Paul Nursey-Bray, Anarchist Thinkers and Thought: An Annotated Bibliography, 1992.

On the Margins of Anarchist Theory


The relationship of Mich to anarchism is perplexed. On the one hand his ideas on decentralization, community and conviviality are, in essence, anarchist. On the other hand, he does not eschew the state. Indeed, he asserts that his convivial mode of production "does not of itself mean that| one form of government would be more fitting than another, nor does it I rule out a world federation, or agreement between nation states, or communes, or many of the most traditional forms of government." (Too/s| for Conviviality, 30. Op.cit, entry 1028.) The selection here is limited to| works with a bearing on Illich's social theory.

Works by Illich:

1015. ABC: The Alphabetization of the Popular Mind. London: Marion| Boyars, 1988. Argues that the relationship that bound speaker to speech and made discourse whole and meaningful has, with the invention of thel alphabet, disintegrated. While some unity has been maintained in the past[ by grammar and vernacular languages, this is now threatened by the swift march of information processing.

1016. "After Deschooling What?" In After Deschooling What?, 20. Op.cit., entry 1033. Mich discusses the political revolution associated withj deschooling as reasserting the idea of conscious living over the capitalization of manpower.

1017. Celebration of Awareness. New York: Doubleday & Co., 1970. A collection of essays in which IUich calls for a cultural revolution that will embrace a celebration of human values, of human needs and of human relationships. Such a recognition of human dignity can be used to confront and challenge bureaucratic, hierarchical, over-tooled and over-schooled contemporary society.

1018. Deschooling Society. New York: Harper & Row, 1971. Published in England, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1973. Illich's famous attack on schooling as a system the chief aim of which is the preservation of the status quo, of systems of hierarchy and authority. Obligatory schooling is, in practice, socially divisive and educationally dysfunctional. Mich calls for a deschooling of the social processes of learning, for the liberation of critical and creative resources, and for the creation of self-motivated activity within learning networks.

1019. Disabling Professions. With others. London: Marion Boyars, 1977. A collection of essays, the title essay by Mich, in which a concerted attack is made on the professions in a modern consumer market society. The various professions are characterized as 'disabling' in their pursuit of activities that thwart human creativity and the fulfillment of human need, and support and maintain the barren status quo of technological, consumerist society.

1020. Energy and Equity. London, Marian Boyers, 1974. Mich argues that liberated society, participant democracy and productive social relationships go together with low energy technology such as bicycles.

1021. Imprisoned in the Global Classroom. Co-author Etienne Verne. New York: Writers & Readers Pub. Inc., 1980.

1022. Gender. New York: Pantheon Bks., 1983. Beginning with an account of the position of women Mich proceeds to develop a scheme for examining gender in an historical context. History is depicted as the transition from "gender" to "sex" coinciding with the transition from subsistence to commodity based society. The modern world is one of "sex" relations where men and women, notionally equal but practically disadvantaged, compete for the same goods and services. The break-down of gender was the precondition for capitalism. Self-realization entails, in the view of Mich, the somewhat contentious idea of the reclaiming of gender.

1023. H2O and the Waters of Forgetfulness: Reflections on the Historicity of "Stuff." Dallas: Dallas Inst. Pubns., 1985. Published in England, London: Marion Boyars, 1986.

1024. Medical Nemesis: The Expropriation of Health. New York: Pantheon Bks., 1976. Published as Limits to Medicine, London: Marian Boyars, 1976. A attack on the medical profession as part of a campaign against the "disabling professions" that maintain modern society. Doctors are attacked as a "major threat to health." Their claim to indispensability is dismissed as unfounded, and it is asserted that they create new diseases, dependence and anxiety, while being expensively unnecessary.

1025. Retooling Society. Cuernavaca: Centro Intercultural de Documentation, 1973. A critical examination of the dimensions of the contemporary crisis, discussing overgrowth, industrialization, over population, pollution and the programming of humanity to fit the demands of an inhuman system. Mich demands the retooling of society to produce a convivial, pluralist mode of production orientated to human values.

1026. The Right to Useful Employment. London: Marian Boyars, 1978. An attack on the professions of modern, technocratic society, the engineers, doctors, lawyers and others who, it is argued, thrive on the maintenance of the system and the anti-human values and politics it generates. They are, for Illich, "disabling professions" in their anti-social functions. Mich argues for the Politics of Conviviality which implies a subordination of production to participatory justice, the creation of use values, the protection of equity and the exercise of liberty.

1027. Shadow Work. London: Marion Boyars, 1981. Based on a series of lectures delivered at conferences and seminars, this is a discussion of the uncompensated work required by a market economy and consumer society. Shadow work is, for instance, commuting to the office, preparing for an examination or, archetypically, housework.

1028. Tools for Conviviality. London: Fontana, 1973. Published in USA, New York: Harper & Row, 1973. Discussing the crisis produced by a dependence on machines and 'schooling', Illich argues for the reconstruction of society to allow the contribution of autonomous individuals within a technology of production designed to satisfy human needs. A convivial tool is one designed for a maximization of use-value in a convivial society where creative relationships exist between free individuals, and between humanity and the natural environment.

1029. Towards a History of Needs. New York: Pantheon Bks., 1977. Five essays in which Illich explores familiar themes; the trade-off between commodities and use-values; rich nations and development; the problem of medical care in a commodity-centered culture; the connection between energy use and social values; shared living and free social relationships.

Works about Illich:

1030. Apple, M. W. "Ivan Illich and Deschooling Society: The Politics of Slogan Systems." In Social Forces and Schooling: An Anthropological and Sociological Perspective, edited by N. K. Shimarara and Adam Scrupski, 337- 60. New York: McKay Co., 1975. A critical discussion of Mich's views, comparing his position to that of Marxism and arguing that his fundamental weakness lies in an inability to deal with the complexity of the problems that he identifies.

1031. Chappell, R. H. "Anarchy Revisited: An Inquiry into the Public Education Dilemma." Journal of Libertarian Studies 2,4 (Winter 1978): 357- 72. Primarily concerned with the identification and documentation of the educational viewpoints espoused by nineteenth century anarchists, the article also discusses the ideas of Illich and Goodman.

1032. Elias, J. L. Conscientization and Deschooling: Freire's and Illich's Proposals for Reshaping Society. Philadelphia: Westminster Pr., 1976. A general discussion of Illich's social theory. The relationship of his ideas to the anarchist tradition is considered, pages 104-7, and his dependence on Rawls' notion of justice and on ideas of socialism is noted.

1033. Gartner, A., et al. After Deschooling What? New York: Harper & Row, 1973. Nine critiques and reactions from educators on issues raised by the idea of Deschoooling Society, plus the title essay by Illich himself.

1034. Hedman, C. G. "The 'Deschooling' Controversy Revisited: A Defense of Illich's 'Participatory Socialism'." Educational Theory 29,2 (Spring 1979): 109-16. Locates the deschooling programme of Ivan Illich within the tradition of Kropotkin and Goldman.

1035. Reagan, T. "The Foundation of Ivan Illich's Social Thought." Educational Theory 30,4 (Fall 1980): 293-306. Argues that Illich draws his inspiration not so much from libertarian or radical perspectives, but from the medieval ideal of human society.

1036. Smith, M. The Libertarians and Education. London: Allen & Unwin, 1984. Illich's ideas are discussed in the context of a consideration of anarchism and education.

1037. Thomas, K. "Back to Utopia." New York Review of Books 30,12 (May, 1983): 6-10. A review of Gender that extends to a general discussion of Illich's ideas.

1038. Watt, A. J. "Illich and Anarchism." Educational Philosophy and Theory 13, (Oct. 1981): 1-15. Compares Illich's ideas with those of Bakunin and Kropotkin, arguing that as a theorist he has strong affinities with the syndicalist stream of anarchist philosophy.

WILLIAM MORRIS (1834-1896)

The relationship of Morris to anarchism is at best ambiguous. During his lifetime he explicitly rejected the tradition, saying the he would "about as soon join a White Rose society as an Anarchist one; such nonsense as I deem the latter." (A. Clutton-Brock, 165. Op.cit., entry 1057.) Yet he wrote a Work, News from Nowhere, acclaimed by Kropotkin as one of the best anarchist visions of the future ever written. This selection is limited to those political works of Morris that either have some bearing on his vision of a future society, or have some connection with the anarchist faction of The Socialist League.

Works by Morris:

1039. "Art and Socialism." In The Political Writings of William Morris, 109-93. Op.cit, entry 1049. Originally delivered as a lecture before the Leicester Secular Society, 23 January 1884. Published as a pamphlet in 1884. Collected Works 23, 192-214. Op.cit., entry 1040.

1040. Collected Works. 24 vols. Preface by Joseph Riggs Dunlap. Edited May Morris. New York: Oriole Eds., 1973. Originally published London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1910-15. Volume 23 contains a number of political essays issued as pamphlets, including "Communism" (1893) "Lectures on Socialism" (1894) and "How I Became a Socialist" (1894), in which there is some discussion of Morris' negative view of anarchism. His animosity towards anarchism was spurred by what he saw as the politics of the anarchist faction that had seized control of the Socialist League.

1041. "Communism." In The Political Writings of William Morris, 227-46. Op.cit., entry 1049. Originally a lecture delivered to the Hammersmith Socialist Society at Kelmscott House on 10 March, 1893. Published as a Fabian Tract 1903. Collected Works 23, 264-76. Op.cit., entry 1040. A description of the functioning of a communist society noting community ownership and the minimization of waste.

1042. A Dream of John Ball. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1974. In this edition published with News from Nowhere. Originally published in serial form in the The Commonweal. Published in book form London: Reeves & Turner, 1896. An imagined meeting with John Ball, one of the leaders of the Peasants Revolt of 1381, provides Morris with a basis for reflecting on equality and freedom. The frontispiece by Burne-Jones of Adam and Eve bears the inscription, attributed to Ball, "When Adam delved and Eve span who was then the gentleman."

1043. Socialism, Its Growth and Outcome. Co-author E. Bax. New York: Kerr, 1909. More Bax than Morris, the work traces the history of socialism, | discussing the development of society from ancient to modern times.

1044. "How I Became a Socialist." In The Political Writings of William | Morris, 241-6. Op.cit., entry 1049. First published Justice, (16 June 1894). Morris's own view of his political and intellectual development.

1045. News from Nowhere. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1970. First | published in serial form in The Commonweal, 11 January to 4 October 1890. First published in book form in Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1890, and London: Reeves and Turner, 1891. The work was partly written as a response to Edward Bellamy's Looking Backward, 1888, which envisaged a centralized, bureaucratic ideal society of America, 2000 A.D., with humanity dominated by experts and technology. By contrast, the future England of News from Nowhere is a green and unpolluted land that blends Morris' views on community life and art. It is a decentralized society that practices garden agriculture and workshop industry. Goods are produced for use only and are freely exchanged. Wages and money do not have any place. Machines exist only for repetitive tasks, and craft skills and the decorative arts flourish in a a society where work is a pleasure. Women have attained liberation and social relationships are based on equal relations betwen free individuals unconstrained by state authority. Kropotkin described it as "the most thoroughly and deeply Anarchistic conception of future society that has ever been written." Freedom 10,110 (November 1896): 109.

1046. "Socialism and Anarchism." In The Political Writings of William Morris, 210-14. Op.cit, entry 1049. Morris's letter that appeared in The Commonweal on 5 May, 1889 as part of the discussion taking place over the direction of the Socialist League. An interesting discussion in which, in defending authority as "public conscience" in a society of equality and reason, Morris, it can be argued, still leaves his political position open to question.

1047. 'The Society of the Future." In The Political Writings of William Morris, 188-204. Op.cit., entry 1049. Originally a lecture delivered to the Hammersmith Branch of the Socialist League 13 November, 1887, this is a discussion of aspects of an ideal future society which parallels the society of News from Nowhere in its forms of work, education and the distribution of wealth.

1048. Useless Work versus Useless Toil. London: Communist Party of Great Britain, 1986. Originally delivered as a lecture before the Hampstead Liberal Club 16 January, 1884. Published as a Socialist League pamphlet in 1885. Collected by Morton, op.cit., entry 1050, pages 88-108. A discussion of the nature of work that examines the question of how work is productive of pleasure.


1049. The Political Writings of William Morris. Edited with introduction A. L. Morton. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1973. A useful collection of Morris's political writings that includes "The Lesser Arts," "Art Under Plutocracy," "London in a State of Siege," "Under an Elm-Tree," "Where Are We Now?" as well as those important essays and lectures cited separately above.

1050. Selected Writings and Designs. Edited Asa Briggs. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1962. With a supplement by Graeme Shankland on "William Morris, Designer." A useful collection that contains some political work, including writings on socialism.

1051. William Morris on Art and Socialism. Edited with introduction by Holbrook Jackson. London: John Lehmann, 1947. Contains important essays and lectures on socialism, collected by a well-known author, anthologist and bibliophile.

Works about Morris:

Selection is limited to works treating of his social theory and of his dealings with anarchists.

1052. Arnot, R. P. William Morris: The Man and the Myth. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1964. A book specifically devoted to Morris's political ideas that is built around 30 newly discovered letters and 20 made available in the 1950s. This represents correspondence between Morris and John Lincoln Mahon, the first secretary of The Socialist League and Dr. John Glasse, a prominent member of the League.

1053. Boos, F., ed. William Morris's Socialist Diary. London: Heinemann, 1985. A diary kept by Morris for three months from January 25 1887, which contains comments on the anarchist faction of The Socialist League.

1054. Boos, F. and Boos, W. "The Utopian Communism of William Morris." History of Political Thought 7,3 (1986): 489-510. Establishes Morris as a "utopian-communist" and compares him with a range of other writers, including Marx, Kropotkin, Schumacher and Bahro.

1055. Boris, E. Art and Labor; Ruskin, Morris and the Craftsman Ideal in America. Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Pr., 1986. Discusses the adaptation of Morris's ideas to America with examination of the crafts movement in late nineteenth century America, Utopian colonies and the role of women.

1056. Casement, W. "William Morris on Labor and Pleasure." Social Theory and Practice 12 (Fall 1986): 351-82. Discusses Morris's attitude to labor as pleasure in terms of the hope present in labor, identified by Morris as "hope of rest, hope of produce and hope of pleasure in work itself."

1057. Clutton-Brock, A. William Morris: His Work and Influence. London: Williams and Norgate, 1914. Contains a useful discussion of the relations between Morris and the anarchists in The Socialist League with some account of his response to their doctrine.

1058. Cole, G. D. H. Persons and Periods: Studies. New York: A. M. Kelley, 1969. Contains a discussion of William Morris and the modern world.

1059. Coote, S. William Morris: His Life and Work. London: Garamond, 1990.

1060. Eshelman, L. W. A Victorian Rebel: The Life of William Morris. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1940. A biography that covers his political life and ideas in Book 4, "The S.D.F. - And Revolution," pages 191-243, Book 5, "The Socialist League - And Bloodshed," pages 247-307, and Book 6 "Th Hammersmith Socialist Society - And Victory," pages 311-47. '

1061. Faulkner, P. Against the Age: An Introduction to William Morris London: Allen & Unwin, 1980. A biography that gives a lot of attention to the political ideas and career of Morris, discussing his relationship with the Anarchists. See Chapter 4, "Into Politics, 1877-82," pages 87-110, Chapter 5, "Socialism, 1883-90," pages 111-46, and Chapter 6, "The Last Stage 1890-6' pages 147-78.

1062. Glasier, J. B. William Morris and the Early Days of the Socialist Movement. Preface by May Morris. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1921. A personal memoir by a friend and comrade of Morris with some observations on The Socialist League and its anarchist wing, especially in Chapter 14.

1063. Henderson, P. William Morris. London: Thames & Hudson, 1967. A biography that involves some discussion of Morris's political ideas and career. Chapters 11, 12 and 13 cover the period 1883-1890 and his involvement with The Socialist League; Chapter 14, covers the period 1890- 93, examining News from Nowhere.

1064. Hulse, J. J. Revolutionists in London: A Study of Five Unorthodox Socialists. London: Clarendon Pr., 1970. Includes chapters on Peter Kropotkin and- William Morris.

1065. Jones, M. "Humane Socialist." New Statesman 107,2766 (23 March 1984): 12-13. On the 150th anniversary of his birth this celebrates the continuing relevance of Morris's ideas.

1066. Kirchoff, F. William Morris. London & Boston: Twayne Pubs., 1979. Discusses his political life and ideas in their literary context. In particular see Chapter 5 '"How We Might Live.' Morris as a Socialist," pages 111-136.

1067. Kropotkin, P. "In Memory of William Morris." Freedom 10,110 (Nov. 1896): 109-10. A tribute to William Morris and to News from Nowhere hailed as "the most thoroughly and deeply Anarchistic conception of future society that has ever been written."

1068. Lindsay, J. William Morris: His Life and Work. London: Constable, 1975. Chapters 12-15 discuss Morris as a social theorist and activist.

1069. Lloyd, E. G. William Morris. London: Cassell & Co., 1949. There is a discussion in Chapter 7 of anarchism and divisions within The Socialist League.

1070. Lloyd, T. "The Politics of William Morris's News From Nowhere." 9,3 (1977): 273-88. Discusses the changes in the text of Morris's News From Nowhere, from its serialized form in Commonweal to its book form a year later, claiming that Morris moved from a discernibly anarchist position in the earlier version towards parliamentary socialism and trade unionism in the final version.

1071. Mackail, J. W. The Life of William Morris. 2 vols. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1920. The earliest and most extensive biography of Morris. Discusses "The Democratic Federation, 1883-1884," in Chapter 15, and "The Socialist League, 1885-1886," in Chapter 16. News from Nowhere is treated as a "slightly constructed and essentially insular romance," page 256.

1072. Marshall, R. William Morris. London: Compton Pr., 1979. Discusses Morris's socialism in relation to his aesthetics, his literary work and his approach to moral theory. In particular see "Paradise for All Through 'Aesthetic Socialism' 1882-1890," pages 234-71.

1073. McCulloch, C. "The Problem of Fellowship in Communitarian Theory: William Morris and Peter Kropotkin." Political Studies 32, 3 (Sept. 1984): 431-50. Discusses Kropotkin and Morris as theorists of the community, focussing on the problematic nature of fellowship in communities, in particular the tensions betwen its social-psychological and moral aspects.

1074. McKercher, W. R. Freedom and Authority. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1989. Identifies the major concerns and personalities in libertarian political philosophy in the nineteenth century, with particular emphasis on William Morris, tracing links to modern social movements.

1075. Meier, P. William Morris. The Marxist Dreamer. New York: Humanities Pr., 1978. An analysis of Morris's vision of the future, focussing on News from Nowhere, which is treated as a realistic prediction of the outcome of scientific socialism.

1076. Morris, M. William Morris: Artist, Writer, Socialist. 2 vols. Oxford: Kemp Hall Pr., 1936. Volume Two, with an introduction by Bernard Shaw, discusses Morris's socialism and his activities in The Socialist League. Chapter 12 looks at socialism and anarchism, page 307, and communism and anarchism, page 317. Letters, articles and lectures by William Morris form the basis of the work.

1077. O'Sullivan, P. E. "Environmental Science and Environmental Philosophy: Part 2 Environmental Science and the Coming Social Paradigm." Journal of Environmental Studies 28 (1987): 257-67. News from Nowhere is discussed as an early contribution to environmentalism.

1078. Shaw, G. B. William Morris as I Knew Him. New York: Dodd, 1937. A memoir of Morris, someone Shaw met as a fellow socialist when they were both young men, that deals with his political and social convictions.

1079. Stansky, P. Redesigning the World: William Morris, the 1880s and the Arts and Crafts. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Pr., 1985. A discussion of the aesthetics of Morris as part of his social and political philosophy. The arts and crafts movement is placed in the social and political context of Victorian England and Morris's attitude to work and to machines is examined.

1080. Stansky, P. William Morris. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Pr., 1983. There is a discussion of the politics of Morris in Chapters 5 and 6, pages 60-89.

1081. Thompson, E. P. William Morris: Romantic to Revolutionary. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1955. A study of William Morris that concentrates on his political ideas and career. There is a detailed discussion of the Socialist League, founded by Morris, Eleanor Aveling and Belfort Bax after the split with Hyndman's Social Democratic Federation, and the divisions within it between socialists and anarchists.

1082. Thompson, P. The Work of William Morris. London: Heinemann, 1967. Chapters 11-13 examine Morris's socialism, discussing his admiration for Marx, his association with Hyndman and his idea of a future socialist society. He is characterized, somewhat contentiously, as believing in the necessity of a first stage of state socialism before free individualism could flourish under communism.

1083. Vallance, A. William Morris. His Art, His Works and His Public Life. London: George Bell & Sons, 1898. Chapter 12, "Socialism," examines the development of his political ideas, discussing the influence of Ruskin, Mill and Marx.

1084. Von Helmholz-Phelan, A. A. The Social Philosophy of William Morris. Durham, N.C.: Duke Univ. Pr., 1927. A discussion of Morris's social and political ideas, dealing both with his socialism and the relationship between art and society. There is a useful discussion of "Morris's Conception of a True Society," pages 149-84.

1085. Ward, C. "Four Easy Pieces and One Hard One." The Raven 3,2 (March 1990): 154-85. A review of Michael Smith, The Libertarians and Education, op.cit., entry 1541, that develops into a wide-ranging discussion covering, among other topics, William Morris as an anarchist educator.


Either the inclusion or the omission of Rothbard as an anarchist is likely, in one quarter or another, to be viewed as contentious. Here, his Anarcho- Capitalism is treated as marginal, since, while there are linkages with the tradition of individualist anarchism, there is a dislocation between the mutualism and communitarianism of that tradition and the free market theory, deriving from Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich von Hayek, that underpins Rothbard's political philosophy, and places him in the modern Libertarian tradition.

Works by Rothbard:

1086. America's Great Depression. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1963. An interpretation of the Great Depression based on a Misesian view of the business cycle that questions the conventional wisdom that laissez-faire capitalism was at fault.

1087. Conceived in Liberty. 5 vols. New Rochelle, N.Y.: Arlington Hse., 1975- Rothbard's mammoth history of America. The central emphasis is on the struggle between liberty and power as a motivating force for American revolutionaries and the American struggle for nationhood. History is seen as a struggle between social power, produced by voluntary actions among human beings, and state power. The American tradition, in Rothbard's account, is individualist, libertarian and anarchic.

1088. The Ethics of Liberty. Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Pr., 1982. A libertarian argument for liberty and rights in a free market setting advancing the proposition that, in a truly free society where individual rights of person and property are secure, the state would cease to exist. The key to the theory of liberty, it is argued, is the establishment of guaranteed rights of private property.

1089. For a New Liberty. New York: Macmillan, 1973. Puts forward the basis of a theory of liberty and defends the theory of anarcho-capitalism. More popular than scholarly, the work concentrates on the application of the libertarian creed to important social and economic problems in American society.

1090. The Great Depression and New Deal Monetary Policy. Co-author G. Garett. San Francisco: Cato Inst., 1980. A study of New Deal monetary policy written from a perspective that portrays it as self-serving abuse of privilege and trust that subverted America's fundamental individualist, anarchic tradition.

1091. Individualism and the Philosophy of the Social Sciences. San Francisco: Cato Inst., 1979. A discussion of free will and individualism and a critique of collectivist views that seek to subordinate the individual to the primacy of social wholes. A methodological individualism is proposed that is associated with Max Weber, Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich von Hayek.

1092. Man, Economy and State. Los Angeles: Nash, 1970. A comprehensive analysis of the free market economy that, while it reaches no direct political conclusions, upholds the view that the free market possesses great virtue. Coercive intervention of any kind is to be eschewed.

1093. "Myth and Truth about Libertarianism." Modern Age 24 (Winter 1980): 9-15.

1094. The Panic of 1819. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1962. A study of America's first great economic crisis and the various remedies advocated. Links with later protectionism are suggested.

1095. Power and Market: Government and the Economy. Menlo Park: Instit. for Humane Studies, 1971. Carries on the analysis of Man, Economy and the State, detailing types of government intervention in the free economy, and showing the unfortunate consequences of such intervention. A case is advanced for a totally stateless and therefore free, anarchic market society. Criticisms of the free market are considered and dismissed as lacking meaning and consistency.

1096. "Society without a State." In Anarchism. Edited by J. Roland Pennock and John W. Chapman, 191-207. New York: New York Univ. Pr., 1978. A useful discussion of anarchist premises that focuses attention on how an anarchist society would settle disputes over alleged violations of person and property in the absence of a state. Concludes that an anarchist system for settling disputes, once established, could work and continue indefinitely.

1097. Towards a Reconstruction of Utility and Welfare Economics. New York: Center for Libertarian Studies, 1977. An argument that the unhampered free market maximizes social utility, and that laissez-faire economists were better welfare analysts than they are generally considered.

1098. "The Transformation of the American Right," "The Anatomy of the State" and "Why Be Libertarian?" In Contemporary Anarchism, chapters 8, 9, 10, 111-55. Op.cit, entry 1495. Rothbard sets out the parameters of his libertarianism and his attitude to the state.

Works about Rothbard:

1099. Barry, N. P. "Anarcho-Capitalism." In On Classical Liberalism and Libertarianism, 161-91. London: Macmillan, 1986. A useful discussion of Rothbard's contribution to right libertarianism and his ideas on a free market, stateless society.

1100. Block, W. "On Robert Nozick's 'On Austrian Methodology'." Inquiry 23,4 (1980): 397-444. A critical response to Nozick that involves discussion of Rothbard. See entry 1105.

1101. Block, W. and Rockwell, L. H. J., ed. Man, Economy and Liberty: Essays in Honor of Murray N. Rothbard. Auburn, Alabama: Ludwig von Mises Institute, 1988. Essays that examine and discuss Rothbard's work on economics, politics, philosophy and history.

1102. Fielding, K. T. "The Role of Personal Justice in Anarcho-Capitalism." Journal of Libertarian Studies 2,3 (Fall 1978): 239-41. A discussion of the issues raised by the notion of free-market courts.

1103. Friedman, D. The Machinery of Freedom: Guide to a Radical Capitalism. New York: Harper and Row, 1973. Not directly related to Rothbard, this work is a popular explication of libertarianism with a strong assertion of the value of the free market, liberty and property. It concludes that anarcho-capitalism is the best form of social organization. A radical critique of American universities as unfree agencies of power is followed by a substantial discussion of anarchism.

1104. Horn, W. "Libertarianism and Private Property in Land: The Positions of Rothbard and Nozick, Critically Examined, Are Disputed." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 43,3 (1984): 341-56. A critical examination of Rothbard and Nozick. Suggests that both positions are untenable because of their vagueness and ambiguity over the definition of value.

1105. Nozick, R. "On Austrian Methodology." Synthese 36, (1977): 353-92. Discusses Rothbard in connection with von Mises, pointing to faults in their methodology. See entry 1101.

1106. Yandle, B. "Property Rights Paradox: George and Rothbard on the Conservation of Environmental Resources." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 41,2 (April 1982): 183-95. Notes that Rothbard treats Henry George's recommendation that governments act to affect private land transactions as an assault on property rights. Argues that, while Rothbard's social system has no mechanism to govern tradeable property rights in environmental resources, George's scheme allows for the evolution of new property rights.