with eulogies that have appeared following Lenin's death. She brands him as great in the sense that Torquemada was great - unscrupulous and Jesuitical.

353. Voltairine de Cleyre. Berkeley Heights, N.J.: Oriole Pr., 1932. Biographical sketch of a leading American radical, a contemporary of Goldman.

354. What I Believe. New York: Mother Earth Pubg. Assn., 1908. A brief summary of her beliefs, concerning property, government, militarism, freedom, the Church, marriage and love, and violence, as part of her public defense of anarchism following the assassination, by a self-proclaimed follower of Goldman, of President McKinley. Reprinted in Red Emma Speaks, 34-46. Op.cit, entry 360.

355. "Was My Life Worth Living?" Harper's Magazine 170 (Dec. 1934). Reprinted in Red Emma Speaks, 386-98. Op.cit., entry 360. A retrospect in which Goldman unrepentedly reaffirms her faith in anarchism.

356. The White Slave Traffic. New York: Mother Earth Pubg. Assn., 1909. A short, eight page, pamphlet in which Goldman looks at the social causation of prostitution, sexual ignorance and the sexual oppression of women, while linking the eradication of prostitution to the abolition of industrial slavery.

357. A Woman without a Country. Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Pr., 1979. A pamphlet in which Goldman describes the bankruptcy of the notion of citizenship since World War I, describing how governments, in particular that of the U.S., justified the exile and deportation of thousands of people as undesirable aliens.

358. "Women of the Russian Revolution." Freedom 39,427 (June 1925): 34-5. An account of the revolutionary careers of leading women activists and anarchists in the Russian Revolution and of their persecution by the Bolsheviks.


359. Glimpses of Emma Goldman. Compiled and edited by Lydia Gans. Pasadena, Calif.: Tabula Rasa, 1978. Edition of 300 copies only. A beautifully presented series of quotes from Goldman's work under headings, for example "On Women, Children and Education." More a keepsake than a text.

360. Red Emma Speaks: Selected Writings and Speeches. Compiled by Alix Kates Shulman. New York: Random Hse., 1972. An excellent collection of Goldman's essays and speeches that demonstrate her wide-ranging interests and ability to analyze critically social institutions. Includes essays published in Mother Earth like "The Child and its Enemies" and "Intellectual Proletarians," as well as previously unpublished lectures such as "Socialism: Caught in the Political Trap." See entries 340, 341, 342, 351 and 355.

361. The Traffic in Women and other Essays on Feminism. With a biography by Alix Kates Shulman. Washington: Times Change Pr., 1970. Contains the three essays "The Traffic In Women," "Marriage And Love" and "Woman Suffrage" and a useful introductory biographical sketch which together constitute a good statement of Goldman's feminism.

362. Visions on Fire: Emma Goldman on the Spanish Revolution. Edited by David Porter. New York: Commonground Pr. 1983. Detailed excerpts from Goldman's letters dealing with various aspects of the Spanish Revolution. There is a scholarly commentary and introductory passages by the editor. Excellent notes and references.

Works about Goldman:

363. Anderson, M. 'The Challenge of Emma Goldman." The Little Review 1 (May 1914): 5-9. Written by a person who attended Goldman's lectures and admired her courage and commitment, this article condemns those who criticize Goldman without ever having read or heard her. Concludes that even if her practical goals are never achieved the challenge with which she confronts people remains enormously valuable.

364. Barko, N. "The Emma Goldman You'll Never See in the Movies." MS (March 1982): 27-31. A brief summary of Goldman's life and ideas.

365. Chalberg, J. Emma Goldman: American Individualist. New York: Harper/Collins, 1991.

366. Cook, B. W. "Female Support Networks and Political Activism: Lillian Wald, Crystal Eastman, Emma Goldman" 412-44. In A Heritage of Our Own, edited with an introduction by Nancy F. Cox and H. Pleck, 412-44. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1979. A revised version of an essay published in Chrysalis 3 (1977): 43-61. Discusses the problems faced by women activists and the extent to which they can draw on female support networks.

367. Dell, F. Women as World Builders. Westport, Conn.: Hyperion Pr., 1976. Reprint of an account by one of Goldman's contemporaries in which her politics are somewhat uncritically assessed.

368. Detelbaum, W. "Epistolary Politics: The Correspondence of Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman." Prose Studies 9,1 (1986) 30-46. Brief description of the events immediately following the expulsion of Goldman and Berkman from the United States and the anarchist content of their correspondence between 1929 and 1936.

369. Drinnon, R. "Emma Goldman, Alexander Berkman and the Dream We Hark back To" and "Back to the Future." Anarchy 114, (Aug. 1970) 229-246. A discussion of the lives and work of Goldman and Berkman which emphasizes the continuing relevance of their ideas.

370. Drinnon, R. Rebel in Paradise: A Biography of Emma Goldman. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr., 1961. Definitive biography of Goldman which includes a comprehensive guide to sources and bibliographic information.

371. Falk, C. Love, Anarchy and Emma Goldman. New York: Holt & Rinehart, 1984. Focuses almost exclusively on Goldman's ten year relationship with Ben Reitman and explores the public/personal dichotomy as revealed in the Goldman/Reitman correspondence. Deals with her anarchist ideas and activities only briefly.

372. Frank, W. "Elegy for Anarchism." New Republic 30 (Dec. 1931): 193-4. Primarily a review of Goldman's Living my Life but draws some interesting conclusions about anarchism after the experience of the Russian revolution.

373. Frazer, W. L. E.G. and E.G.O.: Emma Goldman and "The Iceman Cometh." Gainesville: Univ. of Florida Pr., 1974. Examines the influence of Emma Goldman on the playwright Eugene Gladstone O'Neill.

374. Ganguli, B. Emma Goldman: Portrait of a Rebel Woman. New Delhi: Allied Pubs., 1979. Based on lectures delivered at the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies, Delhi, Ganguli presents a short account of the main features of Goldman's life and thought, with consideration given to the connections between the latter and the thought of Gandhi.

375. Goldberg, H. J. "Goldman and Berkman View the Bolshevik Regime." Slavonic and East European Review 53,131 (1975): 272-6. Claims that Goldman and Berkman were actually very slow to condemn the Bolsheviks and were prepared to excuse many of the defects of the regime right up until the crushing of the Kronstadt Uprising in 1921.

376. Goldsmith, M. Seven Women against the World. London: Methuen, 1935; 153-82. A chapter on Goldman provides a brief biographical sketch of her anarchism.

377. Harris, F. "Emma Goldman, the Famous Anarchist." In Contemporary Portraits, 4th Series, 222-49. London: Grant Richards, 1924. Harris describes Goldman as the greatest woman he has ever met and condemns as despotic the Wilson government which abused and deported her. He quotes Goldman at length.

378. Havel, H. "Emma Goldman: A Biographic Sketch." In Anarchism and Other Essays, 1-40. Op.cit, entry 329. An early biography written in December 1910 by a fellow anarchist.

379. Hewitt, M. "Emma Goldman: The Case for Anarcho-Feminism." Our Generation 17,1 (Fall-Winter, 1985-86) 167-77. Asserts the importance of the link between sexual liberation and human liberation which, for Goldman, was of paramount importance. Concludes that it is the task of anarcho- feminists to develop this analysis.

380. Ishill, J. Emma Goldman: A Challenging Rebel. Berkeley Heights, N.J.: Oriole Pr., 1957. Originally published in Freie Arbeiter Stimme in 1944, this study pays close attention to Goldman's participation in cultural debates.

381. Kern, R. W. "Anarchist Principles and Spanish Reality: Emma Goldman as a Participant in the Civil War 1936-1939." Journal of Contemporary History 11,2-3 (1976) 237-261. Negative assessment of Goldman's analysis of, and contribution to, the Spanish Revolution.

382. Kirchwey, F. "Emma Goldman." The Nation 2 (Dec. 1931): 612-13. A review of Goldman's Living my Life full of praise for her passion and commitment.

383. Madison, C. "Emma Goldman, Anarchist Rebel." In Critics and Crusaders. New York: Holt, 1947. A sympathetic sketch of Goldman's life and activities, characterizing her as an idealist who nonetheless appreciated that ideals usually fall dismally short of reality.

384. Reifen, G. "Emma Goldman." In Women Who Fought: An American History, edited by E. M. Dermody, 171-9. Norwalk, Calif.: Cerritos College, 1978. A brief biographical sketch.

385. Rosenberg, K. "An 'Autumnal Love' of Emma Goldman." Dissent (Summer 1983): 380-3. An attempt to explain Goldman's apparently contradictory attitudes to love and sex by an examination of the personal relationships of her later years.

386. Rosenberg, K. "The 'Autumnal Love1 of Red Emma." Harvard Magazine (Jan-Feb. 1984): 52-6. Based on some unpublished letters, the article examines the sometimes strained relationship between Goldman's politics and passions, with particular reference to her relationship with Leon Maimed.

387. Shulman, A. K. "Dancing in the Revolution: Emma Goldman's Feminism." Socialist Review 12,2 (March-April 1982): 3-6. An analysis of Goldman's feminist views and their relevance to the various strands of feminist thought in the contemporary era of "second wave" feminism.

388. Shulman, A. K. "Emma Goldman, Anarchist and Feminist." Women: A Journal of Liberation 7,2 (Spring 1980). A brief, introductory biographical sketch focussing on Goldman's feminism. Reprinted in The Traffic in Women, op.cit, entry 362.

389. Shulman, A. K. "Emma Goldman 'Anarchist Queen'." In Feminist Theorists: Three Centuries of Women's Traditions, edited Dale Spender, 218-228. London: Women's Pr., 1983. An abridged version of "Dancing in the Revolution," op.cit., entry 387.

390. Shulman, A. K. To the Barricades: The Anarchist Life of Emma Goldman. New York: Harper & Row, 1971. Very readable account of Goldman's life and achievements, but with no detailed analysis of her ideas.

391. Solomon, M. Emma Goldman. Boston: Twayne Pubs., 1987. Acknowledges the work of Drinnon, Falk and Wexler and asserts that the aim is not to compete with them but to extend the overall picture we have of Goldman by focussing on her writing and speaking as a propagandist for anarchism. Includes a very good bibliography.

392. Spacks, P. M. "Selves in Hiding." In Womens' Autobiography, edited E. C. Jelinek, 112-32. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Pr., 1980. Focuses on the problem of reconciling one's private and public life by looking at Goldman's autobiography.

393. Waldstreicher, D. Emma Goldman: Political Activist. New York: Chelsea Hse., 1990.

394. Walter, N. "Emma Goldman's Disillusionment in Russia." The Raven

2.3 Quly 1989): 232-42. Examines the background and the significance of the publication of Goldman's writings on Russia.

395. Wexler, A. "The Early Life of Emma Goldman." Psychohistory Review 8.4 (1980): 7-21. A detailed examination of the powerful influences in Goldman's early life which may have determined her later attitudes and activities, based on the argument that her commitment to anarchism was the beginning of her intellectual development, not its end result.

396. Wexler, A. "Emma Goldman on Mary Wollstonecraft." Feminist Studies 7,1 (1981): 113-34. Examines briefly Goldman's comparisons of herself with Wollstonecraft and then analyzes Goldman's own life in the light of that comparison.

397. Wexler, A. "Emma Goldman in Love." Raritan: A Quarterly Review (Summer 1982): 116-45. An intimate account of Goldman's relationship with Ben Lewis Reitman during the period 1908-18, with photographs and extracts from personal letters.

398. Wexler, A. Emma Goldman: An Intimate Life. London: Virago Pr., 1984. A detailed account of Goldman's life and work up to her deportation in 1919. Provides an informative account of both the public and private Goldman by exploring the various tensions arising from her desire to live out her anarchist principles.

399. Wexler, A. "Emma Goldman and Women." Our Generation 17,1 (Fall- Winter 1985-6): 151-67. Explores Goldman's relations with men and her difficulties identifying with women. See entry 400 for sequel.

400. Wexler, A. Emma Goldman in Exile: From the Russian Revolution to the Spanish Civil War. Boston: Beacon Pr., 1989. The second part of Wexler's excellent biographical study. A sensitive, but critical analysis of Goldman's dedication to anarchist ideals and their dissemination.

PAUL GOODMAN (1911-1972)

Works by Goodman:

This selection from Goodman's wide range of publications focuses on his anarchism and related themes.

401. "Anarchism and Revolution." In Great Ideas Today. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1970. Republished in Drawing the Line, 215-32. Op.cit, entry 421. A definition of anarchism and its relationship to revolution. Goodman takes up the issue of the youth revolt, identifying it as anarchist, and repeating material from "The Black Flag of Anarchism."

402. "The Black Flag of Anarchism." In Drawing the Line, 203-14. Op.cit., entry 421. Published in the New York Times Magazine, 14 July 1968. One of Goodman's best known arguments regarding decentralizing principles. Asserts that the student revolt is based on anarchist principles of decentralization, anti-police, anti-party, anti-bureaucracy, pro-spontaneity and voluntary organization, direct action etc. Criticism is made of neo- Leninist elements of the student alliance.

403. Communitas. Co-author Percival Goodman. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1947. Written with his architect brother, this early work is hailed by many as perhaps Goodman's most important work. Exploring ideas on the planning of cities, while embracing rather than eschewing utopianism, it is a book that examines the first principles underlying the formation of human communities. Further it seeks to develop a framework for the creation of communities that can provide for all human needs, the spiritual and the aesthetic as well as the material.

404. The Community of Scholars. New York: Random Hse., 1962. Discusses the 1,900 American Colleges and Universities as the only important remaining, self-governing communities. Goodman described this work as "an anarchist critique of the the colleges," where "I show how certain centers of learning were doing beautifully before they officially 'existed' at all." (Seeds of Liberation, 439. Op.cit., entry 417). Goodman discusses the tensions that can exist between the goals of these communities and the goals of the society in which they exist. He argues that scholars must not conform to outside pressures for performance, and that the community of scholars must be prepared to confront society.

405. Compulsory Mis-education. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1962. A libertarian argument against compulsory education, advocating decentralization, voluntary learning and a focus on the individual worth of each student. The philosophy of A. S. Neill provides a reference point, for the assertion that the aim must be to encourage understanding rather than simply a knowledge of facts.

406. "Confusion and Order." In Drawing the Line, 233-45. Op.cit., entry 421. Discusses the problems of modern society; crowding, urbanization, pollution, technological domination and the attendant dehumanization, and the break-down of the social order. Concludes that it is promising, from the viewpoint of an anarchist and a psychologist, when things fall apart that have been too tightly and artificially held together.

407. "The Empty Society." Commentary 42,5 (Nov. 1966): 53-60. A criticism of American society as an empty system based on empty institutions, a corporate and bureaucratic society that has lost its common sense. The only hope lies in American traditions of populism, democracy, individualism and liberty. In a revised form this essay forms Chapter VI, "Is American Democracy Viable?" of Like a Conquered Province, 353-70. Op.cit., entry 411.

408. "The Formal Content of Democracy." In Drawing the Line, 178-84. Op.cit., entry 421. A draft of Chapter 2 of People and Personnel. Also published in Liberation (June-July 1964). Charts the movement from the individualist anarchism of the Frontier to the institutionalized, corporate democracy of modern society.

409. "Freedom and Learning: The Need for Choice." Anarchy 94 (Dec.1968): 372-4. An account of Goodman's views on the need for free, that is liberated, education and education for freedom.

410. "Kropotkin at this Moment." Anarchy 98 (April 1969): 124-8. Discusses the renewal of interest in the ideas of Kropotkin. Written as a preface to the Horizon Press ■Edition of Kropotkin's Memoirs of a Revolutionist, op.cit., entry 506.

411. Like a Conquered Province: The Moral Ambiguity of America. New York: Vintage Bks., 1968. Published in a double volume with People or Personnel, entry 414, it argues that the vital conflict today is between a global, dehumanized system and human decency. It is a struggle for the survival of human values. This double edition also contains seven essays previously unpublished in book form.

412. New Reformation: Notes of a Neolithic Conservative. New York: Random Hse., 1970. Calls for a complete restructuring of American society to make it ecologically aware and organizationally decentralized. In the section "Legitimacy" Goodman describes his theory of anarchy, emphasizing decentralization and participatory democracy. In "Notes of a Neolithic Conservative" Goodman embraces a gradualism that makes of anarchism a process of changing consciousness towards freedom.

413. "Notes on Decentralization." In Drawing the Line, 185-202. Op.cit., entry 421. Notes towards People or Personnel published in Dissent (Autumn 1964). A critique of centralized systems, including the school system, monolithic communication systems and transport systems. Advocates mixed systems, with decentralization allowing for autonomous activity.

414. People or Personnel: Decentralizing and the Mixed System. New York: Vintage Bks., 1968. Published in a double volume with Like a Conquered Province, this is a critique of American society and its military-industrial complex that deplores the way in which people have become dehumanized, 'personnel' within over-centralized and over-organized industrial and urban structures. Decentralization is advocated as a remedy to this denial, by modern society, of human worth and meaning, and to the concomitant stultification of social progress.

415. "The Present Moment in Education." Anarchy 107 (Jan. 1970): 1-17. Reprinted from the New York Review of Books, 10 April, 1969, the article sets out Goodman's educational philosophy and its implications for social theory.

416. "Reflections on the Anarchist Principle." Anarchy 62 (April 1962). Republished in Drawing the Line, 176-7. Op.cit, entry 421. Argues that anarchism represents a continual vigilance to protect freedom from encroachment.

417. Seeds of Liberation. Edited Goodman. New York: Braziller, 1964. A collection of essays and poems giving first hand accounts of human rights activism. Mainly reprinted from the journal Liberation, the volume also contains some new essays. Includes work by Martin Luther King, Lewis Mumford, Gene Hoffman, Aldous Huxley, Dave Dellinger and Goodman himself. In "Getting Into Power," 433-44, Goodman reviews the Senate campaign of a pacifist, discusses conventional systems of power, and concludes that a radical pacifism must be in agreement with anarchism on the need to diminish abstract authority and decentralize power.

418. The Society I Live in Is Mine. New York: Horizon Pr., 1963. A collection of Goodman's letters published in his neighborhood newspaper, speeches book reviews etc.. The purpose of the collection is to urge, by example, that people become more concerned, involved and, thereby, authentic citizens.

419. Utopian Essays and Practical Proposals. New York: Vintage Bks., 1964. A collection of essays in which Goodman argues that the chief social problem facing Americans is the drive for greater and greater technological domination with a concomitant dehumanization of human beings who, increasingly, feel impoverished and powerless.

420. "Utopian Means They Don't Want To Do It." Anarchy 85 (March 1968): 87-9. A rejection of the terms "utopian"and a call for positive action for reform.


421. Drawing the Line: Political Essays. Edited by Taylor Stoehr. New York: Free Life Editions, 1977. A selection of Goodman's political essays covering the period from the early 1940s to 1972. Section 4, entitled 'The Black Flag of Anarchism" includes essays on revolution, decentralization, democracy and anarchism. This edition also includes his last public speech before his death in 1972. See entries 401, 402, 406,408, 413 and 416.

Works about Goodman:

The selection focuses on his anarchism and related social comment.

422. Chappell, R. H. "Anarchy Revisited: An Inquiry into the Public Education Dilemma." Journal of Libertarian Studies 2,4 (Winter 1978): 357- 72. Primarily concerned with the identification and documentation of educational viewpoints espoused by nineteenth century anarchists, there is discussion of the views of Goodman and Illich.

423. Ellerby, J. "The World of Paul Goodman." Anarchy 11 (Jan. 1962): 1-19. A discussion of Goodman's anarchist approach to education with reviews of his major works on the subject.

424. Epstein, J. "Paul Goodman in Retrospect." Commentary 65,2 (Feb. 1978): 70-3. A rather negative retrospective view of Goodman's work that concludes, somewhat surprisingly, that, since many of the things he asked for "have come about," he now seems a voice "overvalued in his own lifetime."

425. Greene, M. "Paul Goodman and Anarchistic Education." In Social Forces and Schooling, edited N. K. Shimahara and Adam Scrupski, 313-16. New York: McKay & Co., 1975. A critical examination of the character of Goodman's anarchist position in general, with special attention paid to education and the continuing relevance of Goodman's ideas.

426. Hannam, C. and Stephenson, N. "Celebrator of Youth." Times Educational Supplement 3434 (23 April 1982): 19. Argues that Goodman's ideas on decentralization, on the free individual, and on the capacity of people to determine their own lives, have acquired a new urgency in the 1980s.

427. Harrington, M. "On Paul Goodman." The Atlantic Monthly 216 (Aug. 1965): 88-91. A critical discussion of People and Personnel, entry 414, concluding that, while its proposals are admirable, it is out of touch with the political exigencies of radical politics in the mid-60s.

428. Hentoff, N. "Citizen Va-r-ooooooom! In Memory of Paul Goodman." Harvard Educational Review 43,1 (Feb. 1973): 1-4. An appreciation of Goodman the man and thinker.

429. King, R. "Paul Goodman." In The Party of Eros: Radical Social Thought and the Realm of Freedom, 78-115. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Univ. of North Carolina Pr., 1972. A discussion of Goodman's social thought in the context °f Freud and post-Freudians like Reich and Marcuse.

430. Molnar, G. "Meliorism." Anarchy, 8 (March 1968): 76-83. This is an anarchist critique of Goodman's ideas, with a reply in the same edition by Ross Poole, 83-7.

431. Petry, W. "Review of Paul Goodman: Drawing the Line: The Political Essays: Creator Spirit Come: The Literary Essays: Nature Heals: The Psychology Essays." Our Generation 13,2 (Spring 1979): 61-5. A discussion and critical review of Goodman's work from an anarchist viewpoint.

432. Roszak, T. "Exploring Utopia: The Visionary Sociology of Paul Goodman." In The Making of a Counter-Culture, 178-204. New York: Doubleday, 1969. A discussion of Goodman's social thought in all its aspects, emphasizing the importance of his vision of decentralized community, and concluding that his "communitarianism" has been his greatest contribution to the youth culture.

433. Roszak, T. 'The Future as Community." The Nation 20,16 (15 April 1968): 497-503. An earlier version of the essay on Goodman that appeared in The Making of the Counter-Culture, op.cit, entry 1849, but with some differences that perhaps make it worth consulting.

434. Smith, M. P. The Libertarians and Education. London: Allen & Unwin, 1984. Goodman's ideas are considered as part of a discussion of anarchism and education.

435. Steiner, G. "On Paul Goodman." Commentary 36 (Aug. 1963): 158-63. A comparative analysis of Goodman's social and political theory that involves a discussion of what is called "positive regional anarchism."

436. Stoehr, T. "The Attitude of Anarchism." The Nation 224,14 (9 April 1977): 437-40. The first part of a two-part treatment of Goodman's life and ideas. This is a useful introduction to Goodman detailing the development of his main lines of thought and focussing attention on his anarchism of decentralization.

437. Stoehr, T. "Cunning, Fraud or Flight." The Nation 224,12 (26 March 1977): 373-6. The second part of Stoehr's appreciation of Goodman's life and ideas.

438. Stoehr, T. "Growing-Up Absurd Again: Re-Reading Paul Goodman in the Nineties." Dissent 37 (Fall 1990): 486-94. On the thirtieth anniversary of the publication of Growing Up Absurd Stoehr discusses the revelatory impact of the work when first published, reflecting that many of the ideas it contains, which were always common sense, have now become part of common knowledge and experience.

439. Ward, C. "Communitas Revisited." Liberation 7 (June 1962): 11-6. A retrospective of the work and ideas of Goodman.

440. Ward, C. "Paul Goodman's Legacy." Times Educational Supplement 30 14 (2 March 1973): 19. An obituary that discusses the importance of Goodman's social theory. Ward concludes that Goodman was the most original and creative anarchist thinker of his generation. It is interesting to compare his earlier appreciation of Goodman in "Communitas Revisited," op.cit., entry 439.

441. Widmer, K. "American Conservative Anarchism." Anarchy 1,4 (Second Series 1975?): 14-19. Second Series; A review of Goodman's New Reformation: Notes of a Neolithic Conservative, op.cit., entry 412, discussing Goodman's critique of American society coupled, in this work, with a demand for humane but gradual responses to problems. Goodman describes himself here as a "conservative anarchist."

442. Widmer, K. "The Conservative Anarchist of 'Politics Within Limits'." The Nation 216,1 (ljan. 1973): 21-3. A review of New Reformation, op.cit., entry 412, that contains some reflections on his social theory.

443. Widmer, K. The End of Culture. San Diego: San Diego State Univ. Pr., 1975. Continues the broad discussion of Goodman that was begun in The Literary Rebel, op.cit., entry 444.

444. Widmer, K. The Literary Rebel. Carbondale: Univ. of S. Illinois Pr., 1975. Chapter 12, "Several American Perplexes," examines Goodman's communitarianlsm in relation to his role as a literary rebel.

445. Widmer, K. Paul Goodman. Boston: Twayne Pubs., 1980. A discussion and analysis of various aspects of Goodman's thought. Chapter 2, "The Conservative Anarchist," and Chapter 5, "Conclusion: The Libertarian Legacy," directly considers his relationship to the anarchist tradition. Widmer concludes that Goodman was not a major anarchist thinker, lacking theoretical originality and rigor. Rather he was an important post- War libertarian social critic.

446. Woodcock, G. "Paul Goodman: The Anarchist as Conservator," in The Anarchist Papers, 55. Op.cit, entry 1514. A discussion of the conservative anarchism of the later Goodman. The changeover to a free society will not be brought about by sudden revolution Goodman believes. Rather gradualism has to be accepted for change to occur. Anarchism is an attitude that resists changes that make society less human while promoting changes that foster freedom.

JEAN GRAVE (1854-1939)

Works by Grave:

447. Anarchy on Trial. Freedom Pamphlet No.9. Co-authors G. Etievant and S. Caserio. London: Freedom Office, 1901. The speeches of the authors at their trials. Etievant, charged with the theft of dynamite received five years; Grave was sentenced to two and a half years for publishing La Societe Mourante et L'Anarchie; Caserio killed President Carnot in 1894.

448. "Du revolte aux temps nouveaux." Les Temps Nouveaux. 45,47,48(5-11 March/19-25 March/26 March-1 April 1904).

449. Moribund Society and Anarchy. Translated by Voltairine de Cleyre. San Francisco: A. Isaak, 1899. Publication in English of La societe mourante et L'anarchie, op.cit, entry 450. A discussion of contemporary problems from an anarchist viewpoint, focussing on patriotism, colonialism, militarism, the family, property and human nature.

450. Le mouvement libertaire sous la Troisieme Republique. Paris: Les Oeuvres Representatives, 1930.

451. Quarante ans de propagande anarchiste. Par preface de Jean Maitron. Presente et annote Mireille Delfau. Paris: Flammarion, 1973.

452. La societe future. Paris: Stock, 1895.

453. La societe mourante et l'anarchie. Paris: Tresse et Stock, 1893.

454. "Ought Anarchists To Take Part in the War?" Freedom 28,307 (November 1914): 84-5. Grave's contribution to a symposium on the war in which he justifies participation in the war on the grounds that the oppression of foreign conquerors is infinitely worse than the oppression of their masters at home, and in the hope that it will be the war to end all wars. Grave's position was criticized by Malatesta, as was the pro-war stance of Kropotkin. See entries 471 and 620.

455. "What We Want." Freedom 28,304 (Aug. & Sept. 1914): 62-70. A list of anarchist goals with a discussion of the dangers of syndicalism.

Works about Grave:

456. Patsouras, L. Jean Grave and French Anarchism. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Pub. Co., 1978. A biography of Grave which discusses his involvement in the journals Le Revolte, La Revolte and Les Temps Nouveaux, his responses to the 1914-18 war, the Russian Revolution and syndicalism in France.


Works by Guerin:

457. Anarchism: From Theory to Practice. Translated by Mary Klopper. Introduced by Noam Chomsky. New York: Monthly Review Pr., 1970. One of the best short introductions to the ideas of anarchism with an emphasis on attempts at the implementation of these ideas. Contrasts authoritarian socialism with libertarian socialism.

458. Anarchism and Marxism. From a paper given in New York on 6 November 1973. Introduction by the author. Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Pr., 1981. Equates orthodox Marxism with authoritarianism and argues for a synthesis of libertarianism and communism adapted to the needs of workers in a technologically advanced society. Republished in a revised and extended version, as "Marxism and Anarchism." In For Anarchism: History, Theory and Practice; 109-26. Op.cit., entry 1385.

459. "From Proudhon to Bakunin." Our Generation 17,2 (Spring-Summer 1986): 23-34. Discusses the relationship between Proudhon and Bakunin, their friendship in Paris in the period 1845-47 and connections between their ideas.

AMON HENNACY (1893-1970)

Works by Hennacy:

460. Autobiography of a Catholic Anarchist. New York: Catholic Worker Bks., 1954. An autobiography of a Christian anarchist which includes an account of his refusal, on Tolstoyan pacifist grounds, to pay income tax during the Second World War.


Works by Kropotkin:

461. "1848-1871." Freedom 12,125 (April 1898): 17-8. A speech at the Commune celebration 1898 in which Kropotkin contrasts the Commune with Jacobinist centralism and asserts that the social revolution must begin by organizing consumption not production.

462. Act for Yourselves. Compiled and edited N. Walter and H. Becker. London: Freedom Pr., 1988. Like the articles that were collected for The Conquest of Bread, a similar series of articles was written for Freedom from October 1886 until 1890. But these articles were not collected at the time, although Kropotkin wanted to see them in book form. This volume represents the publication of this collection and covers a gap in the ouevre of Kropotkin. "The Coming Revolution" opens the series, arguing that an international, proletarian revolution was imminent and would spread to Britain. "What Revolution Means" asserts the need for far-reaching political and economic structural change, while "Act for Yourselves" argues that the revolution should involve direct action and expropriation. In "Parliamentary Rule" a case is made against parliamentary democracy. Elsewhere direct action is urged ("Local Action") and a revolutionary approach to land reform ('The End Set Before Us"), the expropriation of property and the creation of communism ("The Necessity of Communism"). "Practical Questions" looks at post-revolution issues, while other essays deal with the supply of food ("Revolution and Famine"), human nature and utopianism ("Are We Good Enough?") and the abolition of the wage system ("Communism and the Wage System").

463. "Advice to Those About to Emigrate." Freedom 7,74, (March 1893): 13- 14. A discussion of migration to Australia which recommends inter alia intensive agriculture and no government.

464. "Anarchism." In Encyclopaedia Britannica. 11th Edition. 1910. Included in Revolutionary Pamphlets, 83-300. Op.cit., entry 53. Also The Essential Kropotkin, 108-20. Op.cit., entry 537. This is a dispassionate summary of the meaning and history of anarchism, significant partly because it is atypical of Kropotkin's style and contrasts interestingly with the rest of his work.

465. Anarchism: Its Philosophy and Ideal. London: Freedom Office/J. Turner, 1897. Included in Revolutionary Pamphlets, 114-44. Op.cit., entry 538. Discusses the philosophy of anarchism, emphasizing freedom and opposition to authority and private appropriation. Distinguishes free communism from collectivism, and creative from selfish individualism as the basis of self-development.

466. Anarchist Communism: Its Basis and Principles. London: Freedom Office/J. Turner, 1905. Originally written in the form of two articles for The Nineteenth Century, 1887. Included in Revolutionary Pamphlets, 44-78. Op.cit., entry 538. Kropotkin sets out the principles of communist anarchism, asserting the vital differences between free anarchism and state orientated socialism. Criticizing private appropriation, he extolls the virtues of co-operative production in a free, stateless society, while seeking, in the second part, to answer familiar objections to this idea.

467. 'The Anarchist Ideal from the Viewpoint of Its Practical Realization." Freedom 28,6 (25 Feb. 1967). Translated from he Revolte 1, (1879), by Nicolas Walter. Published as a pamphlet Geneva: 1879. Described by Nettlau as Kropotkin's first statement of anarchist communist ideas, it represents a report given to a meeting of the Jura Federation at La Chaux-de-Fonds, 12 October, 1879.

468. Anarchist Morality. Freedom Pamphlets No.6. London: Freedom Office, 1896? Originally published in La Revolte in March/April 1890. A discussion of morals setting out ideas developed later in his Ethics. While asserting the principle of equality as, in essence, the Golden Rule - do unto others as you would be done by - it is stressed that the morality of equality must be allied to the full and free liberty of each individual, which cannot be sacrificed to some ideal of equality. In Revolutionary Pamphlets, 79-113. Op.cit., entry 538.

469. "Anarchists and the French Revolution." Freedom 17, 183 (Dec. 1904): 1/18,184 (Jan. 1904): 1-2. Kropotkin takes issue with Brissot's attack on "Anarchists" in the French Revolution in his Brissot to his Constituents, 23 May, 1793.

470. "Anarchists and Trade Unions." Freedom 21,218 (June 1907): 33-34. Part of a debate conducted in the pages of Les Temps Nouveaux. Kropotkin defends himself against a charge that he is opposed to trade unions and affirms his faith in revolutionary syndicalism and direct action.

471. "Anti-Militarism: Was It Properly Understood?" Freedom. 28,307 (Nov. 1914): 82-83. Argues that in a war of invasion everyone is bound to take sides against the invader. Part of a symposium with Grave and Malatesta. See entries 454 and 620.

472. An Appeal, to the Young. New York: C. H. Kerr, 1984. Originally published London: The Modern Pr., 1885. Translated H. M. Hyndman. Also published London: Lighthouse Pubns., 1976. An appeal to young men and women, particularly young professionals such as lawyers, doctors, scientists etc., to use their skills in the cause of and on behalf of a workers' revolution. In Revolutionary Pamphlets. 260-82. Op.cit., entry 53. Also The Essential Kropotkin; 10-26. Op.cit., entry 537.

473. "Caesarism." Freedom 13,137 (April 1899): 25-6/13,138 (May 1899): 28-9. A discussion of Caesarism and militarism in France set against the backdrop of the Dreyfus Affair.

474. The Coming Revival of Socialism. Freedom Pamphlet No.15. London: Freedom Office/J. Turner, 1903. Argues for the revival, in England, not of social-democracy, since social-democrats have ceased to be socialist, but of true socialism. The last phase of socialism was dominated by German social- democracy; the time is now ripe for the English labor movement to forge a new path to true socialism.

475. The Commune of Paris. Freedom Pamphlet No.2. London: Freedom Office/J. Turner, 1895. First appeared in he Revolte 20 March, 1880. A discussion of the experience of the Commune, arguing that it is a model for direct revolutionary action to break down the state, abolish private property and create free federation and free production.

476. "Communism and Anarchy." Freedom 15,158 (July 1901): 30-1/15,159 (Aug. 1901): 38-9. A report from the Paris Congress of 1900 that discusses various approaches to communism and concludes that it becomes possible in association with anarchy.

477. The Conquest of Bread. Introduction by George Woodcock. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1989. Originally published as La Conquete du Pain, Paris: Stock, 1892. Published in English, London: Chapman and Hall, 1906. Reissued with introduction by Paul Avrich, London: Allen Lane, 1972; with introduction by Alfredo M. Bonnano, London: Elephant, 1985. A collection of articles which appeared in he Revoke and La Revoke between 1886 and 1896, which were expressly designed as a series for collection, although a number were issued as separate pamphlets. Together they form one of Kropotkin's most visionary works. The book details the philosophy and practice of an ideal anarchist communist society, discussing the mechanisms for its creation and continuance. Issues like food, dwellings and clothing are discussed and the broad features sketched of the political economy of anarchism, including the use of needs to integrate production and consumption, the end of the division of labor, the decentralization of industry and the use of intensive methods of agriculture.

478. "The Constitutional Agitation in Russia." The Nineteenth Century and After 57,335 (Jan. 1905): 27-45. Discusses the meeting of the Zemstov delegates at St. Petersburg, the decisions of which were expressed in eleven resolutions which became the programme for agitation all over Russia. Warns that whether or not the autocracy yields, the movement cannot now be stopped.

479. "Conversation with Lenin." In Selected Writings on Anarchism and Revolution, 325-32. Op.cit, entry 539. Originally published in Zveda 4 (1930), and translated by Miller. Records a meeting between Kropotkin and Lenin at which there was broad agreement over shared goals, but sharp differences over methods of achieving them. While Kropotkin emphasized co- operation, Lenin spoke portentously of a possible 'terror'.

480. "Co-operation: A Reply to Herbert Spencer." Freedom 10,111 (Dec. 1896): 117-18/11,112 (Jan. 1897): 1-2. Takes issue with Herbert Spencer's views regarding industrial production and co-operation in the last volume of Principles of Sociology.

481. "The Development of Trade Unionism." Freedom 12,124 (March 1898): 9-10. Lecture delivered at Memorial Hall, 24 January 1898, urging trade unionists to take more militant action aimed at workers' emancipation.

482. "Elisee Reclus." Freedom 14,199 (Aug. 1905): 21/23-4. An obituary of Reclus celebrating his work as, like Kropotkin himself, both a scientist and an anarchist.

483. "Enough of Illusions." Freedom 21,220 (Aug. 1907): 45-6. Argues that the dissolution of the Second Duma marked the close of the first period of revolution in Russia - the period of illusion. The second period should involve the seizure of production by the people.

484. "The Ethical Needs of the Present Day." The Nineteenth Century and After 330 (Aug. 1904): 207-26. A republishing of Chapters 1 and 2 of Ethics. Examines the relationship between ethics and nature with a discussion of Darwin, mutual aid and progressive evolution that affirms the existence of moral progress.

485. Ethics: Origin and Development. Petrograd-Moscow, Golos Truda, 1922. New York: McVeagh, 1924. Also New York: Tudor, 1947. Articles collected after the death of Kropotkin some of which were published separately between 1904 and 1906. Contains an historical overview of ethical principles and theories from earliest times to the nineteenth century with discussions on the concepts of justice, socialist ethics and like matters. Denies any connection between morality and religious metaphysics and bases ethics on the principle of mutual aid between equals, the only basis, he asserts, for morality.

486. Expropriation: An Anarchistic Essay. London: International Pubg. Co., 1886. Freedom Pamphlet No.7. Translated by H. Glasse from he Revolte, 25 November 1882, it also appeared as an essay in The Conquest of Bread, op.cit., entry 447. Included in Selected Writings on Anarchism and Revolution, 162-209. Op.cit., entry 539. Discusses how the social revolution will expropriate- the property owners, abolish rents and establish free production. Money will be replaced by an exchange of products and productivity will flourish.

487. "The Expropriation of Dwellings." Anarchy 102 (Aug. 1969): 244-50. Kropotkin's essay on the expropriation of housing in the revolution was written for Le Revolte and later reprinted in both Paroles d'un Revolte and The Conquest of Bread.

488. "A Few Thoughts About the Essence of Anarchism." Freedom 28,297 Can. 1914): 4-5. A letter by Kropotkin to the French Anarchist Congress, Paris 1913, on anarchist strategy for the future.

489. Fields, Factories and Workshops Tomorrow. Edited and introduced by Colin Ward, with additional material. London: Freedom Pr., 1985. Originally published London: Hutchinson and Co., 1899. This edition is a repeat of London: Allen and Unwin, 1974. Also published New York: Left Bank, 1985. Beginning from the premise that industrial production would become global Kropotkin argues that small-scale production for a local market would be a better alternative than trying for overseas markets. By combining industry and agriculture on an intensive small-scale basis, with an education system geared to the unity of mental and manual labor, and with the economy under the immediate control of the direct producers, the material needs of people could be amply satisfied. Useful introduction and commentary provided by the editor.

490. "Foreword," to Thomas Smith, French Gardening. London: Joseph Fels/Utopia Pr., 1909, v-x. A short foreword in which Kropotkin extolls the virtues of intensive horticulture, that is French market-gardening, which, in the market-gardens of Paris, Rouen and other cities, achieved astonishing levels of productivity by the use of frames, cloches and liberal doses of manure.

491. "The Geneva Tragedy." Freedom 12,131 (Oct. 1898): 68-9. A letter from Kropotkin to Georg Brandes, the eminent Danish critic, on the subject of the assassination of the Empress of Austria in Geneva, after criticism of himself.

492. "Glimpses into the Labour Movement in this Country." Freedom 21,222 (Oct. 1907): 57-8. A discussion of the labor movement in Britain from the perspective of the files of Freedom. Kropotkin looks at the divisions of the past, and forward to anarchist communism as opposed to collectivist state socialism.

493. "The Great French Revolution and its Lessons." The Nineteenth Century 25,148 (June 1889): 838-51. Written on the occasion of the centenary of the French Revolution. Kropotkin draws parallels with the situation in Russia and urges those in power to take notice of the lessons it has to offer.

494. The Great French Revolution. New introduction by George Woodcock. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1989. Translated from the French by N. F. Dryhurst, London: Heinemann, 1909. Reprinted New York: Schocken Bks., 1971; London: Elephant Bks., 1986. A work in which Kropotkin argues that previous historians had neglected the two most important factors of the revolution - namely the role of the intellectuals who gave it a theoretical basis, and of the ordinary people themselves who gave it its force and momentum. This edition was released as part of the 200th Anniversary of the French Revolution.

495. "Herbert Spencer." Freedom 18,185,187,188,190,191 (Feb.-Sept. 1904): 7- 8/15/23/31/35. A sympathetic discussion of Spencer's life and work following the latter's death in December 1903.

496. Ideals and Realities in Russian Literature. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Pr., 1970. Originally published New York: 1905, as Russian Literature. Published with present title, New York, A. A. Knopf, 1915. This is a work on Russian literature that also contains some discussion of Kropotkin's political views and statements of his social theory.

497. "In Memory of William Morris." Freedom 10,110 (Nov. 1896): 109-10. A tribute to William Morris and to News from Nowhere, hailed as "the most thoroughly and deeply Anarchistic conception of future society that has ever been written."

498. In Russian and French Prisons. New York: Schocken Bks., 1971. Originally published London: Ward and Downey, 1887. A partly autobiographical discussion of the prison systems of Russia, including exile in Siberia or Sakhalin, and France. Examining penal theory, Kropotkin concludes that prisons have a deleterious influence, morally and practically. Since crime is a product of social conditions, prisons should be replaced by fraternal care in a free society.

499. "Integral Education." Freedom 15,160 (Sept. 1901): 49. A discussion of educational curricula that argues the case for the inclusion of more science.

500. Kropotkin Escapes: His Own Account of His Escape to England from a Russian Prison Hospital in 1876. London: World's End Pr., 1988. The title speaks for itself.

501. "Kropotkin's Letter." Freedom 15,160 (Sept. 1901): 50. A letter to a meeting at the South Place Institute, 21 June, 1901, on the occasion of a visit by French trade union delegates, that urges the formation of an International Federation of all trade unions.

502. "Kropotkin's Speech to the Moscow National Conference, 28 August, 1917." In The Birth of Russian Democracy, by A. J. Sack, 466. New York: Russian Information Bureau, 1918. Kropotkin, making an anarchist contribution to the debate about the progress of revolution in Russia in the interlude between March and October 1917, spoke immediately preceding Plekhano'v. They were both introduced by the leader of the Provisional Government, A. P. Kerensky.

503. Law and Authority. London: International Pubg. Co., 1886. A chapter in Paroles d'un Revolte. This argues that while law is, on the one hand, usage and custom, it is also the way in which the ruling class gives itself title to its advantages. There is, Kropotkin insists, no need for law in a free society, since crime is produced by inequality, authority and property. In Revolutionary Pamphlets, 195-218. Op.cit, entry 538. Also The Essential Kropotkin, 27-43. Op.cit., entry 539.

504. "Letter to Gustav Steffen." Freedom 28,306 (Oct. 1914): 76-7. Included in Selected Writings on Anarchism and Revolution, op.cit., entry 539. A letter on the issues raised by the 1914-18 war. Kropotkin affirms his belief that the German invasion must be repulsed.

505. "Letter to the Workers of Western Europe" and "What to Do?" in Revolutionary Pamphlets, 251-9. Op.cit., entry 538. Written as a public statement on the Soviet Government for the British Labor Mission of 1920 the Letter was sent to the Danish critic Georg Brandes in early 1919. The memorandum, "What to Do?" is uncompleted and dates from 1921.

506. Memoirs of a Revolutionist. Introduction George Woodcock. Montreal, Black Rose Bks., 1989. Originally published Boston: Houghton, Mifflin. 1899, with an introduction by Georg Brandes. Reprinted with a new foreword by Barnett Newman and a preface by Paul Goodman, New York: Horizon Pr., 1968. Also introduced by Colin Ward, London: Folio Society, 1978. Reprinted with extensive notes by Nicolas Walter, New York: Dover Pubs., 1971. Kropotkin's own account of his transition from sceptical supporter of the Russian aristocracy, into which he was born, to a dedicated revolutionary. It provides a brilliant portrait of the Russia of his youth.

507. Modern Science and Anarchism. London: Freedom Pr., 1912. Published Paris: Stock, 1913 as La Science Moderne et L'Anarchie, a volume that also contained the essays on anarchist communism and the state. Included in Revolutionary Pamphlets, 145-94. Op.cit, entry 538. Also The Essential Kropotkin, 57-83. Op.cit., entry 537. Kropotkin discusses the application of the inductive-deductive method to the development of human institutions and concludes that the inevitable progressive movement of the natural sciences leads to anarchism.

508. 'The Modern State." Freedom 27/28,295-300 (Nov. 1913-April 1914): 86- 7/94-5/2-3/10-11/18/26-7. Discusses the character of the modern state, looking at monopoly, wealth, education and taxation.

509. "Modem Wars and Capitalism." Freedom 27,289-292 (May-Aug. 1913): 35/46-7/54-5/62-3. An interesting pre-conflict piece that argues that the basis of modern war is competition between capitalist powers and that great industrial crises anticipate great wars. The monopolistic state, involved in maintaining the power of the rich, subverts normal economic forces and produces conflict.

510. "The Morality of Nature." The Nineteenth Century and After 57,337 (March 1905): 407-26. A republishing of Chapter 3 of Ethics, op.cit., entry 485. A discussion of Darwin's ethics, asserting that social instinct is, in his view, the basis of all morality.

511. "Must We Occupy Ourselves with an Examination of the Ideal of a Future System?" in Selected Writings on Anarchism and Revolution, 49- 116. Op.cit., entry 539. Composed for consideration by the Chaikovsky Circle, a leading revolutionary group in St. Petersburg to which Kropotkin belonged in the early 1870s, it was published in abbreviated form in the Russian journal Byloe 17 (1921). Significant in terms of the Russian revolutionary movement, then divided between gradualist followers of Peter Lavrov and revolutionaries who followed Bakunin, Kropotkin's argument favoured the Bakuninists' position.

512. Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution. Introduction by George Woodcock. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1988. Published as a series of articles in the Nineteenth Century from Sept. 1890 to June 1896 and collected as a book, London: Heinemann 1902. Also Boston: Extending Horizons Bks., 1955 ; London: Allen Lane, the Penguin Pr., 1972; London: Freedom Pr., 1987. Written as a direct rebuttal of the Huxley interpretation of Darwinism, that is "the survival of the fittest," the central tenet of this work is the principle of mutual cooperation within species as the key to survival and progress. As such, it provides a philosophical basis for Kropotkin's anarchism.

513. "Organised Vengeance Called 'Justice.'" Freedom 15,161 (Oct. 1901): 58- 9. A critique of conventional views of justice and punishment, arguing that we can do without judges in a free society just as we can do without bosses in production.

514. Paroles d'un Revolte. Paris: Flammarion, 1885. A collection, selected by Elisee Reclus, of articles which appeared in Le Revolte between 1879 and 1882, when Kropotkin was arrested. A number of the chapters were translated into English and appeared as pamphlets: Appeal to the Young, War, Expropriation, Revolutionary Government, Law and Authority and The Commune of Paris.

515. "Past and Future." Freedom 3,29 (April 1889): 17-78. A speech at South Place Chapel commemorating the eighteenth anniversary of the Paris Commune in which he looks towards the next revolutionary commune.

516. The Place of Anarchism in Socialistic Evolution. New York: Gordon Pr., 1974. First published London: International Pub. Co., 1886. Kropotkin argues that the underlying tendency in the social movement is not towards authoritarian communism but towards freedom, that is anarchist communism, which is an amalgam of all that is beautiful and most durable in human progress.

517. "Preface," to How Shall We Bring About the Revolution: Syndicalism and the Co-operative Commonwealth. E. Pataud and E. Pouget, vii-xiii. (New preface by Geoff Brown). London and Winchester, Mass.: Pluto Pr., 1989. Originally published as Syndicalism and the Co-operative Commonwealth Oxford: New International Pubg., 1913. In his preface Kropotkin seeks to establish links between the revolutionary syndicalist Utopia put forward by Pataud and Pouget and the anarchist idea of decentralized production in a stateless society.

518. "The Present Condition of Russia." The Nineteenth Century 38,223 (Sept. 1895): 519-35. Discusses the need for fundamental change in Russia, examining the history of its social and political problems. The growing awareness of the people will Kropotkin asserts, be the basis for change.

519. "The Present Crisis in Russia." North American Review 172 (May 1901): 711-23. Comments on the repression of students in Russia and the curtailment of education by the Russian Ministry due to the fear of revolution. Making military service a punishment for rebellious students has provoked existing riots and disturbances. It can all be taken as a sign that autocracy in Russia is finished.

520. "Prisons and Their Moral Influence on Prisoners." In Revolutionary Pamphlets, 219-35. Op.cit, entry 538. Also appears in The Essential Kropotkin; 45-56. Op.cit., entry 537. The edited text of a speech delivered in Paris, 20 December, 1877. Kropotkin attacks the evils of the prison system and looks forward to the free society of anarchism where they will be unnecessary. Community and modern science will together vanquish anti- social conduct.

521. "Recent Science." The Nineteenth Century 43,258 (Aug. 1898): 255-80. Discussion of recent discoveries relating to the transmission of power, with a focus on electricity.

522. "Representative Government." Commonweal 7, 312-21 (7 May-9 July 1892). A discussion of the representative system, admitting its useful role at a particular point in history, but arguing that popular control is more or less fictional and that the system now stands in the way of progress.

523. "The Revolution in Russia," in Selected Writings on Anarchism and Revolution, 267-90. Op.cit, 539. Originally published in The Nineteenth Century and After, 335 (Jan. 1905). Analyzes the events of 1905, commenting on the role of labor and proclaiming that Russia has begun her great revolution.

524. Revolutionary Government. London: Freedom Pr., 1943. First published 1880 in he Revoke, appearing in English in Commonweal 7 (Aug. 1892). Included in Revolutionary Pamphlets, 237-50. Op.cit., entry 538. An attack on the idea of 'revolutionary government' as a term that is self- contradictory. Governments, by definition, cannot be revolutionary.

525. "Revolutionary Studies." Commonweal 7, 294-300 (July 10-Nov. 7, 1891). A series of seven pieces on questions raised by a consideration of revolution and anarchism. Attributed to Kropotkin the articles are, in fact, signed "La Revolte."

526. "The Russian Revolutionary Party," in Selected Writings on Anarchism and Revolution, 135-58. Op.cit., entry 539. First appeared in the journal Fortnightly Review, 31 (1882). A defense of Russian revolutionaries against charges of nihilism and terrorism, arguing that their demands are reasonable ones in favour of democratic reform and that violence has been precipitated by Tsarist absolutism.

527. "Russian Schools and the Holy Synod." North American Review 174 (April 1902): 518-27. Joins debate with the Procurator of the Holy Synod who had written a rejoinder to Kropotkin's "The Present Crisis in Russia," op.cit., entry 519.

528. Socialism and Politics. Freedom Pamphlet No.14. London: Freedom Office/J. Turner, 1903. A criticism of the uses of the term "socialism" which, rather than indicating a social movement, has come to be identified with political parties and forms of central state control. Social-democrats have thus robbed the term of its meaning.

529. "Some of the Resources of Canada." The Nineteenth Century 43, 253 (March 1898): 494-514. Notes geographical similarities between Canada and parts of Russia. Concludes that it is social conditions which drive people to emigrate from Russia to Canada and remarks on the excellent progress made in Canada where the government does not crush the people with taxes. Warns however that bad decisions by the Canadian government may adversely affect the future.

530. "The Spirit of Revolt." In Revolutionary Pamphlets, 34-43. Op.cit., entry 538. Originally published in Le Revolte in 1880, the piece appeared in English in Commonweal in 1892. Also collected in The Essential Kropotkin, 3-9. Op.cit., entry 537. Arguing that at certain points in history revolution is inevitable, this is a call for the minority, that is anarchist activists, to take action to help develop the spirit of revolt in the mass of the people in order to bring into being a free society based on communal property.

531. The State: Its Historic Role. Translated by Vernon Richards. London: Freedom Pr., 1987. Originally published in Les Temps Nouveaux, 19 December, 1896, and London: 1898. An analysis of the modern state that distinguishes it from government and traces its origins and development. Presaging the discussion in Mutual Aid, Kropotkin celebrates the free towns and communes of the medieval period, associating the rise of the centralized state, and its fetishized authority, with the decline of communalism and the federalist tradition.

532. The Terror in Russia. London: Methuen & Co., 1909. Written following the 1905 revolutionary push in Russia for the British Parliamentary Russian Committee, it is a report on the Tzarist regime's terror tactics against its political opponents.

533. "The Theory of Evolution and Mutual Aid." The Nineteenth Century and After 395 (Jan. 1910): 86-107. A discussion of what were, given the tension between the idea of sociability and the Malthusian notion of s':ru8gle/ Darwin's views on competition as a factor in evolution.

534. The Wage System. Freedom Pamphlet No.l. London: Freedom Office/C. M. Wilson, 1894. Included in The Essential Kropotkin, 94-107. Op.cit., entry 537. A discussion focussing on the advantages of distribution according to needs compared to the collectivist system of distribution according to deeds.

535. War! London: William Reeves, 1872. Originally written for Le Revolte w 1882, this is an attack on war as only a means by which competition between national financial oligarchies is pursued. Only social revolution, it js argued, can end war by removing its bases. A interesting piece considering Kropotkin's later position on the 1914-18 war.

536. "What Geography Ought To Be." The Nineteenth Century 104 (Dec. 1885): 940-56. Republished Antipode, 10/11, 3/1, (1979). An interesting discussion of Geography as a subject for study, emphasizing that it can, in particular, teach children that they are all members of a human community.


537. The Essential Kropotkin. Editors Emile Capouya and Keith Tomkins. London: Macmillan, 1976. A general selection from the writings of Kropotkin in two parts. Part 1 collects a number of key essays, "The Spirit of Revolt," "An Appeal to the Young," "Law and Authority," "Prisons and Their Moral Influence on Prisoners," "Modern Science and Anarchism" and "The Wage System" and the article on anarchism written for the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Part 2 contains selections from his major books.

538. Revolutionary Pamphlets: A Collection of Writings by Peter Kropotkin. Edited Roger N. Baldwin. New York: Dover Publications, 1970. Introduction and biographical sketch by Roger N. Baldwin. A good cross-section of Kropotkin's political and social writings covering such areas as anarchism and its practice, the relationship between science and anarchism, law and authority, prisons and revolution. Useful bibliographic material and notes.

539. Selected Writings on Anarchism and Revolution. Martin M. Miller. Edited with introduction. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Pr., 1976. A very useful collection of pieces by Kropotkin that have become hard to obtain. The selection is directed towards Kropotkin's interpretation of the role of anarchism, modern history, his critique of capitalism and his conception of revolution. It includes his essays: "The State: Its Historic Role," "The Revolution in Russia," "The Commune of Paris" and his "Conversation with Lenin." There are also interesting letters to Lenin, Steffen and Brandes.

540. Selections from his Writings. Edited with introduction by Herbert Read. London: Freedom Pr., 1942. Selections from Kropotkin's work arranged thematically in four sections: Autobiographical, Historical, Economic and Political, Philosophical. Includes select bibliography.

Works about Kropotkin:

541. Avrich, P. "Kropotkin's Ethical Anarchism" and "Kropotkin in America," in Anarchist Portraits, 53-78/79-106. Op.cit., entry 1303. Two useful discussions of Kropotkin's life and ideas. The first features a discussion of his moral vision in the context of nineteenth century anarchism, while the second contains some interesting details of his time in America.

542. Bax, E. B. Reminiscences and Reflections of a Mid and Late Victorian. London: Allen & Unwin, 1918. These recollections give some feel for the period but are only of very limited use with respect to Kropotkin.

543. Becker, H. "Kropotkin as Historian of the French Revolution." The Raven 2,3 (July 1989): 225-31. Discusses Kropotkin's The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 as an example of anarchist historiography.

544. Berkman, A. The Bolshevik Myth. Introduction by Nicolas Walter. London & Winchester, Mass.: Pluto Pr., 1989. Based on his Russian Diary this is Berkman's account of his time in Russia. Chapter 10, "A Visit to Peter Kropotkin" and Chapter 37, "Early Days of 1921," deal with his meeting with Kropotkin and the latter's death.

545. Berkman, A. "Reminiscences of Kropotkin." Freedom 36,393 (March 1922): 14-15. Translation of an article prepared for Freie Arbeiter Stimme. Berkman reports on meetings with Kropotkin in Moscow, speaking of the latter's irrevocable opposition to Bolshevism and his anguish at the character and conduct of the Revolution.

546. Berneri, C. Peter Kropotkin: His Federalist Ideas. London: Simian, 1977. Originally published in Italian in 1922. Published in English, London: Freedom Pr., 1943. A succinct analysis of Kropotkin's federalism by an Italian anarchist.

547. Breitbart, M. M. "Impressions of an Anarchist Landscape." Antipode 7,2 (Sept. 1975): 44-9. Discusses the ideas of Proudhon and Kropotkin, with a focus on decentralization, federalism and regional self-sufficiency.

548. Brocher, G. "Kropotkin: The Great Rebel and Savant," in The Oriole Press-A Bibliography, 89-91. Op.cit, entry 1420. A reprint of a brief reflection on Kropotkin's life and work written in January 1924.

549. Cahm, C. "Kropotkin and Law." In Law and Anarchism, 106-21. Op.cit., entry 1413. Kropotkin's approach to law is discussed as part of a series of essays on the anarchist theory of law, the state, rules etc..

550. Cahm, C. Kropotkin and the Rise of Revolutionary Anarchism, 1872- 1886. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1989. Analyzes Kropotkin's role in the transformation of the work of Bakunin and offers some new suggestions about his views on the revolutionary task of the labor movement.

551. Chadwick, W. 'The Mailed Fist vs. the Invisible Hand". Reason 10,5 (1978): 18-23. See entry 59.

552. De Haan, R. "Kropotkin, Marx and Dewey." Anarchy 5,9 (Sept. 1965): 271-84. A discussion of Kropotkin's philosophy, with some partial treatment of Dewey, emphasizing its adaptability to modern society.

553. Dugger, U. M. "Veblen and Kropotkin on Human Evolution." Journal °f Economic Issues 18,4 (1984): 971-85. Examines the progressive theory of evolution as put forward by Veblen and Kropotkin as an antidote to the Social Darwinist theories supporting the status quo. Compares Kropotkin's views on mutual aid with Veblen's notion of the group-orientated traits of workmanship, parentship etc. that became part of human nature during an extended period of primitive life.

554. Eltzbacher, P. Anarchism: Exponents of the Anarchist Philosophy. Translated Steven T. Byington. Edited James J. Martin. Op.cit, entry 1365. Consisting largely of quotations from anarchists, it includes a section on Kropotkin, who recommended the book.

555. Evers, W. M. "Kropotkin's Ethics and the Public Good." Journal of Libertarian Studies 2,3 (Fall 1978): 225-41. A discussion of Kropotkin's ethics in the context of the contemporary libertarian debate, making reference to Machan and Rothbard, regarding the tension between the public good and individual autonomy and initiative. Concludes that reconciliation is possible.

556. Fattal, D. "Three Russian Revolutionaries on War." New Review 11,2-4 (1971), A study of Bakunin, Tkachev and Kropotkin as representatives of the Russian revolutionary movement. Concerned with political as well as social and economic issues.

557. Galois, B. "Ideology and the State of Nature: The Case of Peter Kropotkin." Antipode 8,3 (1976): 1-16. Discusses Kropotkin's use of nature in developing an ethic of co-operation, placing it in the context of sociobiology and the search for altruism.

558. Goldman, E. My Further Disillusionment in Russia. New York: Doubleday, 1924. A continuation of Goldman's My Disillusionment in Russia. Chapter 5 deals with the death and funeral of Peter Kropotkin; Chapter 7 with the persecution of the anarchists.

559. Goodman, P. "Kropotkin at this Moment." Dissent 15,6 (1968): 519-22. Also published in Anarchy 98 (April 1969): 124-8. Discussing the renewal of interest in Kropotkin this was written as a preface to the Horizon Press edition of his Memoirs of a Revolutionist. Suggests that the main lesson to be learned from a re-examination of Kropotkin is how an authentic professional becomes a revolutionary.

560. Gould, N. "Peter Kropotkin: The Anarchist Prince." The Ecologist 4 (1974): 261-4. A discussion of the significance of Kropotkin's ideas to ecology, focussing on his advocacy of small-scale decentralized communities.

561. Hare, R. Portraits of Russian Personalities. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Pr., 1959. Discusses the life and work of a number of anarchists including Bakunin, Tolstoy and, in Chapter 10, Kropotkin.

562. Hewetson, J. "Mutual Aid and Social Evolution." Anarchy 5,9 (Sept. 1965): 257-70. Published as a pamphlet in 1946. A discussion of Kropotkin's ideas on mutual aid, their relation to the theories of Darwin, and their political and social implications.

563. Homer, G. M. "Kropotkin and the City: The Socialist Ideal in Urbanism." Antipode 103 (1978): 33-58. Explores the linkage between the ideas of Kropotkin and contemporary anarchist thinkers, exploring the conception of the city as a socialist ideal.

564. Hulse, J. J. Revolutionists in London: A Study of Five Unorthodox Socialists. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Pr., 1970. A series of loosely connected studies of five radicals resident in London at various times. Chapter 3 looks ai Kropotkin and his work from his arrival in London in 1886 to the end of the 1890s. Chapter 7 examines the period from his American tour in 1897 to his death in 1921. Bibliography.

565. Hyndman, H. M. The Record of an Adventurous Life. London: Macmillan, 1911. This autobiography by the founder of British Marxism includes reminiscences of old comrades and combatants, including Kropotkin, 261-7.

566. Kelly, A. "Lessons of Kropotkin." New York Review of Books 23,17 (28 Oct. 1976): 40-4. A review of Martin M. Miller, Kropotkin, op.cit, entry 578, and Capouya & Tomkins, edited, The Essential Kroptkin, op.cit., entry 537. Kropotkin is characterized as a visionary idealist whose rejection of coercion diminished the revolutionary potential of his ideas compared to, say, Bakunin. He is criticized for believing in a static Utopia, rejecting the concept of a tension between the individual and the social environment.

567. Kennan, G. "The Escape of Prince Krapotkin (sic)." The Century Magazine 62 (New Series 1912): 246-53. Celebrates, in a popular American journal, the escape of Kropotkin from the prison of the Nikolaievsk Hospital in St. Petersburg in 1876.

568. Lansbury, G. What I Saw in Russia. London: Leonard Parsons, 1920. Lansbury's account of his visit to Russia with some discussion in Chapter 2 of his meeting with Kropotkin, and of the latter's criticism of the Soviet government and its methods.

569. MacLaughlin, J. "State-Centred Social Science and the Anarchist Critique - Ideology in Political Geography." Antipode 18,1 (1986): 11-38. Argues for Kropotkin's idea of a radical geography which would focus on the unity of humanity as opposed to the inherently divisive, nationalistic geography of the capitalist state.

570. Maisky, I. Journey into the Past. London: Hutchinson, 1962. Written by someone who was Soviet Ambassador to the United Kingdom from 1932 to 1943, the memoir covers Russian political emigres in London in the early part of the century. Chapter 12 looks at Kropotkin.

571. Malatesta, E. "Peter Kropotkin: Recollections and Criticisms of an old Friend." In Errico Malatesta: His Life and Ideas, 257-68. Op.cit, entry 630. Written just before his death Malatesta shows great affection and respect for his friend but criticizes his commitment to the Great War and his "mechanistic fatalism."

572. Masaryk, T. G. The Spirit of Russia. 2 vols. Translated by Eden and Cedar Paul. London: Allen & Unwin, 1919-37. A general history of Russia that, in Volume 2, Chapter 19, contains a discussion of Kropotkin and his "modern anarchism," contrasting it with Marxism and socialism.

573. Mavor, J. My Windows on the Street. London & Toronto: J. M. Dent, 1923. A semi-autobiographical and anecdotal account of aspects of world history. Chapter 30 is devoted to Kropotkin.

574. McCulloch, C. "The Problems of Fellowship in Communitarian Theory: William Morris and Peter Kropotkin." Political Studies 32,3 (Sept. 1984): 437-50. Discusses the nature and implications of fellowship, its alleged dual nature, the tension arising between its psycho-social and moral elements, and offers a resolution.

575. Miller, D. "The Neglected Kropotkin." Government and Opposition 18,3 (Summer 1983): 319-38. Brief synopsis of Kropotkin's political views on revolution and anarcho-communist society within the framework of the theory of mutual aid, arguing that this framework is inadequate for the realities of modern industrial society.

576. Miller, D. Social Justice. Oxford: Clarendon Pr., 1976. A detailed analysis of the concept of social justice. Chapter 7 deals with Kropotkin's theory of justice.

577. Miller, M. M. "Ideological Conflicts in Russian Populism: The Revolutionary Manifestoes of the Chaikovsky Circle, 1869-1874." Slavic Review 29,1 (1970): 604-14. An account of the workings of the Chaikovsky Circle between 1869 and 1874, whose disputes mirrored the shifts in revolutionary thought and showed the influence of Nechayev, Bakunin and Kropotkin, who was a member of the Petersburg group from 1872. He was the author of the most detailed programme of the period and the final manifesto produced for the Chaikovsky Circle in 1873.

578. Miller, M. A. Kropotkin. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr., 1976. A detailed biographical study of the life and work of Kropotkin focussing on both his development as an anarchist intellectual and his theory of revolutionary social change. Contains some unpublished notes by Kropotkin on revolution and violence and a section quaintly entitled "Kropotkiniana."

579. Osofsky, S. Peter Kropotkin. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1979. A comprehensive analysis of Kropotkin's social and political theories which aims to show that Kropotkin's theories remain relevant for the present era since their challenge has yet to be answered effectively.

580. Peet, R. "For Kropotkin." Antipode 7,2 (Sept. 1975): 42-3. A short appreciation of Kropotkin's ideas.

581. Peet, R. "The Geography of Human Liberation." Antipode 10/11,3/1 (Double issue 1979): 119-34. Discusses ideas on human liberation through a contrast between Kropotkin and Marx, with a focus on anarchist ideas of decentralization.

582. Punzo, V. "The Modern State and the Search for Community: The Anarchist Critique of Kropotkin." International Philosophical Quarterly 16 (1976). A critical exposition of Kropotkin's critique of the state which focuses on three key areas, his methodology, the communitarian basis of his critique, and his appeal to communitarian ethics.

583. Reichert, W. O. "Anarchism, Freedom and Power." Ethics 79 (Jan. 1969): 139-49. Elucidates the important distinction between social and political power for anarchist theory, focussing on the rejection of authority espoused by Proudhon and Kropotkin. Calls for a profound psychological transformation of a society where people have been conditioned to look to political leaders for guidance.

584. Reichert, W. O. "Art, Nature and Revolution." (Aesthetics of Bakunin, Kropotkin and Proudhon) Arts in Society 9,3 (1972): 409-30. See entry 117.

585. Reichert, W. O. "Proudhon and Kropotkin on Church and State." Journal of Church and State 9,1 (Winter 1967): 87-100. Argues, on the basis of the work of Proudhon and Kropotkin, that, while anarchism generally rejects religion as normally defined and practiced, it nonetheless represents a highly developed moral view.

586. Reszler, A. "Peter Kropotkin and His Vision of Anarchist Aesthetics." Diogenes 78 (1972): 52-63. Argues for the importance of the arts in politics citing Kropotkin's position.

587. Rocker, R. The London Years. Chapter 12. London: R. Anscombe, 1956. Rocker's recollections of his time in London containing reminiscences of old comrades such as Kropotkin. There are some interesting comments on the latter's pro-war stance.

588. Sack, A. J. The Birth of Russian Democracy. New York: Russian Information Bureau, 1918. A history of revolutionary movements in Russia beginning with the Decembrists. Part 2, Chapter 3 comprises a discussion, mainly biographical, of Kropotkin. The book contains a lot of useful documentation including Kropotkin's speech to the Moscow National Conference 28 August, 1917. Photographs.

589. Sellers, E. "Our Most Distinguished Refugee." The Contemporary Review 66 (Oct. 1894): 537-49. A somewhat condescending account of Kropotkin's life and activities in exile.

590. Shpayer-Makov, H. "The Reception of Peter Kropotkin in Britain, 1886- 1917." Albion 19,3 (1987): 373-90. Based on contemporary newspaper accounts and Kropotkin's memoirs, this is an assessment of the balance between the public bias against anarchism and Kropotkin's personal appeal.

591. Shub, D. "Kropotkin and Lenin." The Russian Review 12,4 (Oct. 1953) 227-34. Argues that although Bolsheviks and Anarchists appeared to have many shared goals in the early stages of the revolution, Kropotkin disputed Lenin's program from the outset. Very sympathetic to Kropotkin.

592. Smith, M. "Kropotkin and Technical Education." In For Anarchism: History, Theory and Practice; 217-34. Op.cit., entry 1385. Examines Kropotkin's contribution to the British debate of the 1880s about vocational education.

593. Startt, J. D. "The Evolution of an Anarchist: An Autobiographical Statement by Varlaan Tcherkesoff, 1846-1925." Biography 10,2 (1987): 142-50. Tcherkesoff was a close friend of Kropotkin and had a similar background.

594. Stepniak, S. (pseud. Sergey Mikhailovich Kravchinsky). Underground Russia: Revolutionary Profiles and Sketches from Life. Preface by P. Lavroff. Stepniak, an ex-member of the Chaikovsky Circle, and author of the novel The Career of a Nihilist, wrote this while in exile in London. Peter Krapotkine (sic) is discussed, 90-101, and the claim made that, while he was at the time of writing a notable and influential emigre, he had no influence, during his time in Russia, over revolutionary movements.

595. Swan, T. "Modern Influences. XXI. Prince Kropotkin." The Millgate Monthly 11,21 (June 1907). A short, popular and sympathetic account of Kropotkin's ideas. Good, late photograph included of Kropotkin at work in his study.

596. Tcherkesoff, F. "Peter Kropotkin as I Knew Him." Freedom 32-35 (New Series Dec. 1932-March 1933): 3/3/3/6. Reminiscences about Kropotkin the man and his family life.

597. Thompson, J. L. "Mutual Aid and Selfish Genes." Metaphilosophy 15,3/4 (July-Oct. 1984): 270-81. Examines two opposing views about the foundations of human nature.

598. Van Duyn, R. Message of A Wise Kabouter. Translated by Hubert Hoskins. Foreword by Charles Bloomberg. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co., 1962. Originally published in Holland in 1969, this is an attempt to develop and articulate an anarchist philosophy through a study of the philosophy of Peter Kropotkin. Van Duyn was the founder of the Dutch anarchist journal Provo, from which the movement took its name He uses the idea of the "kabouter", the gnome or pixie at the bottom of the garden that can talk to animals and plants, to express ideas on co-operation and mutual aid, and to demand recognition for a necessary interaction between humanity and nature.

599. Walter, N. "Kropotkin and his Memoirs." Anarchy 109 (March 1970): 84-94. Reflections on Kropotkin's Memoirs.

600. Woodcock, G. "Kropotkin's The Great French Revolution." Our Generation. 20,2 (Spring 1989): 1-19. Discusses the background of personal and international events to the writing of the volume in question, Kropotkin's longest book.

601. Woodcock, G. "The Scientific Contribution of Peter Kropotkin." In The Writer and Politics, 80-110. London: Porcupine Pr., 1948. Part of a collection of essays looking at the relationship of the writer to society with particular emphasis on movements for social reform or revolution.

602. Woodcock, G. and Avakumovic, I. The Anarchist Prince: A Biographical Study of Peter Kropotkin. London: T.V. Boardman & Co., 1950. Reissued as Prince Kropotkin: From Prince to Rebel, Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1988. A long and detailed study of Kropotkin combining biographical details with an analysis and assessment of his important ideas and their influence on the anarchist tradition.

JOSEPH LABADIE (1850-1933)

Works by J. Labadie:

603. Anarchism: Genuine and Asinine. New York: Revisionist Pr., 1976. Seeks to distance anarchism from violence and authoritarian socialism, focussing on freedom and freedom of association.

604. The Red Flag and Other Verses. Detroit: Labadie, 1910. A publication by Labadie of his own verses on subjects that include "The Anarchistic View," "Fair Play" and "Plea for Freedom."

Works about J. Labadie:

605. Martin, J. J., Men against the State. Colorado Springs: Ralph Myles, 1970. Some limited discussion of Labadies's work with Tucker on the journal Liberty, 243-5. See entry 1838.


Works by L. Labadie:

U6. Selected Essays. With an introduction and appendices by James J. Martin. Colorado Springs: Ralph Myles, 1978. A collection of essays by Labdi put together after his death in 1975 at the age of 78. Labadie, who knew Tucker in earlier years, was part of the American mutualist tradition which blended the ideas of Owen and Proudon. Includes a useful biographic and critical introduction to the essays.

607. The Writings of Laurance Labadie: Individualist, Anarchist, and Mutualist. New York: Revisionist Pr., 1976. A useful collection of work by Labadie in the individualist anarchist tradition.


Works by Landauer:

608. For Socialism. Translated by David J. Parent. Introduction by Russell Berman and Tim Luke. St. Louis, Miss.: Telos Pr., 1978. In For Socialism, Landauer, while criticizing modern science and the forces of advanced capitalism, also attacks the Second International, orthodox Marxism and centralized state socialism. In their stead he advocates a stateless, free society based on the tradition of the organic community. Socialism is involved, for Landauer, with the moral regeneration of the individual and the development of free individual activity within a spiritual community.

Works about Landauer:

609. Avrich, P. "The Martyrdom of Gustav Landauer." In Anarchist Portraits, 247-54. Op.cit, entry 1303. A brief appreciation of Landauer's life and work.

610. Berman, R. and Luke, T. "On Gustav Landauer." Our Generation 17,2 (Spring/Summer 1986): 97-114. A examination of the life, ideas and legacy of Landauer.

611. Link-Salinger [Hyman]. R. Gustav Landauer: Philosopher of Utopia. Indianapolis: Hacket, 1977. A carefully researched piece which assesses the impact of Landauer's work both during his own lifetime and on present day radical thought and movements. Includes an extensive bibliography the first section of which lists everything written by Landauer. Index.

612. Lunn, E. Prophet of Community. The Romantic Socialism of Gustav Landauer. Berkeley: Univ. of Calif. Pr., 1973. A detailed and complete analysis based on archival research that examines Landauer's philosophical and intellectual development while giving an account of his personal history. There is discussion of Landauer's proposed communities based on equality and participatory democracy.

613. Maurer, C. B. Call to Revolution: The Mystical Anarchism of Gustav Landauer. Detroit: Wayne State Univ. Pr., 1971. A biography of the German anarcho-socialist, set against the historical background of Imperial Germany. Landauer believed in individual freedom coupled with responsibility to society. He was a Minister in the short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic of 1919 and was executed by the military.

JOSEPH LANE (1851-1920)

Works by Lane:

614. An Anti-Statist Communist Manifesto. Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Pr., 1978. Originally published London: J. Lane, 1887. A defense of liberty, equality and solidarity as part of what Lane called libertarian socialism. Lane was one of the founders of the libertarian socialist/anarchist movement in Britain.

Works about Lane:

615. Oliver, H. The International Anarchist Movement in Late Victorian London. London: Croom Helm, 1983. A useful discussion of anarchist groups and activities in late nineteenth century London that covers the career of Joseph Lane.


Works by Malatesta:

616. Al caffe: Conversazioni sull anarchismo. Torino: Edizioni del CDA-La Fiaccola, 1978. Collected Bologna: 1922. Reprinted, Torino: Sargref, 1961. This is a collection of seventeen dialogues on anarchism that ranks with Fra Contadini and L'Anarchia in demonstrating Malatesta's genius for presenting complex arguments in a manner that makes them easily understandable. The dialogues, presumed to take place in a cafe, involve a variety of protagonists, a bourgeois, a shopkeeper, a student and an anarchist. They were produced over a number of years. The first ten were written in 1897 and appeared in L'Agitazione (Ancona). In 1913 Malatesta republished them, with the addition of four new dialogues, in the journal Volonta which he was editing at the time.The last three dialogues were written in 1922 for the first edition of the collected dialogues, which appeared in that year under the title Al Caffe.

617. Gli anarchici e la questione elettorale: Un dibattito. With Francesco Saverio Merlino, // Messaggero, 29 Jan. 1897-13 Jan. 1898. Rome: Savelli, 1976. A debate between Malatesta and Merlino, representing, respectively, the anarchist and social democratic positions on the use of the electoral process. Malatesta invited Merlino to debate the question in a letter to II Messaggero on 29 January 1887. The debate continued in the pages of the journal for almost a year. See also entry 239.

618. Gli anarchici in tribunate. Autodifesa di Errico Malatesta. Edited F. Serantoni. Rome/Florence: 1905. This is Malatesta's speech in his own defense during his trial in Ancona in April 1898. He had been arrested for alleged involvement in the bread riots of January 1898.

619. "Anarchism and Syndicalism." Freedom 21,223 (Nov. 1907): 65-6. Argues that anarchists should not identify themselves completely with syndicalism. It should be seen as only one of a number of forms of propagandist action that can be directed to anarchist goals.

620. "Anarchist Have Forgotten their Principles." Freedom 28,307 (Nov. 1914): 86. Part of a symposium on war in which Grave and Kropotkin took part, this is Malatesta's strong anti-war statement. See entries 454 and 471.

621. Anarchy. London: Freedom Pr., 1974. A translation by Vernon Richards, from the Italian original L'Anarchia, London: 1891. The first English translation appeared in serial form in the journal Freedom from September 1891 to June 1892. The work has since been issued as a pamphlet by Freedom Press on numerous occasions. Perhaps the best known of Malatesta's pamphlets it develops a strong argument about the origins and bases of government and authority. In places it moves close to a Marxist position on social class, while skilfully delineating a distinct anarchist position. Malatesta is alleged to have said in 1920 that he considered Anarchy to be the best piece he had written.

622. Le due vie. The Two Roads. Milano: 1920. This discussion of the two roads or paths, contrasts reform with revolution. While rejecting social democracy in favour of revolution, Malatesta is severely critical of the path of the Bolshevik revolution in Russia.

623 Fra contadini. Publicazione del giornalo La Questione Sociale, Firenze: 1884. English translation by Jean Weir; Italian title retained. Port Glasgow: Bratach Dubh Pubns., 1981. In 1884 Malatesta founded the weekly La Questione Sociale, the first serious, propagandist, anarchist paper to be published in Italy. Fra Contadini, one of Malatesta's most popular and widely read pamphlets, appeared that year. It depicts a conversation - a form that Malatesta frequently adopted - between peasants (fra contadini) in which the nature of work, the ownership of wealth and land and the existence of the bourgeois/landlord class are all examined. The virtues of communist anarchism are lauded as an answer to these problems.

624. "Peter Kropotkin - Recollections and Criticisms of an Old Friend." Studii Sociali (15 April, 1931). Contained in Errico Malatesta: His Life and Ideas, 257-68. Op.cit, entry 630. Written just before his own death Malatesta shows great affection and respect for his friend but criticizes his commitment to the Great War and his "mechanistic fatalism."

625. La politica parlamentare nel movimento socialista. London: 1890. Reprinted as // movimento operaio e la tattica elettorale. Forll: L'Aurora, 1948.

626. "Pro-Government Anarchists." Freedom (April 1916). Contained in Errico Malatesta: His Life and Ideas, 248-51. Op.cit., entry 630. Urges anarchists not to compromise with governments and reminds them that real peace can only be achieved through revolution.

627. II programma anarchico. Catania: Edigraf, 1969. Originally published as II nostro programma, Bologna: 1920. A programme presented by Malatesta to the Congress of the Union of Italian Anarchists on 1 July, 1920. It was not entirely new at that time, being based on a programme published in Paterson, N.J., in 1899, and on various ideas published in La Questione Sociale, Firenze: 1884-.

628. Verso I'anarchia. Orvieto: 1921.

629. Vote - What For? London: Freedom Pr., 1945. A translation freely adapted from the original In Tempo di Elezioni: Dialogo. London: 1890. A critique of the "ballot-box swindle." An argument for local control and direct action in place of parliamentarianism.

Anthologies :

630. Errico Malatesta: His Life and Ideas. Compiled and edited by Vernon Richards. London: Freedom Pr., 1965. A compilation in three parts; selections from Malatesta's writings; notes for a biography; an assessment of Malatesta's ideas and tactics and their contemporary relevance.

631. Errico Malatesta: Pagine di lotta quotidiana. 2 vols. Presentazione di Gino Cerrito. Carrara: Movimento Anarchico Italiano/Il Seme, 1975. A collection of Malatesta's writings in Umanita Nova in the period 1920-22, with other writings from the period 1919-23 in the second volume, including // programma anarchico of 1920. Originally published in Geneva: Edizione del "Risveglio" 1935, entitled Scritti: Volume I & II.

632. Pensiero e Volonta e ultimi scritti 1924-32. Presentazione di Gino Cerrito. Carrara: Movimento Anarchico Italiano/Il Seme, 1975. Malatesta's writings in Pensiero e Volonta, 1924-26, plus other work from the period 1926-32, the year of Malatesta's death. Originally published, with a preface by Luigi Fabbri, Geneva: Edizione del "Risveglio," 1936, as Scritti: Volume III.

633. Scritti antimilitaristi dal 1912 al 1916. Con Appendice di Max Nettlau, "Malatesta e la Guerra." Milano: Cooperativa Segno Libero, 1982. Antimilitarist and anti-war writings from 1912-16.

634. Scritti scelti. Saggio introduttivo a cura di Gino Cerrito. Roma: La Nuova Sinistra, 1973. Selected writings.

Works about Malatesta:

635. Aldred, G. "Malatesta." In Pioneers of Anti-Parliamentarianism, 25-36. Glasgow: The Strickland Pr., 1940. Useful, short introduction to Malatesta's life and ideas.

636. Carey, G. W. "The Vessel, the Deed and the Idea: Anarchists in Paterson, 1895-1908." Antipode. 10/113/1 (1979): 46-58. Discusses the way in which silk-workers, involved in the anarchist movement in Italy, spread anarchist ideas in Paterson, New Jersey, after migrating. Contains some useful material on Malatesta, La Questione Sociale and anarchist activities in Italy.

637. Levy, C. "Italian Anarchism, 1970-1926." In Anarchism: History, Theory and Practice, 25-78. Op.cit., entry 1385. Malatesta's career is covered in a broad discussion of Italian anarchism during its formative period.

638. Levy, C. "Malatesta in Exile." Ann. della Fondazione Luigi Einaudi 15 (1981): 245-80. Drawing on primary resources in the Central State Archive in Rome the piece discusses Malatesta's exile and his influence on international anarchism.

639. Nettlau, M. Errico Malatesta. New York: Jewish Anarchist Federation, 1922? A brief and sometimes confusing biography. It is a condensed sketch from a book that no longer appears to be available. It concludes in 1922.

640. Nomad, M. Dreamers, Dynamiters, and Demagogues. New York: Waldon Pr., 1964. A personal memoir by a disillusioned ex-anarchist (in his nineties) recalling events and acquaintances within the anarchist movement. There are a number of reminiscences of Malatesta whom Nomad knew and admired.

641. Nomad, M. Rebels and Renegades. New York: Macmillan, 1932. Errico Malatesta is the subject of the first chapter, subtitled "The Romance of Anarchism." Nomad, who knew Malatesta personally, regarded him as the only other anarchist who could be placed on the same level as Peter Kropotkin.

642. Richards, V. "Malatesta's Relevance for Anarchists Today. An Assessment." In Errico Malatesta: Life and Ideas, 271-309. Op.cit., entry 630. A discussion of the relevance of Malatesta's ideas that focuses attention on the issue of the General Strike.

643. Richards, V. "Notes for a Biography." In Errico Malatesta: His Life and Ideas; 201-42. Op.cit., entry 630. A somewhat limited and spasmodic biography but still the best available in English.

644. Richards, V. "Some Notes on Malatesta and Bakunin." The Raven 1,1 (1986): 38-45. Discusses the relationship between the ideas of the two theorists.

645. Wieck, D. "About Malatesta." Anarchy 1,8 (Second Series 197?): 25-31. A discussion of Malatesta's ideas with consideration of their contemporary relevance.

LOUISE MICHEL (1830-1905)

Works by Michel:

646. La Commune. Paris: 1898. Trained as a teacher, Michel became a revolutionary while teaching in Montmartre. An enthusiastic supporter of the Paris Commune she fought in its defense against the Versailles troops. Afterwards she was imprisoned, spending the years 1873-80 in the penal colony of New Caledonia.

647. Legendes et chantes de gestes canaques: Avec dessins et vocabulaires. Noumea: Hachette Caledonia, 1980. A collection of local folk tales etc. put together while Michel was in exile in the penal settlement in New Caledonia.

648. The Red Virgin: The Memoirs of Louise Michel. Edited and translated Elizabeth Gunter and Bullitt Lowry. Huntsville, At: Univ. of Alabama Pr., 1981. A translation from Souvenirs that, in its comments, takes a somewhat eulogistic approach to this heroine of the French left, best known for her role in the Paris Commune of 1871. The introduction provides useful background information.

649. Souvenirs et aventures de ma vie. Edition etablie par Daniel Armogathe. Paris: La Decouverte/Maspero, 1983. A memoir of her life and work published originally in three parts: Les journees rouges de la Commune; Les jours noirs de I'exil; Le triste exode anarchiste. Finished in 1904, just before her death at age 72, the memoir was published in La Vie Populaire in sixty parts between 1905 and 1908 ; altogether 1200 pages of text. The present edition arranges the memoirs in four parts: "Les journees rouges de la Commune;" "Dans les prisons de France;" "Londres;" "Le retour en France."

Works about Michel:

650. Leighton, M. "Anarcho-Feminism and Louise Michel." Our Generation 21,2 (Summer 1990): 22-9. An account of Michel's career and ideas as representative of a female radical consciousness.

651. Thomas, E. Louise Michel. Buffalo, N.Y.: Univ. of Toronto Pr., 1981. A biography of the anarchist writer, poet, feminist and revolutionary who fought on the barricades of the Paris Commune. The work discusses her revolutionary activities, her subsequent trial before the Council of France, her deportation and the continuation of her political activity on her return.

WILLIAM OWEN (1854-1929)

Works by Owen:

652. Anarchy versus Socialism. London: Freedom Pr., 1922. Pamphlet originally published New York: Mother Earth, 1908. Also extracted in M. Graham, ed. Man!, 79-87. Op. cit, entry 1389. Discusses the nature of anarchism and its advantages over socialism, which reduces the individual to a cipher for the sake of the collectivity and establishes forms of central authority and control.

653. "The Coming Solidarity." In The Soul of Man Under Socialism, by Oscar Wilde, 39-48. New York: Humboldt Pub. Co., 1892. Reflecting on the division between Marx and Bakunin Owen looks forward to reunion and solidarity based on a new socialist vision of human beings possessed of infinite capabilities. Discussion follows of socialism and the church and Herbert Spencer. The piece only occurs in this particular edition of Wilde's work.

654. England Monopolised or England Free? London: Freedom Office, 1920. In this pamphlet Owen argues that, in the aftermath of the First World War, the monopolization of property, the class system and imperialism cause people to be economically dependent and helpless. Anarchist freedom means becoming one's own economic master.

655. Set My People Free. London: Commonwealth Land Party, 1925. A pamphlet written in support of the Commonwealth Land Party which asserts that the existing economic order is insane, "a continuous looting of the helpless by those who have reduced them to helplessness." Supports the CLP's contention that, since each person has an inalienable right to the Earth and its products, everything should be held in common.

Works about Owen:

656. Oliver, H. The International Anarchist Movement in Late Victorian London. London: Croom Helm, 1983. Provides some useful historical background to Owen's life and ideas.

ALBERT R. PARSONS (1848-1887)

Works by A. R. Parsons:

657. Anarchism: Its Philosophy and Scientific Basis, as Defined by Some of Its Apostles. Edited Lucy E. Parsons. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Pr., 1970. Originally published Chicago: Mrs. A. R. Parsons, 1889. Prepared during Albert Parsons' eighteen month imprisonment for alleged involvement in the Haymarket bombing, the work covers the development of capitalism in the United States and Europe, the speeches of the eight condemned anarchists, and excerpts from various journals on the subject of anarchy.

658. Appeal to the People of America. Chicago: Lucy Parsons, 1887. A broadsheet published by Lucy Parsons after her husband's conviction for the Haymarket massacre. Albert Parsons pleads his innocence and asserts that, since the act of murder was unproved, he has been tried and convicted for his anarchism.

Works about A. R. Parsons :

659. Calmer, A. Labor Agitator: The Story of Albert R. Parsons. New York: International Pubns., 1937. Foreword by Lucy E. Parsons. Appearing on the eve of the fiftieth anniversary of the death of the Haymarket martyrs, 11 November 1887, it presents an account of the life and work of Albert R. Parsons and of the frame-up that ended both.

660. Parsons, L. E. Life of Albert Parsons, with a Brief History of the Labor Movement in America. Chicago: L. E. Parsons, 1889. A biography, written and published by his wife, presenting evidence to show that Parsons, although an anarchist, was innocent of any crime and the victim of a furore created by the authorities. Contains Parsons' Haymarket speech and his speech in court. .The labor movement is covered in the preface. Ports.

LUCY E. PARSONS (1853-1924)

Works by L. E. Parsons:

661. Life of Albert Parsons, with a Brief History of the Labor Movement in America. Chicago: L. E. Parsons, 1889. See 660.

Works about L. E. Parsons:

662. Ashbaugh, C. Lucy Parsons: American Revolutionary. Chicago: Charles H. Kerr Pub. Co., 1976. Biographical study of the life and work of Lucy Parsons who was a central figure in the Haymarket affair in Chicago and active thereafter as a radical advocate of women's rights. She spoke on the subject of women at the Founding Convention of the IWW in 1905.

663. Davis, A. Y. "Lucy Parsons." In Women, Race and Class, 152-5. New York: Random Hse., 1981. A brief discussion of the life and ideas of Lucy Parsons as an early revolutionary anarchist and feminist.

664. Meyers, A. "The Haymarket Affair and Lucy Parsons: 100th Anniversary." Our Generation 17,2 (Spring/Summer 1986): 35-46. A description of the role of Lucy Parsons in the events of 1886 and of her subsequent life.


Works by Proudhon:

665. Les confessions d'un revolutionnaire. Paris: Au bureau du journal La Voix du Peuple, 1849.

666. Contradictions politiques. Theorie du mouvement constitutionnel au XIXe siecle. Paris: Saint Germain, 1870.

667. Correspondence de P.-}. Proudhon. Precedee d'un notice sur P.-J. Proudhon par J. A. Langlois. Geneve: Slatkine, 1971. Reprint of Paris edition, 1875.

668. De la capacite politique des classes ouvrieres. Edited by Gustave Chaudey. Paris: Librarie internationale, 1865.

669. De la celebration du dimanche, consideree sous les rapports de I'hygiene publique, de la morale, des relations de famille et de cite. Paris: Prevot, 1845.

670. De la concurrence entre les chemins de fer et les voies navigables. Paris: Gamier, 1848. Originally published Paris: 1845.

671. De la creation de I'ordre dans I'humanite, ou principes d'organisation politique. Paris: Prevot, 1843.

672. Le droit au travail et le droit de propriete. Paris: Gamier, 1848.

673. De la justice dans la revolution et dans I'eglise: Nouveaux principes de philosophie pratique adresses a son eminence Monseigneur Mathieu. Originally published Paris: Flammarian, n.d. Paris: Gamier, 1858.

674. Les democrates assermentes et les refractaires. Paris: E. Dentu, 1863.

675. Du principe de I'art et de sa destination sociale. Edited by J. A. Langlois and others. Paris: Gamier, 1865.

676. La federation et I 'unite en Italic Paris: E. Dantu, 1862.

677. France et Rhin. Edited by Gustave Chaudey. Paris: A. Lacroix 1867.

678. General Idea of the Revolution in the Nineteenth Century. (Idee generate de la revolution au XIXe siecle.) New York: Itaskell, 1970. Originally published Paris: 1863. A reprint of the 1923 Freedom Press edition. A collection of essays addressing the issues of progress and revolution during the nineteenth century while proposing solutions for the future. It is addressed to the bourgeoisie whom Proudhon accuses of being reactionary and brutal in their treatment of the poor and laboring classes. The latter, despite their support for the bourgeoisie in their struggle against the ancien regime, are, it is argued, always betrayed.

679. La guerre et la paix: Recherches sur le principe au droit des gens. Bruxelles: E. Dentu, 1861.

680. Idees revolutionnaires. Avec une preface par Alfred Darimon. Paris: Gamier, 1849.

681. La justice poursuivie par Veglise. Bruxelles: Librairie de l'office de publicite, 1858.

682. Les majorats litteraires. Paris: E. Dentu, 1863.

683. The Malthusians. (Les malthusiens). Translated by B.R. Tucker. Berkeley Hts., N.J.: The Freeman Pr., 1938. Originally published in Paris: Boule, 1848. London: International Publishing Co., 1886. A pamphlet containing an essay reprinted from The Anarchist in which Proudhon accuses Malthus of political murder for legitimizing the excesses of capitalism.

684. Manuel du speculateur a la bourse. 3rd edition. Paris: Gamier, 1856. Written as a handbook at the request of the publisher the first two editions were published anonymously.

685. Le miserere ou la penitence d'un roi: Lettre a R. P. Lacordaire sur son carime de 1845. Paris: 1849. See also Lettres de Pierre Joseph Proudhon, choisies et annotees. Preface de Sainte-Beuve. Paris: B. Grasset, 1929.

686. Nouvelles observations sur Vunite Italienne. Paris: E. Dentu, 1865.

687. Oeuvres completes. Vols. 1-13 Publiees avec des notes et des documents inedits sous la direction de C. Hougte et H. Moysset. Paris: Riviere, 1923-26. Imperfect, wanting vol. 14, 15. A further seven volumes projected but not published.

688. Organisation du credit et de la circulation et solution du probleme social, sans impot, sans emprint, sans numeraire, sans papier-monnaie, etc. Paris: Gamier, 1848.

689. Philosophie du progres. Bruxelles: A. Lebegue, 1853.

690. La pornocratie, ou les femmes dans les temps modernes. Paris: A. Lacroix, 1875.

691. The Principle of Federation. (Dm principe federatif et de la necessite de reconstituer le parti de la revolution). Translated with introduction by Richard Vernon. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Pr., 1979. Originally published Paris: E. Dentu, 1863, it establishes the historical and philosophical foundations of the principles of federation and concludes that it is the only political form adequate to human progress. The introduction is detailed.

692. Proposition relative a Vimpot sur le revenue, presentee le 11 juillet 1848, par le citoyen Proudhon; suivie du discours qu'il a prononce a I'Assemblee nationale, le 31 ]uillet 1848. Paris: Gamier, 1848.

693. Proudhon's Solution of the Social Problem. (Solution du probleme social.) Including commentary by Charles A. Dana and William B. Greene. Edited by Henry Cohen. New York: Vanguard Pr., 1927. Originally published in Paris: Guillaumin, 1848. A collection of writings on mutualism, with a focus on mutual banking, a project close to the heart of Proudhon.

694. Resume de la question sociale, banque d'echange. Paris: Gamier, 1848.

695. La revolution sociale demonstree par le coup d'etat du 2 decembre. Paris: Gamier, 1852.

696. Si les traites de 1815 ont cesse d'exister? Paris: E. Dentu, 1863.

697. System of Economic Contradictions: Or, the Philosophy of Poverty (Systeme des contradictions economique : Ou philosophic de la misere.) Translated by Benjamin Tucker. Boston: 1888. Originally published in Paris: Guillaumin 1846 this was the work that angered Marx. Proudhon argued that since economic contradictions between capital and labor were inescapable, the principle of justice must be applied to bring about mutual agreement. To Marx any suggestion that economic contradictions must be accepted was anathema. Moreover, any principle of justice tended to divert attention from problems of production to issues of distribution. It must be dismissed as counter-revolutionary. Marx's attack on Proudhon was made in the deliberately entitled The Poverty of Philosophy.

698. Theorie de la propriete. Paris: A. Lacroix, 1866.

699. What is Property? (Qu'est ce que la. propriete ?) Translated by Benjamin Tucker. Princeton: 1876. Republished New York: Howard Fertig, 1966. Originally published Paris: Brocard, 1840 Proudhon's swingeing attack on the property relations of his day answered the question posed by the title with a simple one-word answer, "Theft!" The employment of a number of laborers as a collective labor force produces values and benefits in excess of those that would be produced if the efforts of the individual laborers were employed in isolated activities. Yet, notwithstanding the extra value produced by collective labor power, the workers are paid as if employed as individuals doing separate tasks. It is in this way that a hidden value is aggrandized by the employer and "theft" takes place.

700. The Works of P.-J. Proudhon in English. Trans, and published by Benjamin R. Tucker. Princeton, N.J.: 1876. Vol. 1, What Is Property? republished New York: Howard Fertig, 1966. Vol. 4, System Of Economical Contradictions or the Philosophy of Poverty, republished Boston: B.R. Tucker, 1888.


701. Selected Writings of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. Edited with an introduction by Stewart Edwards. Translated from the French by Elizabeth Fraser. London: Macmillan, 1970. A brief anthology which is inclined to emphasize a conservative tendency in Proudhon's later writings at the expense of his influence on the labor movement and his radical contemporaries.

Works about Proudhon:

702. Allen, M. B. "P.-J. Proudhon in the Revolution of 1848." Journal of Modern History 24,1 (March 1952): 1-15. Discusses Proudhon's argument that revolution must be generated from below and not imposed from above.

703. Bowie, J. "Proudhon's Attack on the State." In Politics and Opinion in the Nineteenth Century, 152-67. New York: Jonathon Cape, 1954. Argues that Proudhon's deepest roots were in peasant life and that all his ideas relate to a concept of social justice based on the dignity of man.

704. Brogan, D. W. Proudhon. London: Hamilton, 1934. A short biographical study that is more of an introduction than a detailed analysis.

705. Butchart, M. "Marx and Proudhon." The Criterion 17,68 (April 1938): 445-57. Compares and contrasts their economic analyses and concludes that, in the light of events, Proudhon's analysis was arguably more realistic.

706. Carr, E. H. "Proudhon: Robinson Crusoe of Socialism." In his Studies in Revolution, 38-55. New York: Macmillan, 1964. Outlines Proudhon's rejection of the State and his advocacy of federalism, but is unsympathetic to Proudhon and anarchism in general, focussing mainly on Proudhon's inconsistencies. While not denying his sincerity, Carr concludes that both Proudhon and anarchism share a common nobility and futility.

707. Chadwick, W. "The Mailed Fist vs. the Invisible Hand." Reason 10,5 (1978): 18-23. See entry 59.

708. Chiaromonte, N. "P.-J. Proudhon: An Uncomfortable Thinker." Politics 3 (Jan. 1946): 27-9. A critique of J. S. Schapiro's "P.-J. Proudhon, Harbinger of Fascism," American Historical Review (July 1945), entry 748.

709. Condit, S. Proudhonist Materialism and Revolutionary Doctrine. Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos, Pr, 1982. Beginning with a discussion of Proudhon's materialism this short work proceeds to analyze to good effect his approach to property, distinguishing between property and possession.

710. Crapo, P. B. "The Anarchist as Critic: Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's Criticism of Literature and Art." Michigan Academician 13,4 (1981): 459-73. Discusses the many disparaging criticisms of Proudhon's ability as an art critic, suggesting that, while his philosophy of the arts is a contentious, he was, in fact, reasonably competent to work in this field.

711. Crapo, P. B. "Proudhon's Conspiratorial View of Society." Journal of European Studies 11,3 (1981): 184-95. Argues that commentators and analysts have neglected Proudhon's overly dramatic and conspiratorial view of the workings of the State.

712. Dillard, D. "Keynes and Proudhon." Journal of Economic History 2,1 (1942): 63-77. Demonstrates that major similarities exist between their works even though their theories were worked out in very different circumstances and with different aims. The more common comparison of the ideas of Marx and Keynes is used in the discussion.

713. Du Lubac, H. The Un-Marxian Socialist: A Study of Proudhon. Translated by R. E. Scantlebury. London: Sheed & Ward, 1948. Originally published in 1945 as Proudhon et le Christianisme, it discusses Proudhon's ideas in relation to Christianity.

714. Hall, C. M. The Sociology of P.-J. Proudhon, 1809-1863. New York: Philosophical Library, 1971. Aims to outline Proudhon's major sociological theories and evaluate his contribution to the history of sociology. There is an examination of his concept of society and justice, his sociology of religion and his theories of social change and social stratification.

715. Hamerton, P. G. "Proudhon as a Writer on Art." Fortnightly Review 4,19 (15 Feb. 1886): 142-62. Concentrates on Proudhon's weaknesses as an art critic rather than addressing his major theme in Du principe de I'art et de sa destination sociale, that of the role of Courbet and modern art as a force for change in society.

716. Harbold, W. H. "Justice in the Thought of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon." Western Political Quarterly 22 A (Dec. 1969): 723-41. Argues that Proudhon considered justice to be the principle of social order immanent in historical experience.

717. Harbold, W. H. "Progressive Humanity in the Philosophy of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon." Review of Politics 31,1 (1969): 3-47. Traces the development of Proudhon's ideas on progress.

718. Harley, J. H. "Proudhon and the Labor Movement." Socialist Review 3 (1909): 273-83. Written on the occasion of Proudhon's centenary it compares Marx and Proudhon, emphasizing Proudhon's socialist ideas rather than his anarchism.

719. Hoffman, R. "Marx and Proudhon: A Reappraisal of Their Relationship" The Historian. 29,3 (May 1967): 409-30. Argues that Marx and Proudhon, in spite of their common concerns with socialism and the philosophy of Hegel, shared no real common ground.

720. Hoffman, R. L. Revolutionary Justice: The Social and Political Theory of P.-}. Proudhon. Chicago: Univ. of Illinois Pr., 1972. A comprehensive study of Proudhon's ideas, incorporating biographical information, that draws out the philosophy of Proudhon with sympathy and clarity. Bibliography.

721. Hyams, E. Pierre-]oseph Proudhon: His Revolutionary Life, Mind and Works. London: J. Murray, 1979. An assessment of Proudhon's ideas which are categorized as being those of libertarian socialism. The author argues that existing socialism is, in general, split into two, Marxism and trade unionism, each having its own social vision and strategy for social change. Proudhon's libertarian socialism offers a way out of the dilemma created by this division.

722. Jackson, J. J. Marx, Proudhon and European Socialism. London: English Universities Pr., 1958. Through studies of the two thinkers the work argues for two distinct strands of European socialism, the one authoritarian, the other anarchist. Much more sympathetic to Proudhon than Marx.

723. Jackson, J. J. "Proudhon: A Prophet in Our Time." Contemporary Review. 165, 939 (March 1944): 156-9. Also in Why? 3,4 (Sept.-Oct. 1944). Written during World War II it addresses the threat of totalitarianism and looks to anarchism as an alternative. Proudhon is identified as the tradition's founder. The misunderstanding of Proudhon's ideas was due, it is argued, to Marx's jealousy and invective. In fact, Proudhon's ideas may have a future relevance.

724. Jackson, J. J. "The Relevance of Proudhon." Politics 2 (Oct. 1945): 297-9. Traces Proudhon's life and influence as well as popular misconceptions about him, predicting that people reacting against increasing authoritarianism may rediscover Proudhon in their search for an alternative.

725. King, P. T. Fear of Power: An Analysis of Anti-Statism in Three French Writers. London: Cass, 1967. A critical analysis of the ideas of Proudhon, Sorel and Tocqueville which concludes that power is inherently neither good nor evil; whatever social good is achieved comes through good government.

726. Lewis, W. "Proudhon and Rousseau". In The AH of Being Ruled, 333-75. New York and London: Chatto and Windus, 1926. An extended discussion that compares various aspects of the thought of Proudhon and Rousseau.

727. Lu, S. Y. The Political Theories of P.-]. Proudhon. New York: M. R. Gray, 1922. A study of the ideas of Proudhon who is treated as the father of anarchism. There is an extensive discussion of Proudhon's economics and his ideas on anarchy, the state and federalism.

728. Marx, K. "Political Indifferentism." Bulletin of the Society for the Study of Labour History 20 (1970) 19-23. A direct attack on Proudhon and, by implication, Bakunin.

729. Marx, K. The Poverty of Philosophy- Moscow: Progress Pubs., 1963. Marx's definitive critique of Proudhon's social philosophy and political economy, the title a deliberate inversion of Proudhon's The Philosophy of Poverty, op.cit., entry 696.

730. Nelson, R. "The Federal Idea in French Political Thought." Publius. 5,3 (1975): 7-63. Through an examination of a range of thinkers, including Proudhon, it is argued that ideas about social and political alternatives develop dialectically.

731. Noland, A. "History and Humanity: The Proudhonian Version." In The Uses of History, edited by Hayden V. White, 59-106. Detroit: Wayne State Univ. Pr., 1968. Examines Proudhon's historical thought and work within the context of the general preoccupation with history in the nineteenth century. Argues that Proudhon believed that no new order had been properly established after the French Revolution had removed the old, and so sought to discover the organizing principle on which the new society might be based.

732. Noland, A. "Pierre-Joseph Proudhon as a Social Scientist." American journal of Economics and Sociology 26,3 (1967): 313-28. Concludes that for Proudhon the true science of society consisted in the study of the behavior of collective forces.

733. Noland, A. "Proudhon and Rousseau." Journal of the History of Ideas 28,1 (1967): 33-54. Examines the often striking parallels between the ideas of the two thinkers and suggests that Rousseau should be regarded as one of the "masters" of Proudhon.

734. Noland, A. "Proudhon's Sociology of War." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 29,3 (July 1970): 289-304. Outlines Proudhon's theory of war, noting its stark contrast with the anti-war views of his socialist contemporaries.

735. Osgood, H. L. "Scientific Anarchism." Political Science Quarterly 4,l(March 1889): 1-36. An analysis of anarchism which, focussing on the ideas of Proudhon, contrasts its individualistic and communistic forms. Examines public responses in America to the perceived threat of anarchism and concludes that no system of government is of itself good or evil, rather it is the character of those who govern that is crucial.

736. Pickles, W. "Marx and Proudhon." Politica 3,13 (1938): 236-60. Regrets the bitterness of the struggle between the respective doctrines of Marx and Proudhon, suggesting that they are, in fact, to a large extent complementary.

737. Prelot, M. "Pierre-Joseph Proudhon." In the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 604-6. New York: Macmillan & The Free Pr., 1968. An introductory outline of Proudhon's life, ideas, activities and influence.

738. Rathore, L. S. "Pierre-Joseph Proudhon: Mutualism and Federative Anarchist Society." Indian Journal of Political Studies 8 (July 1984). Argues that Proudhon was a brilliant thinker who succeeded in bridging the gap between agrarian populism and urban syndicalism. .

739. Reichert, W. O. "Art, Nature and Revolution." (The aesthetics of Proudhon, Kropotkin and Bakunin). Arts in Society. 9,3 (1972): 409-30. See entry 117.

740. Reichert, W. O. "Pierre-Joseph Proudhon: One of the Fathers of Philosophical Anarchism." Journal of Human Relations 13,1 (1965): 81-92. Aims to rescue the Proudhonian tradition from ideas of terrorism and nihilism, claiming that to adopt his position is to reject the violent overthrow of the State and to advocate non-violent persuasion aimed at the highest moral ends.

741. Reichert, W. O. "Natural Right in the Political Philosophy of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon." Journal of Libertarian Studies 4,1 (Winter 1980): 77-91. Argues that Proudhon had a highly developed philosophy of law. His idea of 'Justice' presupposed a free social order where individuals, unaided by governments, would arrive at agreements as to what constitutes 'natural right'. Reprinted in Law and Anarchism, 122-40. Op.cit, entry 1413.

742. Rieff, P. "A Jesuit looks at Proudhon: Competition in Damnation." Modern Review. 3,2 (Jan. 1950). A review article of Henri du Lubac, The Un-Marxian Socialist op. cit, entry 713.

743. Ritter, A. "Godwin, Proudhon and the Anarchist Justification of Punishment." Political Theory. 3,1 (1975): 68-87. See entry 318.

744. Ritter, A. The Political Thought of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton Univ. Pr., 1969. A thorough and scholarly work which looks at Proudhon in terms of issues current in the United States during the late 1960s.

745. Ritter, A. "Proudhon and the Problem of Community." Review of Politics 29A (1967): 457-77. Examines Proudhon's theory of community as an attempt to reconcile individual freedom with social peace. His perspective, it is suggested, is, while radical, realistic.

746. Rogers, J. A. "Proudhon and the Transformation of Russian 'Nihilism'." Cahiers du Monde Russe et Sovietique 13,4 (1972): 514-23. Argues that Proudhon's theories had a significant influence in Russia in the 1860's, leading directly to the rise of the school of Russian "subjective sociology."

747. Rubin, J. H. Realism and Social Vision in Courbet and Proudhon. Princeton Essays on the Arts No. 10. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Pr., 1981. Argues that Courbet's work represented a profound opposition to the ruling classes of the Second Empire. Thus Courbet's painting and Proudhon's social theory must be seen as inseparable, representing a confluence of romanticism and positive consciousness that led to modern art. Includes a select bibliography.

748. Schapiro, S. J. "Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Harbinger of Fascism." American Historical Review 50,4 (July 1945): 714-37. Denies that Proudhon was an anarchist because he believed in the principle of private enterprise. Yet, at the same time, he opposed profit and interest. Proudhon's repudiation of democracy and large-scale capitalism, Schapiro argues, mean that the fascists can justifiably claim him as a precursor.

749. Silvera, A. Daniel Halevy and his Times. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Pr., 1966. Though not directly about Proudhon, this work discusses his influence on fin de siecle intellectuals.

750. Simon, Y. R. "A Note on Proudhon's Federalism." Publius: Journal of Federalism 3,1 (1973): 19-31. Suggests that in writing The Federal Principle Proudhon offered his finished conception of an anarchist society and its political organisation.

751. Simon, Y. R. "The Problem of Transcendence and Proudhon's Challenge." Thought 54 (June 1979): 176-85. An attack on those of Proudhon's arguments which center on the existence and role of God in human affairs. Makes particular reference to De la justice dans la revolution et dans I'eglise.

752. Spear, L. "Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and the Myth of Universal Suffrage." Canadian Journal of History 10,3 (1975): 295-306. Argues that Proudhon did not oppose authentic universal suffrage, but denied that its existence as myth offered any long term social solution.

753. Vincent, S. K. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and the Rise of French Socialism. New York: Oxford Univ. Pr., 1984. Argues for Proudhon's significance as a pioneer of reformist socialism through an analysis of his activities in the republican movements that emerged under the July monarchy. The work challenges, however, Proudhon's place within anarchism, arguing that morally he was religious, politically republican, and in economics, a socialist.

754. Watkins, F. M. "Proudhon and the Theory of Modern Liberalism." Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science 13,3 (Aug. 1947): 429-35. Suggests that Proudhon's political thought is better adapted to the practice of modern parliamentarianism than are orthodox liberal theories.

755. Woodcock, G. "Proudhon and his Mutualist Theories." In The Writer and Politics, 42-55. London: Porcupine Pr., 1948. A discussion of Proudhon in the context of a study of the relationship between the writer and society, in particular social movements for reform or revolution.

756. Woodcock, G. "Proudhon, an Appreciation." Dissent 2,4 (Autumn 1955): 394-405. Suggests that Marx and Marxist political economy in general owe a great deal more to the work of Proudhon than is generally recognized. Particular reference is made to What is Property?, op.cit, entry 698.

757. Woodcock, G. "The Solitary Revolutionary. Proudhon's Notebooks." Encounter 33,192 (1969): 46-55. Woodcock discovered the whereabouts of the 11 notebooks in 1951. He quotes several passages from them to demonstrate their value as biographical raw material giving intimate insights into Proudhon's character and thoughts.

758. Woodcock, G. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon: A Biography. London: Routledge & Paul, 1956. A biographical study with a close analysis of his key ideas and principles.

HERBERT READ (1893-1968)

Works by Read:

The selection is limited to his anarchism or to anarchist themes in his work.

759. Anarchy and Order: Essays in Politics. Introduction by Howard Zinn. London: Souvenir Pr., 1974. Also Boston: Beacon Pr., 1971. Assembles all the essays he wrote specifically on anarchism. His work is based on faith in the fundamental goodness of people. He stresses the creative possibilities while accepting the vulnerability of social organization based on anarchist principles.

760. Art and Industry. New York: Horizon Pr., 1961. The book that had a vital influence on the development of the principles underlying industrial design. It relates to anarchist theory through its discussion of the connection between the uniqueness of individual products of art and industrial standardization. Implicit is Read's conception that the fully integrated human personality must have fully developed aesthetic dimensions.

761. The Cult of Sincerity. London: Faber & Faber, 1968. A collection of essays set out in two parts. The first part contains essays in which Read expresses his personal philosophy. In the title essay, for example, he discusses selfhood, freedom and authenticity. The second part contains critical sketches of important contemporaries, including T. S. Eliot, Jung, Russell and D. H. Lawrence.

762. Education through Art. London: Faber & Faber, 1942? A discussion of education and art that stresses the importance of developing aesthetic sensibility. The broad purpose of education, Read argues, is to encourage both the development of individual human uniqueness and potential and the social consciousness of each individual as a member of a community.

763. Essential Communism. London: S. Nott, 1935. Argues that the most difficult step in social reform lies not with the will for change, but in people's reluctance to implement a rational plan because of a fear of sacrificing individuality to the community. Nevertheless the pamphlet looks towards a society without poverty or social injustice, where order and beauty will be the outer manifestations of a free, vital and romantic spirit.

764. Existentialism, Marxism and Anarchism and Chains of Freedom. London: Freedom Pr., 1949. Two essays in the one volume. The first is a discussion of existentialism and its concern for freedom, noting the Marxist position, and arguing that the only political philosophy that combines a revolutionary and contingent attitude with a philosophy of freedom is anarchism. The second piece consists of stray notes and ideas towards a philosophy of freedom.

765. The Forms of Things Unknown: Essays towards an Aesthetic Philosophy. London: Faber & Faber, 1960. A discussion of the nature of the creative mind, the uniqueness and independence of which Read feels is threatened by automation, technological culture, urbanization etc. Part 4 discusses humanism, individuality, love and force with some examination of the ideas of Stirner and Tolstoy.

766. Freedom, Is It a Crime? The Strange Case of the Three Anarchists Jailed at the Old Bailey, April 1945: Two Speeches. Foreword by E. Silverman. London: Freedom Pr. Defence Committee, 1945. While specifically addressing the jailing of certain anarchists for articles they had written, these speeches, one before and one after the trial, also highlight the many encroachments on human liberty imposed in wartime. Concern is expressed that they might remain in place after the war.

767. Icon and Idea: The Function of Art in the Development of Human Consciousness. London: Faber & Faber, 1955. Reed argues that art is "the essential instrument in the development of human consciousness." It demonstrates why the aesthetic sense is so vital to his concept of the human in politics.

768. The Philosophy of Anarchism. New York: Distributed by the Libertarian League, 1947. Aims to restate the fundamental principles of anarchism in the belief that millions of people instinctively hold these beliefs already. Examines notions of human progress, the role of materialism and religion, and the potential of strikes as a basis for action.

769. Poetry and Anarchism. Philadelphia: R. West, 1978. Originally published London: Faber & Faber, 1938. Written out of a despair regarding the problems of contemporary society. Espouses a broadly anarchist solution yet concludes that the only refuge for people is within themselves - a sort of private anarchism. Reviewing a new edition in 1948 George Woodcock called it "one of the most valuable and best written books on libertarian thought in the English language." Freedom (7 Feb. 1948).

770. The Politics of the Unpolitical. London: Routledge, 1943. This collection of essays is a discussion of democracy which focuses on the problems of the artist, someone who both stands apart and mediates, in a community of supposed equals. At the same time, it is asserted that each individual is potentially an artist.

771. "Pragmatic Anarchism." Encounter 30 (Jan. 1968): 54-61. Some reflections and suggestions occasioned by the release of the book Patterns of Anarchy, edited Krimerman and Perry, op.cit, entry 1436. Read insists that anarchists are pragmatists, not idealists, and that true freedom consists in free action not indifference.

772. The Redemption of the Robot: My Encounter with Education through Art. London: Faber & Faber, 1970. A book that, while focussing on the processes of education, sets out a number of Read's key political beliefs, including the uniqueness and worth of the individual, free education and the fostering of individual development, the need for decentralization, the role of art and aesthetics, and the dangers of technology, centralization, urbanization and bureaucracy.

773. To Hell with Culture and Other Essays. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1963. Several essays are reprinted from The Politics of the Unpolitical, op.cit., entry 770. The independence and individuality of the creative mind is emphasized within the context of a discussion of culture, democracy, revolution and art. Art, it is asserted is independent of politics, having little concern with any political system. It is an unpolitical manifestation of the autonomous and creative human spirit.

Works about Read:

The selection focuses on Read's social theory, although some discussions of his ideas on aesthetics and literature are obviously relevant.

774. De Fennaro, A. A. "Benedetto Croce and Herbert Read." Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 26,3 (Spring 1968) 307-10. Explores the influence of Croce's philosophy on Read's ideas while acknowledging that Read's position remained distinctly his own.

775. Fouche, J. F. "The Contrary Experience: Herbert Read's Educational Philosophy." In Critical Issues in Philosophy of Education, edited by C. Peden. Washington D. C: Univ. Pr. of America, 1979. Looks at Read's ideas in Education Through Art, op.cit, entry 762, in which he argues that in our efforts to industrialize and modernize we have created a barren culture that is reflected in our schooling. Suggests that although Read's criticisms are not original, repeating as they do those of Rousseau and others, his solution is unique.

776. Harder, W. T. A Certain Order: The Development of Herbert Read's Theory. The Hague: Mouton, 1971. Discusses Read's theory of poetry in which he grounded modern poetry in the tradition of English romanticism. Contains a chapter "Anarchy and Superreality" in which the author explains how for Read what in art is a romantic principle becomes in life an anarchic principle. Bibliography and index.

777. Hodin, J. P. "Herbert Read - The Man and his Work: A Tribute on his Seventieth Birthday." Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 23,2 (Winter 1964): 169-72. A very short article which attempts to assess Read's significance as an aesthetic conscience in the modern world. The major emphasis is on art rather than anarchism.

778. Meeson, P. "Herbert Read's Definition of Art in Education through Art." Journal of Aesthetic Education 8 (July 1974): 5-18. A critical analysis of Read's definition of art which questions the adequacy of his philosophy of art education.

779. Parsons, M. J. "Herbert Read on Education." Journal of Aesthetic Education 3,4 (Oct. 1969): 27-45. There is only a fleeting reference to Anarchy and Order, op.cit., entry 759, in an article concerned with education theory.

780. Reichert, W. "The Relevance of Anarchism: An Introduction to the Social Theory of Herbert Read." Educational Theory 17 (1967): 147-57. Supports Read's belief that the abolition of the State is not a political act but a teleological process inherent in people's own aesthetic faculty. The issue of education is crucial to this process.

781. Skelton, R., ed. Herbert Read: A Memorial Symposium. London: Methuen, 1969. A collection of essays mainly dealing with Read's contributions to art and culture. Included is an essay by George Woodcock on Read's political philosophy.

782. Thistlewood, D. "Creativity and Political Identification in the Work of Herbert Read." British Journal of Aesthetics 26,4 (Autumn 1986): 345-56. Assesses the impact of Read's early membership of a Guild Socialist cell on his mature philosophical anarchism and educational theory.

783. Thistlewood, D. Herbert Read: Formlessness and Form. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1984. Provides an analysis of Read's aesthetic philosophy and argues that Read was both eclectic and original.

784. Walsh, D. "The Real and the Realized." Review of Metaphysics 10,3 (March 1957): 474-81. A sympathetic but critical analysis of Read's Icon and Idea, op.cit, entry 767.

785. Wasson, R. "Herbert Read: A Salutation to Eros." Journal of Aesthetic Education 3,4 (Oct. 1969): 11-25. Reviews Read's leading role in the changing attitudes to culture that developed through the 1960's.

786. Wieder, C. G. "Herbert Read on Education, Art, and Individual Liberty." Journal of Aesthetic Education 17,3 (Fall 1983): 85-93. Examines Read's views on the education process and the cultivation of each student's individuality.

787. Woodcock, G. Herbert Read: The Stream and the Source. London: Faber & Faber, 1972. A brief intellectual biography which focuses on his works, his ideas, and his contribution to the anarchist tradition.

ELISEE RECLUS (1830-1905)

Works by Reclus:

788. A mon frere, le paysan. Geneva: 1893.

789. "An Anarchist on Anarchy." Commonweal 7,284 (10 Oct. 1891): 126-7. A criticism of modern civilization that argues for the necessity of anarchism as a cure for the ills of society.

790. Correspondence. 3 vols. Paris: 1911-25.

791. "De la mutalite, P.-J. Proudhon, travail et capital: formule de conciliation." VAssociation 8 (1865).

792. Evolution and Revolution. London: International Pubg. Co., 1885. Asserts that the opposition between evolution and revolution used by conservatives is misleading. Evolutionary forces exist that will produce inevitable progress in human liberation by means of a revolution. Also Published in Commonweal 7,268/269/270), (June-July 1891): 61-2/65-6/70-1.

793. Free Vistas: An Anthology of Life and Letters. Edited Joseph Ishill. Berkeley Hts., N.J.: Oriole Pr.,1933. A beautifully presented collection of Poems, extracts and illustrations from Ishill's private press that contains translations of pieces by Reclus.

794. L'homme et la terre. 6 vols. Paris: 1905-8.

795. The Ideal and Youth. London: James Tochatti, "Liberty" Pr., 1895. A short pamphlet making an appeal to youth to abandon conservatism, crass materialism and self-indulgence, and to dedicate itself to a future of solidarity and altruism.

796. The Oriole Press - A Bibliography. Edited Joseph Ishill. Berkeley Hts., N.J.: Oriole Pr., 1953. Contains short pieces by Elisee and Elie Reclus. See entry 1420.

797. "Pourquoi nous sommes anarchistes!" La Societe Nouvelle 31 (Aug. 1889).

Works about Reclus:

798. Dunbar, G. S. "Elisee Reclus and the Great Globe." Scottish Geographical Magazine 90,1 (1974): 57-64. This article discusses Reclus1 plans to build a massive relief globe for the Paris Exposition of 1900 which would be both scientifically accurate and a symbol of world unity.

799. Dunbar, G. S. "Elisee Reclus in Louisiana." Louisianna History 23,4 (1982): 341-52. Recounts Reclus' experiences in Louisianna between 1853 and 1855, arguing that this period was of major significance in the formulation of his thought.

800. Dunbar, G. "Elisee Reclus: Geographer and Anarchist." Antipode 10/11,3/1 (1979): 16-21. A brief discussion, in a special double issue of Antipode on anarchism, of the relationship between Reclus' geography and his anarchist philosophy.

801. Fleming, M. The Anarchist Way to Socialism: Elisee Reclus and Nineteenth-Century European Anarchism. London: Croom Helm, 1979. A useful analysis of the life and ideas of Reclus which characterizes him as a socialist, arguing that, while he was anarchist in his anti-statism, his economic ideas were influenced by Marxism. The relationship between his anarchist and socialist ideals, it is argued, is the key to his thought.

802. Fleming, M. "Elisee Reclus: Between Religion and Science." Our Generation 20,1 (Fall 1988): 54-70. Argues that, in his efforts to legitimate anarchism through science, Reclus was led to identify anarchism with science.

803. Fleming, M. The Geography of Freedom: The Odyssey of Elisee Reclus. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1988. Looks at the contribution Reclus made in his own time as well as examining the relevance of his ideas to the present. Photographs and index.

804. Ishill, J., ed. Elisee and Elie Reclus: In Memoriam. Woodcuts by Louis Moreau. Berkeley Heights, N.J.: Oriole Pr., 1927. A rare book printed by Ishill's own press. Excellently presented memorial volume, with superb woodcuts.

805. Kropotkin, P. "Elisee Reclus." Freedom 19,199 (Aug. 1905) 21/23-4. An obituary of Reclus celebrating his work both as a scientist and an anarchist.

806. Nettlau, M. "Elisee and Elie Reclus as Seen by Their Friends." In The Oriole Press - A Bibliography, edited by Joseph Ishill, 19-35. Op.cit., entry 1420. A short personal memoir.

807. Owen, W. C. "Elisee and Elie Reclus." In The Oriole Press - A Bibliography, 83-8. Op.cit., entry 1420. A short memoir by an English anarchist who was a contemporary of Reclus. The piece first appeared in Freedom (Nov. 1927).

808. Sanborn, A. F. Paris and the Social Revolution: A Study of the Revolutionary Elements in the Various Classes of Parisian Society. London: Hutchinson, 1905. A detailed study of French anarchism at the turn of the last century with some discussion of Jean Grave, Peter Kropotkin and Elisee Reclus. There is an analysis of the philosophy of anarchism and of le propagande par le fait.

RUDOLF ROCKER (1873-1958)

Works by Rocker:

809. Anarchism and Anarcho-Syndicalism. London: Freedom Pr., 1973. An abridged version of Anarcho-Syndicalism, 1938, which first appeared in Feliks Gross, European Ideologies. New York: 1948. Also appears as an appended essay in P. Eltzbacher, Anarchism. Op.cit., entry 1365. About one third of the original this nevertheless gives a very clear exposition of the history and aims of anarchism and anarcho-syndicalism.

810. Anarcho-Syndicalism: Theory and Practice. New York: Gordon Pr., 1972. Originally published in 1938 Rocker states the case for anarcho-syndicalism, a subject on which the Spanish War had focussed attention. After first giving an excellent overview of anarchist principles, he proceeds to give an historical analysis of the development of anarcho-syndicalism.

811. The London Years. Translated by Joseph Leftwich. London: R. Anscombe for the Rudolf Rocker Book Committee, 1956. A memoir covering the period Rocker spent in London with sketches of comrades such as Kropotkin and Malatesta.

812. Milly Witkop-Rocker. Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Pr., 1981. A reproduction of Rocker's short memorial biographical essay on his wife, born 1 March, 1877 and died 23 November, 1955. Originally produced in June 1956 by Joseph Ishill's Oriole Press as a private edition for Rudolf Rocker.

813. Nationalism and Culture. Los Angeles: Rocker Pubs. Comm., 1947. One of Rocker's most significant works. A broad-ranging and scholarly discussion that provides a penetrating analysis of culture, and of nationalism and its historical genesis. Rocker believed that a general decline in civilization had produced the Second World War and that a solution could only be found in community and confederation. He sets out what he believes to be the necessary conditions for a free society to come into being and sustain itself.

814. Pioneers of American Freedom: Origin of Liberal and Radical Thought in America. Los Angeles: Rocker Pubs. Comm., 1949. A very useful survey of the leading exponents of American radical and liberal theory. Part One looks at the liberal tradition with chapters on Paine, Jefferson and Lincoln. Part Two discusses the individualist anarchists with chapters on Josiah Warren, Stephen Pearl Andrews, Lysander Spooner, William B. Greene and Benjamin Tucker. Contains a brief biographical outline and succinct exposition of the ideas of each thinker. Bibliography and index.

815. Socialism and State. With short biography of Rocker. Indore City: Modern Pubns., 1946.

816. The Tragedy in Spain. New York: Freie Arbeiter Stimme, 1937. An account of events in Spain focussing on the work and sacrifice of the members of the CNT and the FAI. Argues that the campaign waged against them, and the POUM, by Moscow and the communists, produced a Stalin inspired break-down of the anti-Fascist front.

817. The Truth about Spain. New York: Freie Arbeiter Stimme, 1936. See entry 1795.

Works about Rocker:

818. Fishman, W. J. East End Jewish Radicals, 1875-1914. London: Duckworth, 1975. Includes an account of the life and work of Rudolf Rocker, the best known representative of the Jewish anarchism that flourished in the old East End.

819. Read, H., Ishill, J. et al. Testimonial to Rudolf Rocker. Los Angeles: Rocker Pubns. Committee, 1944. A series of short essays by various authors on the life and work of Rocker, published to mark his seventieth birthday. The volume celebrates his anarchist contribution to humanism and culture. Articles on pages 1-40 appeared in the magazine The Roman Forum.

820. Vallance, M. "Rudolf Rocker - A Biographical Sketch." Journal of Contemporary History 8,3 (1973): 75-95. Written 15 years after his death it is more concerned with Rocker's life and the influences on him than with his philosophy.

821. Walter, N. "Rudolf Rocker's Anarcho-Syndicalism." The Raven 1,4 (March 1988): 351-360. An historical account of Rocker and the background to the writing of Anarcho-Syndicalism.

AUGUST SPIES (1855-1887)

Works by Spies:

822. August Spies' Auto-biography: His Speech in Court, and General Notes. Chicago: Nina Van Zandt, 1887. The speeches of August Spies, Michael Schwab, Oscar Neebe, Adolph Fischer, Louis Lingg, George Engel, Samuel Fieldon and Albert R. Parsons, prior to the death sentence being handed down for their alleged part in the Haymarket bombing. Also published by Lucy Parsons as The Famous Speeches of the Eight Chicago Anarchists in Court, 7, 8, 9, October 1886, Chicago: 1910.

823. "Socialism and Anarchism." Commonweal 7,304 (2 March, 1892). Argues that Anarchism or Socialism means the peaceful reconstruction of society on the basis of equality.


Works by Spooner:

824. Collected Works. Weston, Mass.: M & S Pr., 1971.

825. An Essay on Trial by Jury. New York: Da Capo Pr., 1971. Originally published Boston: J. P. Jewett & Co.,1852. A discussion of common law trial by jury, tracing its history from Magna Carta, while asserting that there are no legal juries in the United States since principles like the eligibility of all freeman for jury service have been breached.

826. A Letter to Grover Cleveland on His False Inaugural Address, the Usurpations and Crimes of Lawmakers and Judges, and the Consequent Poverty, Ignorance, and Servitude of the People. Boston: B. R. Tucker, 1886. Takes issue with Cleveland's promise to administer law "justly". Government is not concerned with justice but the protection of selfish interests. The Legislature is really four hundred "champion robbers." There must be a destruction of money-monopoly and the restoration of free labor and free money.

827. "No Treason I." In Individual Anarchist Pamphlets. New York: Arno pr., 1972. The collection is subtitled "The Right Wing Individualist Tradition in America." The pamphlets are reproduced as they were originally printed with individual page numbering. This piece by Spooner, originally published by Spooner himself, Boston: 1867, was written to address issues raised by a consideration of government by consent. The Constitution of the United States, Spooner argues, stresses consent, and implies the separate consent of every individual required to pay taxes or to provide personal service to the support of the government. The Civil War demonstrates the reality of rule by the strongest party.

828. "No Treason II." In Individual Anarchist Pamphlets. New York: Arno Pr., 1972. Originally published by Spooner himself, Boston: 1867, this is another pamphlet addressing issues of consent raised by the Civil War. Spooner argues that since the Constitution of the United States rests on the principle of continuous consent, withdrawal of that consent, that is secession, is not treason. But since force has overtaken consent both North and South are in error, since both assume allegiance and consent where none exists. The result is a war between chattel slavery and political slavery with true freedom existing on neither side.

829. "No Treason VI." In American Issues. Vol. 1. The Social Record, edited Willard Thorp, Merle Curtis and Carlos Baker, 569-74. Chicago/Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1944. The third of Spooner's extant pamphlets in the series. Despite the numbering there appears to be no record of others. In this, the most radical of the pamphlets, Spooner raises the question of who has robbed humanity of property and restrained liberty. He concludes that since, in modern society, money is power, it is the power of rich capitalism that lies behind government and has, thus, abrogated those liberties guaranteed by the Constitution.

830. Poverty: Its Illegal Causes and Legal Cure. Boston: 1846. A discussion of debt and credit advocating Warren's principles of equitable commerce as a solution to the problem of poverty. Poverty occurs because of a violation of the economic principles of natural law which, inter alia, include the right of every man to the fruits of his own labor, the right of every man to be his own employer and the right of every man to have capital for his labor to work on.

831. The Unconstitutionality of Slavery. New York: Burt Franklin, 1966. Originally published in 1852, and in an expanded form in 1857, this is a reprint of the 1860 edition published in Boston. It argues, from interpretations of law and the Constitution of the United States, that slavery is not constitutional since all men are presumed to be free. There is, therefore, no legal basis for slavery.

Works about Spooner:

832. Alexander, J. A. "The Ideas of Lysander Spooner." New England Quarterly 23 (June 1950): 200-17. A discussion that touches on Spooner's anarchism in reference to his economic principles and views on poverty.

833. Kline, W. G. The Individualist Anarchists. Boston & London: Univ. of America Pr., 1987. A discussion of the origins and development of the individualist anarchist tradition in America, in which Chapter Two is devoted to a discussion of the ideas of Spooner, pages 35-45.

834. Martin, J. J. Men against the State. Dekalb, 111.: Adrian Allen, 1953. A treatment of individualist anarchism in America which deals with Spooner in Chapter VII, "Lysander Spooner, Dissident Among Dissidents," pages 168-201. See entry 1838.

835. Rocker, R. Pioneers of American Freedom. Los Angeles: Rocker Pubns. Comm., 1949. A discussion of the origins of liberal and radical individualist thought in America with a consideration of the life and ideas of Spooner, pages 86-96.

MAX STIRNER (1806-1856)

Works by Stirner:

836. The Ego and His Own. New York: Libertarian Book Club, 1963. Translated Steven T. Byington. Edited and introduced by John Carroll. London: Jonathan Cape, 1971. Originally published 1845; translated 1907. The most controversial and extreme statement of egoistic anarchism. Stirner has been identified as a major precursor of political and philosophical movements of both the Left and the Right, although he did not seek to initiate such movements. He asserts an uncompromising rejection of all authority beyond the reach of the individual, arguing that Ego antecedes essence, and that each individual must pursue his or her own freedom with egoism as the only law. Not only the state, but society itself is condemned as a fetter on liberty. A union of egoists is the only possible social order.

Works about Stirner:

837. Bauer, E. "On Stirner and Szeliga, 1882." Phililosophical Forum 8 (1978): 167-72. First English translation and publication, with a commentary by Hans-Martin Hass, of a letter from Bauer to Max Hildebrandt. It contains some useful anecdotes concerning Stirner and the writing of The Ego and His Own.

838. Bergner, J. T. "Stirner, Nietzsche and the Critique of Truth." Journal of the History of Philosophy 11,4 (1973): 523-34. Discusses Stirner's critique of truth, particularly in relation to the ideas of Nietzsche, arguing that Stirner's views have been constantly misinterpreted.

839. BrazUl, W. J. The Young Hegelians. New Haven: Yale Univ. Pr, 1970. A comprehensive intellectual history of the philosophical ideas of the Young Hegelians. Chapter 6 deals specifically with Stirner.

840. Carroll, J. B. Break-out from the Crystal Palace: The Anarcho-Psychological Critique: Stirner, Nietzsche, Dostoevsky. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974. A comparative study of the ideas of Stirner, Nietzsche and Dostoevsky in which they are identified as representatives of the anarcho-psychological tradition that both paved the way for Freud and was influential in the emergence of existentialist thought in the 20th century.

841. Clark, J. P. Max Stirner's Egoism. London: Freedom Pr., 1976. A study of Stirner's thought from the perspective of social anarchism. Chapter 6 concentrates on Stirner and anarchism.

842. Ferguson, K. E. "Saint Max Revisited: A Reconsideration of Max Stirner." Idealistic Studies 12 (Sept. 1982): 276-92. Argues that many critics of Stirner have failed to deal adequately with the ontological and axiological questions raised by Stirner, particularly his radical view on moral choice and his process theory of the self. The latter, while failing to deal adequately with human sociability nevertheless usefully sets out a basis for the demystification of authority.

843. Feuerbach, L. "The Essence of Christianity in relation to The Ego And His Own." Philosophical Forum 8,2/3/4 (1978): 81-91. Translation of the German text in Feuerbach's Samtliche Werke, Vol. 7, edited by Wilhelm Bolin & Friedrich Jodl. Stuttgart-Bad: Cannstatt,1960.

844. Gordon, F. M. "The Debate between Feuerbach and Stirner: An Introduction." Philosophical Forum 8 (1978): 52-65. Discusses The Ego and His Own as a decisive critique of the Young Hegelian movement, in particular of Feuerbach.

845. Lobkowicz, N. "Karl Marx and Max Stirner." Boston College Studies in Philosophy 2 (1969): 64-95. A lengthy and complex article which suggests that Stirner's book The Ego and His Own played a significant role in prompting the first version of Marx's mature historical materialism in The German Ideology. Contains a summary of the contents of The Ego and His Own as well as expositions of the Hegelian and Marxian positions.

846. Marx, K. and Engels, F. The Holy Family: Or Critique of Critical Criticism, against Bruno Bauer and Company. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1956. Though not dealing directly with Stirner, the work marks the formalizing of Marx's and Engel's dissatisfaction with the ideas and programmes of Bruno Bauer and other members of the Young Hegelian movement like Stirner.

847. Marx, K. and Engels, F. The German Ideology. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1964. Marx and Engels' critique of German idealism, with a very long section devoted to Stirner. This work effectively completed their break with the Young Hegelian movement.

848. McLellan, D. The Young Hegelians and Karl Marx. London: Macmillan, 1969. An intellectual history of Hegel's disciples with a full chapter devoted to Stirner, pages 117-36.

849. Paterson, R. W. K. The Nihilistic Egoist, Max Stirner. London: Oxford Univ. Pr., 1971. A detailed study of Stirner's life and philosophy, his relationship to Marxism and later philosophical traditions, especially existentialism, and his place in the history of ideas.

850. Sass, H. "Bruno Bauer's Critical Theory." Philosophical Forum 8 (1978): 92-120. Argues that Bauer's treatment of dialectics foreshadows the interpretations of modern critical theorists and demonstrates that Bauer exercised an important, but little appreciated, influence on Stirner.

851. Stepelevitch, L. S. "Max Stirner as Hegelian." Journal of the History of Ideas 46,4 (1985): 597-614. Reviews a wide range of interpretations of Stirner's ideas and goes on to explore the historical relationship between Hegel and Stirner. Concludes that Stirner completes Hegel's philosophy and in that sense truly is "the last of the Hegelians."

852. Stepelevitch, L. S. "The First Hegelians: An Introduction." Philosophical Forum 8 (1978): 6-20. Offers an historical overview of the ideas of the Young Hegelians, including Stirner, in the period 1828-48 with the aim of establishing their claim to be legitimate Hegelians.

853. Stepelevitch, L. S. "Hegel and Stirner: Thesis and Antithesis." Idealistic Studies 6 (Summer 1976): 263-78. A comparison of Hegel's and Stirner's respective philosophies which aims to prove that Stirner's position became the antithesis of Hegel's.

854. Stepelevitch, L. S. "Max Stirner and Ludwig Feuerbach." Journal of the History of Ideas 39,3 (July-Sept. 1978): 451-63. Examines the relationships between Stirner and Feuerbach and argues that Feuerbach's career as a theorist came to an end when he was unable to refute Stirner's critique as presented in The Ego and His Own.

855. Stepelevitch, L. S. "The Revival of Max Stirner." Journal of the History of Ideas 35,2 (April-June 1974): 323-28. Suggests that the revival of interest in Stirner was concurrent with the revival of interest in the philosophy of Nietzsche. Nevertheless his thought has its own intrinsic value as a completely radical defense of atheism.

856. Thomas, P. "Karl Marx and Max Stirner." Political Theory 3,2 (May 1975): 159-79. Argues that Marx's critique of Stirner answers the key issues raised by Stirner regarding revolutionary ideals and individuality.


Works by Tandy:

857. Modern Socialistic Tendencies. Columbus June, la.: E. H. Fulton, 1897. A lecture delivered to the Unity Club in Unity Church, Denver, March 28 1897.

858. Voluntary Socialism: A Sketch. New York: Revisionist Pr., 1977. Reprint of the 1896 edition published in Denver. An anarchist (voluntary socialism) text that advocates, in the tradition of Proudhon, Warren and Tucker, the end of the state and of monopoly of wealth. In their place the work argues for the organization of society on the foundation of freedom, natural association and mutual exchange. While advocating the establishment of banks on the basis of labor values, there is a constant opposition to what is described as state socialism.


Works by Tolstoy:

Selection has been limited to works bearing on Tolstoy's social theory.

859. Christianity and Patriotism. Translated by Constance Garnett. Introduction by Edward Garnett. London: J. Cape, 1922. First published in 1894, this is an extensive essay in which Tolstoy demonstrates how governments whip up nationalistic fervor to wage war for their own ends. He argues that patriotism runs counter to love, the law of God.

860. Essays and Letters. Translated Aylmer Maude. London: Oxford Univ. Pr., 1911. A collection of essays and letters written between 1884 and 1903, and published that year by World's Classics, in which Tolstoy's maturer views on religion are expressed.

861. Essays from Tula. Introduction Nicolas Berdyaev. London: Sheppard Pr., 1948. A series of late essays from the period 1902-09. Includes "The Slavery of Our Times," "Bethink Yourselves," "Thou Shalt Kill No One," and "The End of the Age."

862. The Kingdom of God and the Peace Essays. London: Oxford Univ. Pr., 1951. Tolstoy's definitive statement of his pacifist anarchism, published in 1893, proceeds from a profoundly Christian perspective. He rejects any authority, be it of State or Church, which would coerce him to act against his Christian conscience, while, at the same time, refusing to respond violently to any such coercion.

863. The Law of Love and the Law of Violence. Translated by M. K. Tolstoy. Foreword by B. Budberg. London: Anthony Blond, 1970. A useful exposition of Tolstoy's anarchism and pacifism written in 1908, and first published in a censored form in the Kiev Bulletin in the same year. Published in full in England in 1909. Note that Tolstoy's original title was The Law of Violence and the Law of Love.

864. Letters on War. Maldon, Essex: Free Age Pr., 1900. In this pamphlet of collected letters Tolstoy cites the causes of war as first the unequal distribution of property, second the existence of a military class, and third fraudulent religious teaching. He urges people to obey their consciences and God's will by refusing to fight and ceasing to oppress the weak.

865. My Confession. London: Bradde Bks., 1963. Originally published 1882. A short and sincere work which outlines the events leading to the deepening of Tolstoy's spiritual anxiety, the eventual crisis and his religious conversion.

866. On Life and Essays on Religion. Translated with introduction by Aylmer Maude. London: Oxford Univ. Pr., 1934. On Life, 1887, is Tolstoy's statement of the conclusions he reached after ten years devoted to the study of religion. The other essays were written between 1894 and 1909. Index.

867. On Socialism. London: Hogarth, 1936. Published Glasgow: Strickland Pr., 1940. In this critique of the aims of socialism Tolstoy attacks the idea of liberation through political rights, opposes centralization, planned social schemes and predicted outcomes, placing his faith instead in a change of consciousness regarding moral law. This was Tolstoy's last essay.

868. The Only Commandment. London: Unicorn Pr., 1962. In this late work of 1909 Tolstoy asserts that, as revealed in the Gospels, God is love and that God commands us to love one another. All other commandments derive from this simple law. Only the fulfillment of this commandment can afford us complete happiness.

869. Resurrection. Moscow: Foreign Languages Pub. Hse., 1958. Originally published in 1899 this was Tolstoy's last great novel. It is generally regarded as inferior to his earlier works because of its didacticism, although recently this judgement has been the subject of re-evaluation. It makes sweeping indictments of the Church and government and sets out the basic elements of his pacifist/anarchist position.

870. The Russian Revolution etc.. Translated by Aylmer Maude and others. London: Everett & Co., 1907. A collection of pieces by Tolstoy on the theme of Russia and revolution. Contains "The Meaning of the Russian Revolution," "An Appeal to Russians" and "What's To Be Done?" Expresses a confidence in change in Russia but also a concern that the revolutionary movements show only a dim recognition of the unreasonableness of violence. He urges that one power not be replaced by another. Rather violence and government should be rejected and a society created where human authority is replaced by divine authority and moral law.

871. The Slavery of Our Times. Translated with introduction by Aylmer Maude. New York: Edwin C. Walker, 1900. A discussion of the economic subordination of working people that relates their exploitation to systems of authority, hierarchy and force. These are maintained because people acquiesce in their existence. Economic liberation can only follow liberation from violence, which will in turn produce liberation from governments, laws and organized systems of servitude.

872. Social Evils and Their Rented]/. Edited by Helen C. Matheson. London: Methuen, 1915. A collection of essays in which Tolstoy spells out more clearly than elsewhere his political position on a number of topics. The need to liberate land from property holders and to end the factory system is discussed. Government and centralized socialism are attacked and, in a discussion of anarchism, Tolstoy asserts that the anarchists are "right in everything" except their ideas on revolution. There are interesting excerpts from Tolstoy's letters and diaries which comment on sexual relations.

873. Some Social Remedies: Socialism, Anarchism etc.. Christchurch, Hants.: Free Age Pr., 1900. A discussion on reform suggesting that the end of state authority is of the essence, but that it must be brought about non-violently. Includes two letters on Henry George and the land question.

874. The Teaching of Jesus. Translated by Aylmer Maude. London: Harper, 1909. Adds little that is new to his attack on the Church in other major works such as Confession or his unfinished Christian Teaching.

875. "Thou Shalt Not Kill." Freedom 14,153 (Dec. 1900): 4-5. A succinct statement of Tolstoy's position on non-violence.

876. To the Working People. Translated by V. Tchertoft & I. F. Mayo. London: International Pubn. Co., 1900. Advocates non-compliance with authority and the peaceful occupation of the land, endorsing Henry George's Single-Tax system.

877. What I Believe. Also called My Religion. London: Allen & Unwin, 1966. Originally published in 1884 the work outlines why he regards as erroneous the doctrine of the Christian Church, arguing that the failure to acknowledge the law of non-resistance to evil is the ultimate perversion of the teaching of Christ. Although suppressed by Russian censorship, the manuscript was circulated both in Russia and abroad and brought an enormous response. It was largely as a result of the fresh insights which the ensuing correspondence gave him that he wrote The Kingdom of God is within You, op.cit., entry 862.

878. What Is Art? Translated by Aylmer Maude. London: Oxford Univ. Pr., 1946. Tolstoy's critique of contemporary art of 1898 based on his 'new' religious and moral convictions. Concludes that art infects people with the worst feelings of superstition, patriotism and sensualism.

879. What then Must We Do? Translated by Aylmer Maude. London: Oxford Univ. Pr., 1942. Published in 1886, it was written as a result of Tolstoy's experience with the poor in Moscow. Dealing with economic and social problems, a plea is made for all to share in manual labor and the struggle for existence.

Works about Tolstoy:

Selection omits literary criticism except where it bears on his social theory.

880. Anschuetz, C. "The Young Tolstoi and Rousseau's Discourse On Inequality." Russian Review 39,4 (1980): 401-25. Assesses the relative importance of literary forms and social ideas as influences on the works of Rousseau and Tolstoy and examines the affinity between their philosophies.

881. Archambault, R. D. "Tolstoy on Education." Midway 8,1 (1967): 57-68. Writes in praise of Tolstoy's commonsensical, pragmatic and ad hoc approach to the •education of children, drawing comparisons with problems encountered in education today, where, he argues, there is too much theory and verbiage and too little intuitive wisdom. Concludes that Tolstoy might be seen as a precursor of A.S. Neill.

882. Archer, D. J. "Tolstoy's God Sees the Truth, but Waits: A Reflection." Religious Studies 21,1 (March 1985): 75-89. Maintains that, despite what Tolstoy says in his Confession about when his soul-searching began, he had in fact, some years earlier, questioned the meaning of life and suggested how an answer might be worked out at an individual level in God Sees the Truth, but Waits, the story written as part of a Primer for peasant children in preparation during the years 1871-72.

883. Arthos, J. "Ruskin and Tolstoy: 'The Dignity of Man'." Dalhousie Review 43,1 (Spring 1963): 5-15. Explores the extent to which Tolstoy might have been a disciple of Ruskin in his attitude to the importance of enrichment through work. It is critical of Tolstoy.

884. Berlin, I. The Hedgehog and the Fox. New York: Mentor, 1957. Basing his argument on Tolstoy's philosophy of history in War and Peace, Berlin analyzes the conflict between what Tolstoy was and what he believed. With respect to the line from the ancient Greek poem "The fox knows many things, but the hedgehog knows one big thing," Berlin concludes that Tolstoy was by nature a fox who believed in being a hedgehog. Also in Russian Thinkers, 22-81. Op.cit., entry 1317.

885. Berlin, I. "Tolstoy and Enlightenment." In Russian Thinkers, 238-60. Op.cit, entry 1317. Discusses the affinity between the ideas of Tolstoy and Rousseau, noting their common rejection of original sin and their common belief in innocence and in the ruinous effect of bad institutions. They both held that formal education is undesirable and that the child and peasant are closer to truth and harmony. Thus, reliance on intuitive innocence and goodness and the contrast between nature and artifice are central themes in Tolstoy's work.

886. Birukov, P. I. Life of Tolstoy. Translated from Russian. London: Cassell, 1911. Written by Tolstoy's Russian biographer. The two were very close friends and Tolstoy actually collaborated with him in the selection and arrangement of this work. It is chiefly biographical but also aims at achieving some insights into Tolstoy's thought. Contains an index and a list of Tolstoy's works.

887. Brock, P. "Tolstoyism and the Hungarian Peasant." Slavonic and East European Review 58,3 (1980): 345-69. Focuses on the 19th Century experiments in Christian communalism.

888. Donskov, A. "The Peasant in Tolstoi's Thought and Writings." Canadian Slavonic Papers 21,2 (1979): 183-96. Traces the development of the image of the peasant in Russian literature and then assesses its place within Tolstoi's work. Argues that the peasant became progressively more important in his work, representing the essence of simplicity and the intuitive ability to converse with God.

889. Egan, D. R. and Egan, M. A. Leo Tolstoy. Metuchen, N. J. & London: Scarecrow Pr., 1979. An annotated bibliography of English language sources to 1978.

890. Fausset, H. Tolstoy: The Inner Drama. London: Cape, 1927. Not a literary study as such but an attempt to explore Tolstoy's personality through his works, before examining his doctrines in the light of that character study.

891. Flew, A. "Tolstoi and the Meaning of Life." Ethics 73,2 (Jan. 1963): 110-47. Using Tolstoi's Confession as a case study of an investigation of the meaning of life, Flew explores Tolstoy's ideas and discusses both the sense of free will and the sense of dependence which people experience.

892. Fryde, R. "Tolstoy writes to Gandhi in South Africa." Quarterly Bulletin of the South African Library 33,4 (1979): 112-17. Gives the history of the last of the three letters which Tolstoy wrote to Gandhi in South Africa. Includes a translation of the letter which is effectively a statement of Tolstoy's position on non-violent resistance.

893. Gallie, W. B. Philosophers of Peace and War: Kant, Clausewitz, Marx, Engels and Tolstoy. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1978. A concise analysis of the theories of each thinker on this subject. Raises the general question of the role of force in any society. Includes an anarchist bibliography.

894. Gifford, H. Tolstoy. Past Masters Series. New York: Oxford Univ. Prv 1983. A brief introduction to Tolstoy's life and times which seeks to link his pre-conversion and post-conversion thought.

895. Goscilo-Kostin, H. "Tolstoyan Fare: Credo a la Carte." Slavonic and East European Review 62,4 (1984): 481-95. Argues that Tolstoy used the symbolism of food and eating as motifs for his political judgements in the novels War and Peace and Anna Karenina. With his later works a progressively more puritanical element emerges undermining the effectiveness of the motif.

896. Green, M. Tolstoy and Gandhi, Men of Peace: A Biography. New York: Basic Bks., 1983. Compares their public and private lives and the events that shaped their respective world views.

897. Heller, O. Prophets of Dissent: Essays on Maeterlinck, Strindberg, Neitzsche and Tolstoi. Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Pr., 1968. Originally published by Alfred A. Knopf, 1918. Presents four radical thinkers the scope of whose ideas, it is argued, represents the full spectrum of contemporary moral philosophy. Suggests that fundamental similarities exist despite their all too obvious differences.

898. Holman, M. J. De K. "The Purleigh Colony: Tolstoyan Togetherness in the Late 1890s." In New Essays on Tolstoy, edited by Malcolm Jones, 194-222. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1978. A discussion of an interesting community experiment based on Tolstoyan principles. There is also a useful bibliographical survey by Garth M. Terry on pages 223-46.

899. Jones, P. Philosophy and the Novel. Oxford: Clarendon Pr., 1975. Essays on four novels; Middlemarch, Anna Karenina, The Brothers Karamazov and A la Recherche du Temps Perdu, with detailed textual annotations, and a consideration of the philosophy of the authors.

900. Kiros, T. "Alienation and Aesthetics in Marx and Tolstoy: A Comparative Analysis." Man and World 18 (1985): 171-84. Compares Marx's theory of aesthetic alienation and Tolstoy's views on the role and nature of art in society, addressing the questions of how alienation affects art in general and how alienation applies to Marx's discussion of the human senses. Outlines their specific differences but concludes with an emphasis on the similarities in their arguments.

901. Kuzminskay, T. A. Tolstoy as I knew Him; My Life at Home and at Yasnaya Polyana. Translated by Nora Sigerist. Introduction by Ernest J. Simmons. New York: Macmillan, 1948. Primarily of interest for those concerned with details surrounding the writing of War and Peace, as her memoirs deal mainly with that period of Tolstoy's life. It also gives a detailed picture of Russian life of the period.

902. Lampert, E. "On Tolstoi, Prophet and Teacher." Slavic Review 25,4 (1966): 604-14. Explores the tensions between Tolstoy's teachings and his life, concluding an inner struggle produced the depth and ferocity of his condemnation of hedonism.

903. Lasserre, H. The Communities of Tolstoyans. Toronto: Rural Co-op. Comm. Council & Canadian Fellowship for Co-op. Comm., Discusses the creation of Tolstoyan communities in various countries; USA, UK, Canada, Switzerland, Austria, Germany, Poland, Bulgaria. Concentrates on efforts to clarify and define the movement in Canada.

904. Lavrin, J. Tolstoi: An Approach. New York: Russell & Russell, 1908. Attempts to interpret Tolstoy's ideas in the light of present day needs and problems.

905. Levitsky, I. "The Tolstoy Gospel in the Light of the Jefferson Bible." Canadian Slavonic Papers 21,3 (1979): 347-55. Both Tolstoy and Jefferson claimed to have derived their faith from the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. Compares Tolstoy's Christ's Christianity, and Jefferson's The Life And Morals of Jesus of Nazareth, both of which argue that the distilled wisdom of Christianity is to be found in the gospels.

906. Lloyd, J. A. T. Two Russian Reformers: Ivan Turgenev, Leo Tolstoy. London: Paul, 1910. Two separate biographies, with Turgenev taking up two thirds of the book. Some comparative analysis is undertaken.

907. Matual, D. "Tolstoi's Gospel as a Polemic with Scientists, Politicians and Churchmen." Greek Orthodox Theological Review 25,1 (1980): 49-62. A detailed criticism of Tolstoy's interpretation of the Scriptures.

908. Maude, A. Life of Tolstoy. London: Oxford Univ. Pr., 1953. Written by the acknowledged English expert on Tolstoy. Maude knew Tolstoy and worked with him. Index, bibliography, chronology.

909. Maude, A. Tolstoy and His Problems. London: G. Richards, 1901. A collection of essays which aims to set out Tolstoy's ideas for the English reading public, which, at the time, had considerable difficulty in getting access to his works.

910. Mayer, F. "Tolstoy as World Citizen." Personalist 28 (Autumn 1947): 357-69. Begins with a character analysis which argues that Tolstoy exhibited typical Russian traits. While critical of the perpetual conflict between his ideals and way of life, it concludes that his general message is both timeless and universally applicable.

911. Mikoyan, S. A. "Leo Tolstoy and Mahatma Gandhi." Indo-Asian Culture 18,4 (1969): 44-8. Examines the links between Tolstoy and Gandhi, while assessing the impact they had on their respective societies. Concludes that they share similar ends while advocating different means. Draws an interesting distinction at the end between organized force and mass violence.

912. Perrett, R. W. "Tolstoy, Death and the Meaning of Life." Philosophy 60,232 (April 1985). 231-45. Analyzes Tolstoy's A Confession and The Death Of Ivan Illich to draw out philosophical questions about death and the meaning of life.

913. Perris, G. H. The Life and Teaching of Leo Tolstoy: A Book of Extracts. London: Grant Richards, 1907. A useful collection with material on Tolstoy's approach to the state on pages 96-139.

914. Redpath, T. Tolstoy. London: Bowes, 1960. A short biography with a good bibliography. Asserts that in Russia politics and literature are inseparable and, therefore, that the dichotomy between thinker and artist in Tolstoy is a false one. Discusses his anarchism in a section on politics and social ethics, pages 23-32.

915. Robinson, J. Leo Tolstoy: His Life and Work. London: Freedom Pr., 1968. A short pamphlet study of Tolstoy's life and work that raises the interesting question of whether he can, in the final instance, be called an anarchist.

916. Sampson, R. V. Tolstoy and the Discovery of Peace. London: Heinemann, 1973. Written by a convinced pacifist follower of Tolstoy, the work expresses an unbounded admiration for him while examining anarchist pacifist theory and the causes of war. Contains a plea for active civil disobedience in the cause of world peace.

917. Schefski, H. K. "Tolstoi and the Jews." Russian Review 41A (1982): 1-10. Examines Tolstoy's contradictory and uneven attitude towards the Jews.

918. Simmons, E. J. Leo Tolstoy. Boston: Little Brown, 1968. A comprehensive assessment of Tolstoy's life and work which attempts to analyze his literary works and his social, religious and political ideas in an interconnected manner. Excellent bibliography and index.

919. Simmons, E. J. Introduction to Tolstoy's Writings. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr., 1968. There is some discussion of Tolstoy's political ideas in Chapter 6, "Religious, Moral and Didactic Writings," pages 94-117.

920. Spence, G. W. Tolstoy the Ascetic. London: Oliver & Boyd, 1967. Traces and analyzes the moral and philosophical threads connecting the early and later work of Tolstoy.

921. Tolstaia, A. L. Tolstoy: A Life of My Father. Translated by E. R. Hapgood. London: Gollancz, 1953. Written by Tolstoy's youngest daughter who knew him only after the great change in his life. Asserts that it is not through his achievements as a writer but by how he lived that he must be appreciated. Includes several letters from her father written towards the end of his life.

922. Tolstoy, I. My Father: Reminiscences by Ilya Tolstoy. Translated by Ann Dunniga. London: P. Owen, 1972. An affectionate recollection of Tolstoy by his second son Ilya.

923. Tolstoy, S. Tolstoy Remembered by his Son, Sergei Tolstoy. Translated by M. Budberg. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1961. A collection of memoirs written when Sergey, Tolstoy's eldest son, was an old man and published after his death. Gives a good impression of life in an aristocratic Russian family at the turn of the century.

924. Troyat, H. Tolstoy. Translated Nancy Amphoux. New York: Octagon Bks., 1980. Published in French in Paris: 1965. A biography that in Part 7 considers Tolstoy as an apostle of non-violence. Though not strictly sympathetic, it is a very thorough biography which traces Tolstoy's development. Attempts to reconcile the artist and the preacher.

925. Walicki, A. A History of Russian Thought: From the Enlightenment to Marxism. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Pr., 1979. A comprehensive survey of Russian thought which, while concentrating on philosophy, also covers religious, political and economic ideas.


Works by Tucker:

926. "The Attitude of Anarchism toward Industrial Combination." In State Socialism and Anarchism and Other Essays, 27-34. Op.cit, entry 931. Address delivered Chicago, September 14, 1899. Discusses the anarchist approach to trade unions, setting out Tucker's famous "four monopolies," land monopoly, tariff monopoly, money monopoly and idea monopoly. Issued as a pamphlet, Detroit: 1933, by Laurance Labadie.

927. Individual Liberty: Selections from the Writings of Benjamin R. Tucker. New York: Revisionist Pr., 1972. Also published New York: Vanguard Pr., 1926 and New York: Kraus Reprint Co., 1973. Unlike Instead of a Book, op.cit., entry 928, this volume contains only Tucker's writings and not those of his correspondents and adversaries. It is a more concise and generally readable account of his individualist anarchism. Index and bibliography.

928. Instead of a Book, by a Man Too Busy to Write One: A Fragmentary Exposition of Philosophical Anarchism, Culled from the Writings of Benjamin R. Tucker. New York: Gordon Pr., 1972. Composed of questions and criticisms by Tucker's correspondents, and writers in other periodicals, and the answers provided by Tucker in his journal Liberty. Many of the articles deal specifically with local and current events.

929. State Socialism and Anarchism: How Far They Agree and Wherein They Differ. London: W. Reeves, 1895. Reprinted in State Socialism and Anarchism and Other Essays, 11-25. Op.cit, entry 931. Also see Patterns of Anarchy, 61-9. Op.cit., entry 1436. Written in 1886 this essay was not published until March 10, 1888, when in appeared in Tucker's journal Liberty. Tucker sought to distinguish between anarchism and state socialism in order to provide a background to the Haymarket trial. He also wished to defend his brand of anarchism, which he traced back to Proudhon and Warren, from accusations of violence.

930. Why I Am an Anarchist. New York: Revisionist Pr., 1976. Originally written for Hugh O. Pentecost, editor of the radical weekly, The Twentieth Century, in 1892, this is a personal account of his beliefs in an individualist anarchism that he saw as deriving from the Mutualism of Proudhon. Also in State Socialism and Anarchism and Other Essays, 35-7. Op.cit., entry 931.


931. State Socialism and Anarchism and Other Essays. Edited by James J. Martin. Colorado Springs: Ralph Myles, 1972. A collection of essays, noted separately, that together express the essence of Tucker's approach to the state and central authority.

Works about Tucker:

932. Avrich, P. "Benjamin Tucker and His Daughter." In Anarchist Portraits, 144-52. Op.cit., entry 1303. A record of an interview with Oriole Tucker in June 1974 when she was aged 65.

933. Coughlin, M., Hamilton, C. and Sullivan, M., ed. Benjamin Tucker and the Champions of Liberty: A Centenary Anthology. St.Paul, Minn.: M. E. Coughlin, M. Sullivan, 1986. Does not concentrate solely on Tucker, but explore the links between his ideas and those of other writers and thinkers of the same period. It gives a useful general overview.

934. DeLeon, D. The American as Anarchist: Reflections on Indigenous Anarchism. Baltimore and London: John Hopkins Univ. Pr., 1978. A discussion of anarchist thought and practice in America, both in its individualist and communist forms. Chapter Five, "Right Libertarianism," pages 61-84, discusses Tucker's ideas. Good bibliography.

935. Ishill, J., ed. Benjamin R. Tucker: A Bibliography. Berkeley Hts., N. J.: Oriole Pr., 1959. A bibliography of Tucker's works including his important translations of the work of others such as Proudhon and Tolstoy. There are some useful critical and biographical notes, and an appreciation by George Bernard Shaw, on whom, it is said, Tucker had an early influence.

936. Kline, W. G. The Individualist Anarchists. Boston & London: Univ. Pr. of America, 1987. A discussion of the individualist anarchist tradition in America, its origins and development. Chapter Four examines the work of Benjamin Tucker, pages 57-84.

937. Madison, C. A. "Benjamin R. Tucker: Individualist and Anarchist." New England Quarterly 16 (Sept. 1943): 444-67. Discusses Tucker as the chief American exponent of individualist anarchism. Partly biographical there is a useful discussion of his ideas in their historical context.

938. Martin, J. J. Men against the State; the Expositors of Individualist Anarchism in American, 1827-1908. Dekalb, 111.: Adrian Allen, 1953. Includes a discussion of Tucker, his life and ideas in Chapters 8 and 9, pages 202-73. See entry 1838.

939. McElroy, W. "The Culture of Individualist Anarchism in Late Nineteenth Century America/' Journal of Libertarian Studies 5,3 (Summer 1981): 291-304. A discussion of individualist anarchism focussing on Benjamin Tucker's Liberty during its 27 year existence from 1881-1908.

940. McElroy, W. Liberty, 1881-1908: A Comprehensive Index. St. Paul, Minn.: M. E. Coughlin, cl982.

941. Reichert, W. O. Partisans of Freedom: A Study in American Anarchism. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green Univ. Pop. Pr., 1977. A series of biographical cameos seeking to represent the ideas of anarchists of the individualist tradition. There are some questionable inclusions, like Tom Paine, but also discussion of Benjamin Tucker.

942. Rocker, R. Pioneers of American Freedom. Los Angeles: Rocker Pubns. Comm., 1949. A discussion of the origins of liberal and radical theory in America, with a discussion of Tucker's contribution, pages 118-38, and of his collaborators on the journal Liberty, pages 139-44.

943. Watner, C. "Benjamin Tucker and his Periodical Liberty." Journal of Libertarian Studies 1,4 (Fall 1977): 291-304. Overview of Tucker's main principles, his founding of the periodical Liberty, and his influence and significance for anarchist philosophy.

944. Watner, C. "The English Individualists as they appeared in Liberty." Journal of Libertarian Studies 6,1 (1982): 59-82. Examines the contributions of Benjamin Tucker, Hiram Levy, and Auberon Herbert to the journal Liberty.

COLIN WARD (1924- )

Works by Ward:

945. The Allotment, Its Landscape and Culture. Co-author David Crouch. London: Faber & Faber, 1988. A discussion of allotments and the way in which this poorly and spasmodically organized collective activity maintains itself in the face of pressures for development.

946. Anarchy in Action. Originally published London: Allen & Unwin, 1973. New York: Harper Torchbook, 1974. An argument concerning the practicality of realizing the anarchist vision of a future society. Covers such topics as planning, housing, family life, education, play, work and the state.

947. The Child in the City. New York: Random House, 1987. A study that explores the relationship between children and their urban environment, and investigates how it could be improved.

948. The Child in the Country. London: Robert Hale, 1988. A companion to The Child in the City, this work looks at the problems of education faced by rural children. It also investigates the paradox produced by the movement of rural poor to the city being paralleled by the movement of the affluent back to the country.

949. A Decade of Anarchy. London: Freedom Pr., 1987. Selections from the monthly journal Anarchy, during Ward's period as editor, 1961-70, including sections on anarchist thought, work, education and the environment.

950. "A Few Italian Lessons." The Raven 2,3 (July 1989): 197-206. Reflections on the success of co-operatives and the small workshop economy in Italy.

951. "Four Easy Pieces and One Hard One." The Raven 3,2 (March 1990): 154-85. A review of Michael Smith, The Libertarians and Education, op.cit., entry 1541, that develops into a wide-ranging discussion covering, among other topics, education and authority, hierarchy, the Burston school strike, and William Morris as an anarchist educator.

952. Housing: An Anarchist Approach. London: Freedom Pr., 1976. A collection of essays and lectures which looks at housing issues in Britain over a period of thirty years. Ward is concerned to suggest constructive and practical solutions to existing problems, arguing that even if these solutions are dependent on the existing structure they are still anarchist solutions. He argues for owner occupation, co-operatives, the relaxation of bureaucratic controls and the provision of incentives to encourage the poor to build their own houses.

953. "Notes of an Anarchist Columnist." The Raven 3,4 (Oct.-Dec. 1990): 315-19. Reflections on his activity as an anarchist journalist from War Commentary, through the period of Anarchy to his role as columnist for New Statesman and Society.

954. 'The Path Not Taken." The Raven 1,3 (Nov. 1987): 195-200. Reflections on the failure of British socialism to win popular support.

955. "Self-Help in Urban Renewal." The Raven 1,2 (Aug. 1987): 115-20. A discussion of urban renewal in the light of Ebenezer Howard's ideas on Garden Cities.

956. Welcome Thinner City: Urban Survival in the 1990s. London: Bedford Square Pr., 1989. A discussion of urban planning that argues for dweller control and the essential rights of householders and occupants, while examining self-build housing associations, co-operative workshops, allotments, urban farms and various resident's schemes.

957. When We Build Again: Let's Have Housing That Works. London: Pluto Pr., 1985. An attack on postwar housing policies in Britain, characterized as geared to mass public housing schemes that have institutionalized, bureaucratized and dehumanized people.

JOSIAH WARREN (1798-1874)

Works by Warren:

958. Equitable Commerce: A New Development of Principles as Substitutes for Laws and Governments, for the Harmonious Adjustment and Regulation of the Pecuniary, Intellectual, and Moral Intercourse of Mankind, Proposed as Elements of New Society. New York: Burt Franklin Reprint, 1967. Originally published New York: Fowlers & Wells, 1852, although a version appeared in 1846, Warren's classic work on individualist anarchism that attempts to design a society aimed at producing individual freedom, coincidence of interests and the proper, legitimate and just reward of labor. Ideally cost should be the limit of price and exchange should be based on labor inputs. Two excerpts, "The Pattern of Life in an Individualist Anarchist Community," and "Equitable Education" appear in Patterns of Anarchy, 312-23, 445-8. Op.cit., entry 1436.

959. True Civilization an Immediate Necessity and the Fast Ground of Hope for Mankind etc. New York: Burt Franklin Reprint, 1967. Originally published Boston, Mass.: Warren, 1863. Written against the background of the Civil War, this is a defense of individualism and liberty and an attack on the unjust treatment of labor that is held responsible for existing problems in society. Only an equitable exchange of products on the basis of their labor value, it is asserted, will solve these problems, allowing cooperation on the basis of individual sovereignty.

Works about Warren:

960. Arieli, Y. "Individualism Turns Anarchism - Josiah Warren." In Individualism and Nationalism in American Ideology, 289-96. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Pr., 1964. A brief discussion of Warren's theory of individualist anarchism.

961. Bailie, W. Josiah Warren, the First American Anarchist. New York: Kraus Reprint Co., 1971. Originally published, Boston: Small, Maynard & Co., 1906. An account of the life, thought and social experiments of Josiah Warren, including New Harmony, the "Time Store" which exchanged goods against labor notes, and the Village of Utopia.

962. Barclay, H. "Josiah Warren - The Incomplete Anarchist." Anarchy 85 (March 1968): 90-6. A discussion of the ideas of Warren that argues that he is best considered as a democrat who favored decentralization rather than an anarchist.

963. Bestor, A. E. Backwoods Utopias: The Sectarian and Owenite Phases of Communitarian Socialism in America, 1663-1829. Philadelphia: Univ. of Philadelphia Pr., 1950. Provides some useful background to Warren's experiments, especially Chapter 7, "The Owenite Legacy."

964. Dorfman, J. "The Philosophical Anarchists: Josiah Warren, Stephen Pearl Andrews." In The Economic Mind in American Civilization. Vol. 2, 671-8. New York: Viking Pr., 1944. A discussion of the economic and social ideas of the two individual anarchist proponents of equitable commerce. The discussion of Warren focuses on his ideas about the value of labor and its measurement.

965. Ellis, J. B. Free Love and Its Votaries or American Socialism Unmasked. New York: AMS Pr., 1971. A reprint of the original edition, New York: US Pub. Co., 1970. Chapter, 23, "Modern Times," deals with Warren, his scheme of equitable commerce, and the Time Store experiment, as well as discussing his ideas on slavery, marriage and the freedom of women.

966. Fellman, M. "The Substance and Boundaries of Utopian Communitarianism. Albert Brisbane and Josiah Warren." In The Unbounded Frame, 3-19. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Pr., 1973. A comparative analysis that elucidates Warren's views by contrast with those of Brisbane, the American translator of Fourier and advocate of large, structured, authoritarian communities.

967. Hall, B. N. "The Economic Ideas of Josiah Warren, First American Anarchist." History of Political Economy 6,1 (1974): 95-108. A discussion of Warren's "equitable system", looking at issues like cost as the limit of price, labor value and wages, exchange and "equivalent labor", and the role of capital, machinery and automation.

968. Kline, W. G. The Individualist Anarchists. Boston & London: Univ. Pr. of America, 1987. Warren's contribution to the individualist anarchist tradition is discussed and assessed.

969. Lockwood, G. B. and Prosser, C. The New Harmony Movement. New York: Appleton, 1907. There is a discussion of Warren's life and ideas and a chapter on him by William Bailie, pages 294-306.

970. Martin, J. J. Man against the State: The Expositors of the Individualist Anarchism in America, 1827-1908. Dekalb, 111.: Adrian Allen, 1953. There is discussion of the experiences, ideas and history of Josiah Warren, particularly in Chapters 1-3, pages 1-87. See entry 1838.

971. Reichert, W. O. Partisans of Freedom: A Study in American Anarchism. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green Pr., 1977. Contains a discussion of Josiah Warren. See entry 941.

972. Rexroth, K. "Josiah Warren." In Communalism: From Its Origins to the Twentieth Century, 235-40. London: Peter Owen, 1975. A brief biographical sketch.

973. Rocker, R. Pioneers of American Freedom. Los Angeles: Rocker Pubns. Comm., 1937. Warren's ideas are discussed at some length on pages 49-69. See entry 814.


Works by Wilson:

974. Three Essays on Anarchism. Sanday, Orkney: Ciefuegos Pr., 1979. Originally published in Practical Socialist (Jan. 1886). Three short essays by Charlotte Wilson, who, starting as an active member of the Fabian society, played an important part in the emergence of the British anarchist movement in the 1880s. Influenced by Proudhon, Bakunin and Kropotkin, she was more individualist than the latter. She worked with Kropotkin and was one of the organizing forces behind Freedom, which she edited for over ten years at a crucial time for the development of anarchist ideas in Britain.

Works about Wilson:

975. Quail, J. The Slow Burning Fuse: The Lost History of the British Anarchists. London: Paladin, 1978. A description of the British anarchist movement from its inception in the 1880s, that includes discussion of the life and work of Charlotte Wilson.

976. Oliver, H. The International Anarchist Movement in Late Victorian London. London: Croom Helm, 1983. Charlotte Wilson is discussed in Chapter 2, pages 24-43.


Works by Woodcock:

The selection omits literary and historical work not relevant to anarchism and articles and notes on other anarchists found elsewhere. For an extensive bibliography of works to 1976 see 1013.

977. "Anarchism." In The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. 15th edition. Vol. 1, 808-13. Chicago: Britannica, 1974. A survey of anarchist movements, philosophers and ideas, concluding that anarchism is a moral and social doctrine before it is a political one, and that, in its opposition to regimentation and support of local interests, it serves as a touchstone by which to judge the existing society.

978. Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1963. A comprehensive history, written sympathetically, but critically, which focuses on Godwin, Proudhon, Stirner, Bakunin, Kropotkin and Tolstoy. It also discusses anarchist movements on a country by country basis. Despite criticism regarding inaccuracies, it remains the standard introduction to anarchist history and theory. See entry 1014. Reprinted with a postscript in 1976.

979. Anarchism and Morality. London: Freedom Pr., 1945.

980. "Anarchism and Public Opinion." Freedom 28 (June 1947): 2. A reply to a point made by George Orwell critical of anarchism in his essay "Politics vs. Literature," Polemic 5 (1946).

981. "Anarchism and Violence." Canadian Forum (Jan. 1971): 333-5. Reprinted in Abraham Rotstain, ed. Power Corrupted, 39-48. A reprint of the January 1971 issue of Canadian Forum. Toronto: New Pr., 1971. Written against the background of violence committed by Quebec nationalists the piece argues for relevance for the anarchist ideas on decentralization.

982. "Anarchism Revisited." Commentary 46,2 (Aug. 1968): 54-60. Discusses the revival of interest in anarchism in the 1960s, particularly among students. Woodcock concludes that, as a movement for a totally new society, anarchism has failed. What is left is the possibility of using the doctrine to maximize freedom within existing society.

983. The Anarchist Reader. Edited by Woodcock. London: Fontana, 1977. The introduction traces the history of anarchism. It includes a bibliographical supplement and brief details of the lives of various authors. A useful collection of readings covers a wide range of anarchist thought, and includes pieces by Read, Faure, Bookchin, Ward and Goodman, as well as contributions from the classic thinkers.

984. Anarchy or Chaos? London: Freedom Pr., 1944. Written in the context of the war against Nazism and Fascism, it contrasts freedom with totalitarian regimes, concluding that anarchism is the form of social organisation best suited to guarantee freedom. A discussion of the history and nature of anarchism follows that clearly prefigures Woodcock's later work. Part of the book later appeared as the essay "The Rejection of Politics," in the book of that name, op.cit., entry 1005.

985. The Basis of Communal living. London: Freedom Pr., 1947. A pamphlet that focuses on the community as an ideal in theory, and as a reality in primitive society, in Spain in the 1930s, in the Jewish kibbutzim and in wartime Britain.

986. The Centre Cannot Hold. Routledge New Poets No.10. London: Routledge, 1943. A collection of poems some of which have anarchist subjects and themes.

987. The Crystal Spirit: A Study of George Orwell. London: Cape, 1967. Contains observations on Orwell's experiences in Spain, his attitude towards anarchism and its relationship to the major themes of his work.

988. Dawn and the Darkest Hour. London: Faber & Faber, 1972. A study of the life and work of Aldous Huxley, that, in part, discusses his search for a moral philosophy and his relationship with radical movements and ideas with which Woodcock was also involved.

989. "The Elizabethan Anarchy." Freedom (24 Jan. 1948/7 Feb. 1948): 2/2. A critique of a T. S. Eliot's view that the Elizabethan age was one of anarchism, that is of dissolution and decay.

990. 'The Ending Century: Prospect and Retrospect." The Raven 3,2 (March 1990): 187-92. Reflections on the career of anarchism in the last half of the twentieth century.

991. Gandhi. London: Collins, 1972. A discussion of Gandhi's life and philosophy of Satyagraha, concluding that Gandhi was anarchistic rather than anarchist.

992. Purdy/Woodcock: Selected Correspondence, 1964-1984. Edited by George Gait. Toronto: ECW Pr., 1988. A collection of letters exchanged between two major literary figures in Canada.

993. Herbert Read: The Stream and the Source. London: Faber & Faber, 1972. See entry 787.

994. Homes or Hovels. The Housing Problem and Its Solution. London: Freedom Pr., 1944. An essay on slum dwellings and poor housing, arguing that a social revolution is necessary to abolish private property and to vest control of housing in local communities.

995. A Hundred Years of Revolution: 1848 and After. Edited by Woodcock. London: Porcupine Pr., 1948. A collection of essays by Woodcock, Max Beloff, Christopher Hollis, Raymond Postgate et al on 1848 and its aftermath, written on the centenary of the events in question. There is discussion of the revolutionary roles of Proudhon and Bakunin.

996. The Anarchist Prince: A Biographical Study of Peter Kropotkin. Coauthor Ivan Avakumovic. London: T.V. Boardman & Co., 1950. See entry 602.

997. The Doukhobors. Co-author Ivan Avakumovic. London: Faber, 1968. A study of the Doukhobor community, which fled Russia to settle in Canada, as an example of a self-contained Utopian community. Tolstoy's role in their escape from persecution is emphasized. Tolstoy believed the sect to be practicing a form of religious anarchism. Bibliography and index.

998. Letter to the Past: An Autobiography. Toronto: Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 1982. The first volume of his autobiography that takes the reader to 1949 when Woodcock returned to Canada from England.

999. "The Manipulators." Anarchy 117 (Nov. 1970): 358-62. Essay on drugs and the meaning of liberation.

1000. New Life to the Land. London: Freedom Pr., 1942. A discussion of British agricultural policy, advocating local control of production through village syndicates.

1001. "Not Any Power: Reflections on Decentralism." Anarchy 104 (Oct. 1969): 305-9. A discussion of decentralization in history. The discussion ranges from ancient communes to Kropotkin and Tolstoy, concluding that there is a continuing need to confront the destructive tendencies of centralism.

1002. The Paradox of Oscar Wilde. New York and London: T.V. Boardman & Co., 1949. A study of Wilde's life and work. Chapter 8, 'The Social Rebel," considers the close sympathy between Wilde and the anarchists.

1003. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon: A Biography. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1956. See entry 758.

1004. Railways and Society. London: Freedom Pr., 1943. An argument for a syndicalist, workers' takeover of the railway system to make it function for the benefit of the whole society.

1005. The Rejection of Politics and Other Essays. Toronto: New Pr., 1972. A collection of Woodcock's essays and occasional pieces, including a number on anarchism and related issues. Note: Chapter 2, "The Rejection of Politics," which appeared as part of Anarchy or Chaos? in 1944, op.cit.; entry 984; Chapter 3 "Anarchism Revisited"; Chapter 5, "Not Any Power: Reflections on Decentralism"; Chapter 9, "Anarchism and Violence."

1006. "Riding with the Hounds." Anarchy 114 (Aug. 1970): 258-60. Takes issue with the remarks Richard Drinnon had made on Woodcock's approach to anarchism at the American Historical Association Convention, 1970.

1007. "Tradition and Revolution." The Raven 2,2 (Oct. 1988): 103-17. A discussion of the need to consider regional and national specificities when seeking action for the creation of an anarchist society, with extended consideration of Canada.

1008. William Godwin: A Biographical Study. Foreword by Herbert Read. London: Athlone Pr., 1981. See entry 328.

1009. The Writer and Politics. London: Porcupine Pr., 1948. A collection of essays that examines the relationship between the writer and society, focussing on particular movements for social reform or revolution. There are essays on Kropotkin, Proudhon, Herzen and Orwell.

Works about Woodcock:

1010. Dolgoff, S. "The Relevance of Anarchism to Modern Society." In Contemporary Anarchism, 37-50. Op.cit., entry 1495. A discussion of the relevance of anarchism in the contemporary period that attacks the work of Woodcock for seeking to consign anarchism to an historical niche.

1011. Fetherling, D., ed. A George Woodcock Reader. Ottawa: Deneau & Greenberg, 1980. A selection from Woodcock's prolific writings, including his political journalism. Includes a previously unpublished letter to Herbert Read.

1012. Hughes, P. George Woodcock. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1974. A study of Woodcock's work and ideas, rather than a biography, that discusses his anarchism at length. Select bibliography.

1013. New, W. H. A Political Art: Essays and Images in Honour of George Woodcock. Vancouver: Univ. of British Col. Pr., 1978. A collection of essays dealing with all aspects of Woodcock's life and work, that covers both his literary and political output. Note D. S. Savage, "Anarchism," pages 119-47, and Tom Wayman, "The Ghosts of the Anarchists Speak of George Woodcock," pages 162-67. There is an extensive bibliography of Woodcock's works to 1976 by Ivan Avakumovic, on pages 213-49.

1014. Walter, N. "Woodcock Reconsidered." The Raven 1,2 (Aug. 1987): 173-84. A review of Anarchism and The Anarchist Reader that extends to a critical discussion of Woodcock's career and contribution to the anarchist movement.