General Theory and History

1298. Ames, R. "T. "Is Political Taoiato Anarchism?" journal of Chinese Philosophy 10 (March 1983): 27-48. A comparative study of anarchism and Taoism.

1299. Anderson, T. and Hill, P. J. "An American Experiment in Anarcho- Capitalism: The Not So Wild West." Journal of Libertarian Studies 3,1 (Spring 1979): 9-29. Using 19th century frontier America as a case study, Anderson examines the claims that an absence of government does not lead to disorder because the free market effectively provides necessary services for justice and protection. He concludes that the absence of government in frontier society did not produce chaos. Rights were protected and competitive market organizations offering services such as protection and justice existed without becoming monopolies.

1300. Anthony, P. The Ideology of Work. London: Tavistock, 1977. Traces ideologies of work since classical times with particular attention to the post Reformation era. Concludes that the modern world is dominated by an ideology of work arising from the need of controllers to exact maximum effort from workers.

1301. Apter, D. "The Old Anarchism and the New - Some Comments." Government and Opposition 5,4 (1970): 397-409. Summarizes the key concerns of traditional anarchism, contrasting them with the anarchism espoused by various spokespersons of the youth culture of the late 1960s. Apter notes the shift from the inter-generational appeal of the old anarchism to a more exclusively youth oriented philosophy.

1302. Apter, D. E. and Joll, J., ed. Anarchism Today. Garden City, N.Y: Doubleday, 1971. Collection of essays originally published in the journal Government and Opposition, plus three supplementary essays. Provides an overview of anarchist theory and practice with an emphasis on the latter. See entries 1301,1423,1590,1635,1658,1677,1689,1776,1815 and 1835.

1303. Avrich, P. Anarchist Portraits. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Pr., 1988. An anarchist history consisting mainly of biographies with sections on Russia, America, Europe and the World. There are some useful discussions of anarchists such as Ricardo Magon, Mollie Steimer and the Australian theorist J. W. Fleming, as well as anarchist subjects, such as, Jewish anarchism in America and Brazilian anarchism, not often covered.

1304. Avrich, P. "Conrad's Anarchist Professor: An Undiscovered Source." Labor History 18,3 (1977): 397-402. A short piece of detective work naming Professor Mezzeroff as the likely character upon whom the bomb-carrying Professor in Conrad's The Secret Agent is modelled.

1305. Baldelli, G. Social Anarchism. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972. An attempt to sketch an anarchist approach to society. Shows strong affinities with Proudhon's ethics and seeks to distance itself from the libertarianism of Bakunin.

1306. Bankowski, Z. "Anarchy Rules: O.K.?" Archiv fiir Rechts-und Sozialphilosphie 63 (1977): 327-38. Argues against the view that anarchy is defined by the principle of individualism and suggests that anarchism is an attempt to organize society in a non-authoritarian manner.

1307. Barber, B. R. Superman and Common Men: Freedom, Anarchy, and the Revolution. New York: Praeger, 1971. A negative assessment of the potentialities of anarchism. Chapter 2, "Poetry and Revolution: The Anarchist as Revolutionary", raises questions about anarchism's viability as a philosophy of revolution, arguing that it is a Utopian doctrine that has attracted no first class minds and has a disdain for the common people it seeks to liberate.

1308. Barclay, H. People without Government. Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Pr., 1982. Examines the primitive anarchy of acephalous tribal societies, then looks at anarchist experiments and possible future anarchist communities. Concludes that all human societies are engaged in a continual struggle between freedom and authority.

1309. Barker, J. H. Individualism and Community: The State in Marx and Early Anarchism. New York: Greenwood Pr., 1986. Examines the origins of Marx's views of the state and evaluates the conflicts between these views and those of Proudhon. Concludes that the two views of the state are fundamentally incompatible.

1310. Barker, J. H. "Sartre's Dialectical Anarchism: Institution, Sovereignty and the State." Cogito 2 (June 1984). Argues that Sartre's Critique of Dialectical Reason provides an account of a social anarchism organized around the praxis of the individual.

1311. Barlas, J. E. Holy of Holies: Confessions of an Anarchist. Chelmsford, U.K.: J. H. Clarke, 1887. A short collection of poems on anarchist themes.

1312. Barrett, G. The Anarchist Revolution. London: Freedom Pr., 1920. A pamphlet making a general statement of the anarchist position with discussions of direct action and the new society that will result.

1313. Barrett, G. Objections to Anarchism. London: Freedom Pr., 1921. An interesting catechism, in pamphlet form, in which the usual objections to an anarchist society - What about incentives? How do you regulate the traffic? What about crime? etc. - are considered and answers essayed.

1314. Bell, T. H. Edward Carpenter: The English Tolstoi. Los Angeles: The Libertarian Group, 1932. An obituary pamphlet recording the death of an English anarchist, in June 1929, whose aristocratic origins, anarchist beliefs and mysticism prompted a comparison with Tolstoy. Although opposed to violent revolution, he was not, however, a pacifist.

1315. Benello, G. C. "Anarchism and Marxism: A Confrontation of Traditions." Our Generation 10,1 (Spring 1974): 52-69. Explores areas where anarchist thought confronts the tenets of Marxism.

1316. Bennett, D. C. "Anarchy as Utopia." Studies (Ireland) 63 (1974). Discusses the debate on the relevance of anarchism to technologically advanced societies with references to books like Reich's The Greening of America, entry 1504, and Ward's Anarchy in Action, entry 946.

1317. Berlin, I. Russian Thinkers. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1979. Originally the first of four volumes of collected writings and lectures portraying the intellectual ferment of Russia in the nineteenth century. Includes the famous study of Tolstoy, "The Hedgehog and The Fox." See entry 884.

1318. Berman, P. "Philip Levine: The Poetry of Anarchism." Marxist Perspectives 2,2 (1979): 29-34. Discusses the link between poetry and anarchism in America with the work of Levine as a starting point. Two of Levine's poems are also reprinted.

1319. Berman, P. Quotations from the Anarchists. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1976. Also published New York: Praeger, 1972. A representative selection of brief excerpts from the writings, letters and speeches of the major anarchist thinkers.

1320. Blatt, M. H. Free Love and Anarchism. Urbana & Chicago: Univ. of Illinois Pr., 1989. A biography of the anarchist Ezra Heywood, 1829-1893, an advocate of free love, women's rights and birth control. Includes photographs and bibliography.

1321. Blau, J. L. "Unfettered Freedom." Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 7 (Fall 1977): 243-58. A discussion of individualist anarchism (Warren, Andrews and Spooner) in the context of the American debate about liberty in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

1322. Bloom, S. F. "The 'Withering Away' of the State." journal of the History of Ideas 7,1 (Jan. 1946): 112-24. Addresses the question of whether Marx's ideas on a stateless, communist society make him an anarchist. Concludes that, insofar as his ideas suggest the persistence of a minimal state, he is, in fact, considerably closer to the liberal tradition.

1323. Bluestein, A., ed. Fighters for Anarchism: Mollie Steimer and Sanya Fleshin. Minneapolis: Soil of Liberty, 1983. London: Refract Pubns., 1983. A collection of writings by Mollie Steimer, 1897-1980, and Simon (Senya) Fleshin, 1894-1981, with an account of their lives by Paul Avrich.

1324. Bonanno, A. M. Introduction. Strange Victories: The Anti-Nuclear Movement in the US and Europe, Midnight Notes. London: Elephant Bks., 1985. A discussion of the tactics of the anti-nuclear movement with comments on the role of anarchism.

1325. Bonnano, A. M. Workers Autonomy. Port Glasgow: Bratach Dubh Pubns., 1978. A collection of short essays on the themes of workers' councils, self-management and local organization.

1326. Bonnano, A. M. Anarchism and the National Liberation Struggle. Port Glasgow: Bratach Dubh Pubns., 1976. A pamphlet that makes an anarchist response to national liberation in the context of a Sicilian separatist struggle supported by the political right.

1327. Bonnano, A. M. Critique of Syndicalist Methods: Trade Unions to Anarcho-Syndicalism. Translated J. Weir. Port Glasgow: Bratach Dubh Pubs., 1977. Based on Italian and Spanish examples this is a discussion of the potential and the limitations of revolutionary syndicalism, which, it is argued, even in its anarchist form, can still be the embryonic form of post- revolutionary state organization.

1328. Bool, H. "Henry Bool's Apology for His Jeffersonian Anarchism". In Individual Anarchist Pamphlets. New York: Arno Pr., 1972. Part of a collection of pamphlets reprinted in their original form. Published by Bool, Ithica: 1901, this pamphlet comprises a series of letters Bool wrote to the Ithica Journal which that journal declined to print. Bool defines his individualist anarchism, associating himself with Proudhon, Spooner, Warren and Tucker, and disassociating himself from the anarchism of Leon Czolgosz, assassin of President McKinley.

1329. Borgatta, E. F. "Anarchy and Utopia." International Social Science Review 61 (Autumn 1986): 147-54. Suggests that, because social scientists have largely ignored anarchism as a political philosophy, they have failed to take advantage of the radical perspectives and frameworks it can provide when considering future models of social organization.

1330. Bose, A. A History of Anarchism. Calcutta: World Pr., 1977. Suggests that anarchist doctrine is the oldest and most persistent in human history. Argues that it originated in the east and traces its evolution and decline in the West. Concludes that having come a full circle, it is time for it to be reborn in the East. Includes bibliography and index.

1331. Brock, P. Twentieth Century Pacifism. London: Van Nostrand, 1970. International in scope, it offers a comprehensive account of the radical peace movement in an historical context.

1332. Brown, C. W. "Thucydides, Hobbes and the Derivation of Anarchy." History of Political Thought 8,1 (Spring 1987): 33-62. Assesses the debt of Hobbes to Thucydides and, in particular, their shared beliefs about the nature of conflict. Anarchy in this instance is taken to mean not merely the absence of centralized authority, but a war of all against all.

1333. Brown, L. S. "Anarchism, Existentialism, Feminism and Ambiguity." Our Generation 19,2 (Spring/Summer 1988): 1-18. Argues for a strong link between anarchism and existentialism and investigates the connections with feminism.

1334. Brown, L, S. "Beyond Feminism: Anarchism and Human Freedom." Our Generation 21,1 (Fall 1989): 201-11. Argues that anarchism must be feminist to remain self-consistent, while, in its basic opposition to all hierachy and domination, anarchism goes beyond feminism.

1335. Buber, M. Paths in Utopia. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1949. Distrustful of "systems", especially Marxist ones, Buber looks instead to the anarchists, examining the theories of leading thinkers. He also examines the Israeli agricultural commune as a model for an ideal social structure.

1336. Burns, W. J. The Masked War. New York: George H. Doran, 1913. An expose by a labor union infiltrator who brought anarchists to trial for alleged conspiracies involving dynamite.

1337. Bush, W. C. and Mayer, L. S. "Some Implications of Anarchy for the Distribution of Property." Journal of Economic Theory 8,4 (Aug. 1974): 401- 12. An attempt to provide a mathematical model of anarchy based on the idea of a natural equilibrium. Not a model of co-operation.

1338. Bush, W. C. Essays on Unorthodox Economic Strategies: Anarchy, Politics and Population. Blacksburg, Va.: Univ. Pubns., 1976. A memorial volume in honor of Winston C. Bush. This is a collection of 15 essays by Bush and others, which, among other matters, discuss his use of mathematical models of anarchy.

1339. Carr, E. H. The Romantic Exiles: A Nineteenth Century Portrait Gallery. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1968. A chronicle of the personal relations and circumstances of several Russian exiles, most notably Alexander Herzen and Michael Bakunin.

1340. Carter, A. Direct Action and Liberal Democracy. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973. An analysis of the tradition of direct action, primarily in the context of the events of the 1960s, and the liberal arguments against it.

1341. Carter, A. The Political Theory of Anarchism. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1971. An analysis of the anarchist critique of state, society, bureaucracy and democracy, evaluating anarchist claims against those of orthodox political theory.

1342. Christie, S., ed. The Anarchist Encyclopaedia. Monograph 1 Cambridge: Cambridge Free Pr., 1985. Designed as a cross-reference source book on current research and thinking in the fields of anarchist thought and practice and social criticism. This edition contains a piece by Graham Kelsey, "Civil War and Civil Peace: Libertarian Aragon 1936-37."

1343. Christie, S. and Meltzer, A. The Floodgates of Anarchy. London: Kahn and Averill, 1970. A series of reflections on various aspects of society by two politically active anarchists who eschew the intellectual tradition in anarchist thought.

1344. Clark, J. The Anarchist Moment: Reflections on Culture, Nature and Power. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1984. A critique of radical theory from an anarchist standpoint. Beginning with a discussion of Marx, Bakunin, liberation and historical materialism, it proceeds to a consideration of the definition of anarchy involving discussion of theorists from Lao Tzu to Bookchin.

1345. Cohn-Bendit, D. and Cohn-Bendit G. Obsolete Communism: The Left- Wing Alternative. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968. A first-hand description of the revolutionary protests of May-June 1968 in France, providing the basis for a critical analysis of the strategy and nature of political parties, trade unions, the student movement and the State in a capitalist society. Argues the case for the necessity and viability of left radicalism.

1346. Coker, F. W. Recent Political Thought. New York & London: D. Appleton-Century Co., 1934. Chaper 7, "The Anarchists," examines the ideas of Bakunin, Kropotkin and Tolstoy and discusses "anarchism by the deed." A brief historical discussion seeks to relate the American experience to the European tradition on pages 192-202.

1347. Cole, G. D. H. Socialist Thought: Marxism and Anarchism: 1850-90. Vol. 2. London: Macmillan, 1954. A critical summary of socialist literature with emphasis on the movements such as the First International and the Paris Commune. There are excellent critical interpretations of the crucial debates between Marxism and the anarchists.

1348. Comfort, A. Authority and Delinquency in the Modern State. London- Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1950. An influential attack on centralized state authority and the corruption of power in the name of modern psychology and sociology. It is argued that the libertarian anarchist conception of social change is more appropriate to the modern era than the totalitarian/institutional approach.

1349. Comfort, A. "Latter-day Anarchism." Center Magazine 6,5 (1973): 4-8. Recalls the ideas of many respected figures in American history who were individualist anarchists seeking to defend the rights of individuals and minorities. Suggests that human survival depends on a resurrection of these values.

1350 Costantini, F. The Art of Anarchy 43 plates. Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Pr., 1975. A collection of Costantini's dramatic illustrations of significant events and characters in anarchist history.

1351. Coy, P. E. B. "Social Anarchism: An Atavistic Ideology of the Peasant." Journal of Inter-American Studies and World Affairs 14,2 (May 1972): 133- 49. Begins with an abbreviated history of anarchist thought and looks briefly at Spain. Concludes, using the example of Mexico, that anarchism is a philosophy best applied in small scale rural situations, and that the Mexican Revolution was an interaction of ancient values and modern solutions.

1352. Crosby, "P. "The Utopia of Competition." Personalist 52,2 (Spring 1971): 379-85. Part of a symposium "Is Government Necessary?" Suggests that the major premises, which lead to the anarchist conclusion that all government is an unnecessary evil, are fundamentally flawed. See entries 1379, 1512, 1578.

1353. Cuzan, A. G. "Do We Ever Really Get Out of Anarchy?" Journal of libertarian Studies 3,2 (Summer 1979): 151-8. An argument that, since we always live in anarchy, the choice is between market anarchy or non-market (political) anarchy.

1354. Damico, L. H. The Anarchist Dimension of Liberation Theology. New York: P. Lang, 1987. Examines anarchist themes in the work of some of the leading Latin American theologians, concluding that only the radical solutions of an anarchist perspective can fully meet the needs of the people. Bibliography.

1355. Dauenhauer, B. P. "Does Anarchy make Political Sense: A Response to Schurmann's 'Questioning the Foundation of Practical Philosophy'." Human Studies 1, (Oct. 1978). Analyzes certain flaws in Shurmann's argument, op.cit., entry 1527.

1356. De Leon, D. Socialism versus Anarchism: An Address. Expanded edition. Brooklyn, New York: Labor News, 1962. The text of an address delivered in 1901 by De Leon, considered in his day the leading American exponent of Marxism, following the assassination of President McKinley by the anarchist Leon Czolgosz. De Leon seeks to disassociate socialism from the deed while providing a class analysis of the situation. Anarchism is criticized and rejected. Also contains an essay by Paul Lafargue, "The Police and the Anarchists," which argues, from a Marxist point of view, that the capitalists and their police use anarchists as a weapon against socialism.

1357. DeLeon, D. The American as Anarchist: Reflections on Indigenous Radicalism. Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins Univ. Pr., 1978. An examination of anarchism in America, covering both its individualist and communistic forms. Good bibliography.

1358. Dillon, M. R. 'The Perennial Appeal of Anarchism." Polity 7,2 (1974): 234-47. Surveys a number of works on anarchism published in the early 1970s, arguing that the anarchist search for autonomy is of little use to political philosophy.

1359. Dolgoff, S. Fragments: A Memoir. London: Refract Pubns., 1986. An autobiography by an anarchist author best known for his work on Bakunin.

1360. Dolgoff, S. "The Relevance of Anarchism to Modern Society." In Contemporary Anarchism, 37-50. Op.cit, entry 1495. An argument for the continuing relevance of anarchism that attacks Woodcock, Joll and others who, in Dolgoff's view, construct anarchism as history rather than activity.

1361. Drake-Brockman, T. D. "Anarchism: On the Scrap Heap of History." Australian National University History Journal 8 (Nov. 1971) 10-18. Argues that anarchism, while often seen as more appropriate to underdeveloped societies, also has potential in a world of modern technology. Thus, it may again be an important force.

1362. Dubois, F. The Anarchist Peril. Enlarged with a supplementary chapter by Ralph Derechef. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1894. A survey of anarchism which is not as unsympathetic or ill-informed as the title suggests. There is a focus on acts of violence which are held responsible for the end of tolerance towards anarchist doctrines.

1363. Durant, W. Socialism and Anarchism. New York: Albert & Charles Boni, 1914.

1364. Ehrlich, H. J., ed. Reinventing Anarchy: What Are Anarchists Thinking These Days. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979. A very useful collection of contemporary essays, with coverage of a range of topics including the state and social organization, the liberation of self, anarcho- feminism and anarchist tactics.

1365. Eltzbacher, P. Anarchism: Exponents of the Anarchist Philosophy. Translated by Steven T. Byington. With an appended essay on anarcho- syndicalism by Rudolf Rocker. Edited James J. Martin. Freeport, New York: Books for Libraries Pr., 1972. First published in Berlin in 1900, and in London in 1908, this comprehensive work was commended by Kropotkin, although the author was not himself an anarchist. Includes the author's original bibliography and source notes. Consists largely of quotations from the seven major thinkers covered, namely Godwin, Proudhon Stirner Bakunin, Tolstoy, Tucker and Kropotkin.

1366. Engel, B. A. and Rosenthal, C, ed. Five Sisters: Women Against the Tsar. Boston and London: Allen & Unwin, 1987. Originally published London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1976. A collection of memoirs from five women involved in populist revolutionary movements in nineteenth century Russia; Vera Figner, Vera Zasulich, Praskovia Ivanovskaia, Olga Liubatovich, Elizaveta Kovalskaia. The influence of Bakunin and Nechayev on their ideas in particular, and Russian populism in general, is noted.

1367. Fabbri, L. Bourgeois Influences on Anarchism. Translated by Chaz Bufe. Introduction by Chantel Cortes. San Francisco: Acrata Pr., 1987. Also London: Refract Pubns., 1984. A re-issue of Fabbri's work with a biographical note by Sam Dolgoff.

1368. Ferguson, K. "Towards a New Anarchism." Contemporary Crises 7,1 (Jan. 1983): 39-57. Provides an existentialist reformulation of anarchist principles in which the concept of self embraces process, natural law assumptions are rejected, and politics is defined as the public process by which life is ordered.

1369. Feyerabend, P. "Academic Ratiofascism." Philosophy of the Social Sciences 12,2 (June 1982): 191-5. A response to Arne Naess, op.cit, entry 1474. See also entry 1445.

1370. Feyerabend, P. Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge. London: New Left Bks., 1975. A long critique directed against the privileged status of the "scientific method" in modern society, arguing that science is essentially an anarchistic enterprise that cannot be reduced to one single method. Science, having achieved a status similar to religious institutions can no longer be permitted to be so closely bound to the state. Note that Feyerabend attempts to distance himself from political anarchism by describing himself as a Da-da-ist.

1371. Feyerabend, P. "'Science': The Myth and Its Role in Society." Inquiry 18,2 (Summer 1975): 167-82. Argues against the privileged status of science and suggests that its close connections with the State be severed. A summary version of the basic argument presented in Against Method, op.cit., entry 1370.

1372. Feyerabend, P. Science in a Free Society. London: New Left Bks., 1978. A continuation of the arguments Feyerabend developed in Against Method. Also includes some extended replies to critics, with a chapter analyzing the rise of a new type of intellectual in the contemporary era.

1373. First of May Group, International Revolutionary Solidarity Movement. Towards a Citizen's Militia: Anarchist Alternatives to NATO and the Warsaw Pact. Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Pr., 1980. A pamphlet which sets out the basis of armed resistance to state authority, detailing the methods and tactics of guerrilla warfare.

1374. Fischer, G. "The State Begins to Wither Away...Notes on the Interpretation of the Paris Commune by Bakunin, Marx, Engels and Lenin." Australian Journal of Politics and History 25,1 (1979): 29-38. Argues that Bakunin's views on smashing the State apparatus are closer to those of Marx and Engels than to those of Lenin. The writings of Marx and Engels on the Paris Commune form the basis of the argument.

1375. Fleming, M. "Propaganda by the Deed: Terrorism and Anarchist Theory in Late Nineteenth Century Europe." Terrorism 4,1-4 (1980): 1-23. Argues that propaganda by deed became a key element of anarchist theory, providing the philosophical justification for acts of individual terror.

1376. Forman, J. D. Anarchism: Political Innocence or Social Violence. New York: F. Watts, 1975. A sympathetic treatment of the principles of anarchism. Nevertheless, it suggests that, although currently popular as a result of people's alienation from the political system, anarchism is unlikely to lead to revolution.

1377. Fowler, R. B. "The Anarchist Tradition of Political Thought." Western Political Quarterly 25,4 (Dec. 1972): 738-52. Examines common themes and perspectives in the works of seven major theorists; Bakunin, Godwin, Herzen, Kropotkin, Proudhon, Stirner and Tolstoy.

1378. Fox, J. Trade Unionism and Anarchism. Chicago: Social Science Pr., 1908. A pamphlet arguing for the relevance of anarchism to trade unions and making a case for the General Strike.

1379. Franzen, D. "Reply to Peter Crosby's 'Utopia of Competition'." Personalist 52,2 (Spring 1971) 385-93. Argues the case for free market anarchism and suggests a number of analytical weaknesses in Crosby's thesis, op.cit, entry 1352. See also entries 1512,1578.

1380. Freedom Centenary Edition: October 1886-October 1986. London: Freedom Pr., 1986. A collection of essays, on the occasion of the centenary of the magazine Freedom, containing material published during the period in question plus new articles reflecting on the anarchist tradition. Freedom is, as the book proudly notes, the oldest surviving anarchist magazine.

1381. Friedrich, C. J. "The Anarchist Controversy over Violence." Zeitschrift fur Politik 19,3 (1972): 167-77. Examines the relationship between anarchism and violence. Concludes that violence is more a feature of the thought and activities of particular anarchists than an inherent characteristic of anarchist thought in general.

1382. Friedrich, C. J. "Opposition and Government by Violence" Government and Opposition 7,1 (1972): 3-19. Explores violence as an expression of political power and of opposition to government.

1383. Gaucher, R. The Terrorists, from Tsarist Russia to the O AS. Translated from the French by Paul Spurlin. London: Seeker & Warburg, 1968. Assesses the efficacy of terrorism past and present, concluding that it' can be socially constructive.

1384. Gibson, T. Youth for Freedom. London: Freedom Pr.,1952.

1385. Goodway, D., ed. For Anarchism: History, Theory and Practice. London: Routledge, 1989. A collection of essays that covers the history of anarchism, with a discussion of anarchism in Italy and Spain, theory and contemporary practice, including co-operatives and the environment.

1386. Goodwin, B. "The Political Philosophy of Money." History of Political Thought 7,3 (Winter 1986): 537-68. Contrasts two schools of thought on the role of money, the liberal and the socialist/anarchist. The role of money is further considered in relation to social justice.

1387. Gordin, A. Communism Unmasked. New York: I. N. Hord, 1940. A criticism by a Jewish anarchist of Communism as simply another form of exploitation of the proletariat by a new class of masters.

1388. Graham, G. Politics in its Place: A Study of Six Ideologies. Oxford: Clarendon Pr., 1986. A philosophical assessment of six political ideologies - liberalism, socialism, nationalism, fascism, conservatism and anarchism.

1389. Graham, M., ed. Man!: An Anthology of Anarchist Ideas, Essays, Poetry and Commentaries. London: Cienfuegos Pr., 1974. A comprehensive anthology of articles and essays published between January 1933 and April 1940 in the monthly anarchist journal Man1, covering many diverse interpretations of anarchism and anarchist ideas. Includes excerpts from the writings of leading thinkers like Bakunin, Proudhon, Kropotkin and Malatesta, pieces by less published theorists, such as Labadie, Voltairine de Cleyre and William C. Owen, and useful items on Marxism, crime, religion, art, drama and literature.

1390. Graham, M. Marxists and a Free Society. An Anarchist Reply to Isaac Veutscher's Address on 'Socialist Man." Sanday, Orkney: Simian Pubns., 1976. An anarchist response to Deutscher, making reference to the minutes of the First International and the sabotaging of the Hague Congress by the Marx clique. The author was the former editor of the American anarchist journal Man!, closed down by the American government in 1940. At the time of his response Graham was 84.

1391. Greeley, A. M. No Bigger than Necessary: An Alternative to Socialism, Capitalism and Anarchism. New York: New American Lib., 1977. An argument against the "doctrine of bigness" by a leading American Catholic thinker. An alternative system is suggested based on the family and the neighborhood. There is a sympathetic discussion of anarchism in chapter five.

1392. Green, G. The New Radicalism: Anarchist or Marxist? New York: International Pubs. 1971. A critique of the New Left as represented by theorists like Marcuse. Of interest for analyses of contemporary Marxist and anarchist theory.

1393. Guillet de Monthoux, P. Action and Existence: Anarchism for Business Administration. Chichester, West Sussex & New York: J. Wiley, 1983. Examines the place of the individual within the institutions of industrial democratic capitalism. Includes a bibliography and an index.

1394. Hall, D. L. Eros and Irony: A Prelude to Philosophical Anarchism. Albany: Suny Pr., 1982. A re-evaluation of the cultural role of philosophy that asserts first, that in modern culture the conception of rational and moral interests has been so constructed as to undervalue aesthetic and religious sensibilities, and, second, that phUosophy must be understood as a contradiction between a desire for complete knowledge and the failure to achieve it.

1395. Hall, D. L. "Process and Anarchy: A Taoist Vision of Creativity." Philosophy East and West 28 (July 1978): 271-85. Examines different perceptions of anarchy, highlighting a dread in the West of chaos. Suggests a new perspective on anarchy as part of the process of Being.

1396. Hamon, A. F. The Psychology of the Anarchist. A translation of Psychologie de I'anarchiste socialiste. Paris: 1895 by Jean-Paul Cortane. Vancouver: Pulp Pr., 197? Claiming to be scientifically objective, this study of anarchist character traits concludes that an anarchist is a revolutionary libertarian, an individualist, and an altruist who is sensitive, sensible, concerned for justice, logical, curious and anxious to proselytize. }<

1397. Hannay, A. "Politics and Feyerabend's Anarchist." In Knowledge and Politics, edited by M. Dascal, 241-63. Boulder, Col.: Westview Pr., 1990. Argues that an epistemological anarchism that guaranteed the individual's right to make scientific choices would not necessarily promote rather than hinder discovery.

1398. Harding, M. The Armchair Anarchist's Almanac. Illustrated Bill Tidy. London: Arrow, 1982. Originally published London: Robson, 1981. Depicted in the familiar black garb, plus bomb and moustache, anarchists are portrayed as cheerful nihilists who voluntarily adhere to Murphy's Law.

1399. Harper, C. Anarchy: A Graphic Guide. London: Camden Pr., 1987. An introduction to anarchism with material drawn from sources like Woodcock's Anarchism; liberally illustrated, as the title suggests, with powerful black and white block prints.

1400. Harrigan, A. "Conflict and Nihilism." Quarterly Review 363,643 (1965): 26-32. Argues that historically war has often had a noble purpose, but that the impact of Marxist ideologies has had a brutalizing effect on what is called "the conflict impulse" allowing for the triumph of nihilism. Governments are urged to recognize the threat.

1401. Harrison, F. J. The Modern State: An Anarchist Analysis. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1983. An examination of both capitalist and communist states from an anarchist perspective. Includes an overview of the main anarchist and liberal arguments regarding the state, as well as a rehearsal of the Marx/Bakunin debate and a discussion of subsequent socialist state theory. Also discusses the 1980-82 developments in Poland.

1402. Havel, H. What's Anarchism? Chicago: Issued by the International Relations Committee of America, Chicago; Free Society Group of Chicago; International Group of Detroit, 1932. A work setting out the principles of anarchist communism and extolling liberty and equality while denouncing private property and capitalism. Anarchist-communism is hailed as the antidote to Bolshevik state socialism and of direct relevance to the labor movement in America

1403. Hedman, C. G. "An Anarchist Reply to Skinner on 'Weak' Methods of Control." Inquiry 17,1 (1974): 105-11. Asserts that Skinner bases his thesis on the unargued assumption of highly centralized forms of social organization. Using anarchist political theory Hedman suggests that radical decentralization would give new potential to the so-called "weak" methods of control.

1404. Henry, E. Stop Terrorism!. Translated from the Russian by Gulhammid Sobratee. Edited by Peter Tempest. Moscow: Novosti Pr. Agency, 1982. A study of terrorist organizations in capitalist countries. "Left- extremists" are associated with Nechayev and criticized, on the authority of Lenin, as contrary to working class interests.

1405. Herve, G., et at. European Socialism and the Problem of War and Militarism. Translated and abridged by A. M. Thompson. Edited by M. Weitz. New York: Garland, 1972. Contains essays by Herve, Bakunin and Jaures.

1406. Hewitt, M. and Roussopoulos, D. I., ed. 1984 and After. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1984. A collection of essays which provides current perspectives on authority and anarchist alternatives.

1407. Hiskes, R. P. Community without Coercion. Newark: Univ. of Delaware Pr., 1982. Concentrates on the idea of community in anarchist thought, arguing that even extremely individualist anarchists such as Benjamin Tucker define it as a key goal. Redefines the notion of self- interest in an attempt to develop a new, more adequate definition of community.

1408. Hobsbawm, E. J. Revolutionaries: Contemporary Essays. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1973. The work of a Marxist historian critically reviewing the political life of his own time while showing little sympathy for the New Left.

1409. Hoffman, A. Steal This Book. Co-conspirator Izack Haber. New York: Pirate Functions, distributed by Grove Pr., 1971. Accessories after the fact: Tom Forcade [and] Bert Cohen. Under headings such as "Survive," "Fight," "Liberate" this manual for survival in America offers practical advice on how to rip off the system. Contains appendices on where to get shelter, advice and support, as well as suggestions for further reading. Provides insights into the radical, angry American counter-culture of the late sixties and early seventies.

1410. Hoffman, A. The "Steal Yourself Rich" Book. East Orange, N.J.: Timely Pr., 1971. Special edition. Large portions of this book were published under the title Steal This Book.

1411. Hoffman, R. L. "Anti-Military Complex: Anarchist Responses to Contemporary Militarism." Journal of International Affairs 26,1 (1972):l-28. Suggests that an anarchist perspective on military theory allows for the development of new insights.

1412. Hoffman, R. L. Anarchism. New York: Atherton Pr., 1970. A collection of essays arguing for and against the claims of anarchism.

1413. Holterman, T. and Van Maarseveen, H. ed. Law and Anarchism. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1984. A series of essays on the anarchist theory of law, including discussions of rights, natural law, rules, direct action, social order without the state, Proudhon and Kropotkin.

1414. Hong, N. The Anarchist Beast: The Anti-Anarchist Crusade in Periodical Literature, 1884-1966. Minneapolis: Soil of Liberty, 1972?

1415. Horowitz, I. L. ed. The Anarchists. New York: Dell, 1964. A very useful anthology, containing excerpts from a wide range of anarchist and libertarian thinkers and revolutionary activists. Includes a good introduction by the editor.

1416. Hueglin, T. O. "Yet the Age of Anarchism?" Publius: Journal of Federalism 15,2 (1985): 101-12. Argues that anarchism must be understood first as a critique of modern statism, and, second, as providing a viable system of interest mediation. Contrasts anarchist principles with neo- conservative interpretations of laissez-faire liberalism.

1417. Hulse, J. J. Revolutionists in London: A Study of Five Unorthodox Socialists. Oxford: Clarendon Pr., 1970. This study includes chapters on Peter Kropotkin and William Morris.

1418. International Anarchist Congress. Amsterdam. August 26-31, 1907. London: Freedom Office, 1907. A pamphlet bringing together reports that appeared in Freedom between September and December 1907. The report details the Congress discussions on Anarchism and Organization and Anarchism and Syndicalism.

1419. Ishill, J., ed. Free Vistas: An Anthology of Life and Letters. Berkeley Hts., N.J.: Oriole Pr., 1933. A beautifully presented collection from Ishill's private press of poems, extracts and illustrations. There are striking woodcuts by John Buckland Wright and pieces by, or extracts from, Reclus, Godwin, Shelley, Goldman and many others.

1420. Ishill, J., ed. The Oriole Press: A Bibliography. Berkeley Hts., N.J.: Oriole Pr., 1953. A collection of book reviews, essays, reprints, bibliographic notes and previously unpublished letters, plus translations from Spanish, Italian, French, German and Romanian. All are beautifully presented by Ishill's Oriole Press with woodcuts, drawings or photographs of Ishill himself, Rudolf Rocker, Elisee and Elie Reclus, Peter Kropotkin, Emma Goldman, Errico Malatesta and Benjamin Tucker.

1421. Ivansky, Z. "Individual Terror: Concept and Typology." Journal of Contemporary History 12,1 (Jan. 1977): 43-63. Argues that revolutionary terrorism in the modern era is different from that of the nineteenth century. Includes a discussion of anarchist 'terror' and populism in Russia.

1422. Jensen, R. B. "The International Anti-Anarchist Conference of 1898 and the Origins of Interpol." Journal of Contemporary History 16,2 (1981): 323-47. Discusses the Rome Conference of 1989 which initiated a 25 year anti-anarchist campaign waged to a greater or lesser extent by all European governments. This effort became the basis of a pooling of information between European police forces culminating in the anti-anarchist protocol signed in St Petersburg in 1904. These activities laid the foundation of Interpol and also produced new definitions of political criminals.

1423. Joll, J. "Anarchism - a Living Tradition." Government and Opposition 5,4 (1970): 541-54. Summarizes three different ways of looking at the anarchist tradition, explaining its appeal as having "something for everybody." Argues that its international resurgence in the 1960s demonstrates the vitality of the tradition.

1424. Joll, J. The Anarchists. London: Methuen, 1979. One of the best surveys of anarchist ideas, anarchist movements and key anarchist thinkers, which situates the development of anarchist thought within the historical context of the radical movements of the nineteenth century.

1425. Kaufmann, W. A. Existentialism, Religion and Death: 13 Essays. New York: New American. Lib., 1976. Almost all of the essays in this book have appeared before in other books by Kaufmann. He attacks established wisdom, urging a re-examination of all philosophical positions.

1426. Kavka, G. S. "Nuclear Weapons and World Government." Monist 70,3 (July 1987): 298-315. Looks at arguments for centralized authority and world government as a solution to the nuclear threat in the light of arguments by Hobbes and others against anarchy.

1427. Kedward, R. The Anarchists. New York: American Heritage, 1971. A short, illustrated work. Deals with anarchism in Europe and America from 1880-1914. Attention is focussed on communal experimentation and the propagande par le fait movement. Rather brief, even as a survey, but there are some excellent photographs and illustrations.

1428. Keohane, N. O. "The Radical Humanism of Etienne de la Boetie." journal of the History of Ideas 38,1 (Jan-March 1977): 119-30. An assessment of de la Boetie's Discourse on Voluntary Servitude with some comparative remarks concerning Montaigne's views. Concludes that de la Boetie's conclusions regarding human change are pessimistic despite his anarchist premises.

1429. Kipp, D. "Existentialism in Sartre's Nausea." Indian Philosophical Quarterly 14 (Jan.-March 1987): 27-57. Focuses on the early anarchist/individualist phases of Sartre's existentialism.

1430. Klassen, W. "The Limits of Political Authority as Seen by Pilgrim Marpeck." Mennonite Quarterly Review 56,4 (1982): 342-64. Assessing the life and work of Pilgrim Marpeck, it argues against the view that Anabaptists can be understood as anarchists.

1431. Kline, G. L. Religious and Anti-Religious Thought in Russia. London: Unwin, 1968. A chronological examination of ten thinkers, some of them anarchist, seen as representative of the remarkable breadth of religious and political thought in Russia. A final chapter surveys developments since 1917.

1432. Konrad, R. A. "Violence and the Philosopher." Journal of Value Inquiry 8,1 (Spring 1974): 37-45. Concludes that it is misleading to attempt to justify violence as a category separate from normal, moral reasoning.

1433. Kornegger, P. "Anarchism: The Feminist Connection." The Second Wave 4,1 (1975): 26-37. Argues that radical feminism is anarchism in its purest form. Only when the two positions are fully synthesized can the revolution be considered complete.

1434. Kornegger, P., et al. Quiet Rumors: an Anarchist Feminist Anthology- New York: Revisionist Pr., 1984.

1435. Krimerman, L. I. "Anarchism Reconsidered: Past Fallacies and Unorthodox Remedies." Social Anarchism (Baltimore) 1,2 (1980). An examination of the claim made by some anarchists that to enter into political alliances with non-anarchists, especially in the parliamentary arena, is self-defeating.

1436. Krimerman, L. I. and Perry, L., ed. Patterns of Anarchy: A Collection of Writings on the Anarchist Tradition. New York: Anchor Bks., 1966. A comprehensive and well organized collection of writings in and about the anarchist tradition, with sections on anarchist philosophy, the anarchist critique of the existing order, alternative communities, anarchist criminology and anarchists on education. There is a concluding overview by the editors and a good bibliography.

1437. Lampert, E. Studies in Rebellion: Belinsky, Bakunin and Herzen. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1958. Discusses the Russian revolutionary tradition from the time of Nicholas I. There is a detailed study of each of the three thinkers.

1438. Laurin-Frenette, N. "On the Women's Movement, Anarchism and the State." Our Generation 15,2 (Summer 1982): 27-40. A discussion of changes in domestic production and the relations of subordination between this sphere and the sphere of non-domestic production, focussing on the role of the state in turning family functions into political ones and creating a state controlled family. Argues that this restructuring of social control has been done partly in the name of feminist principles and that anarchism is necessary to the realization of the subversive potential of feminism.

1439. Law, L. Bigger Cages, Longer Chairs. London: Spectacular Times, 1987. As in other Spectacular Times productions images, excerpts, quotes, clippings, cartoons etc. are used to deliver an anarchist message.

1440. Law, L., ed. Buffo! A Short Anthology of Political Pranks and Anarchic Buffoonery. New edition 1984, completely revised and updated. London: Spectacular Times, 1982. A series of diverse items, such as excerpts, photographs, clippings, graffiti etc., the purpose of which is summed up by a piece of Rome graffiti from 1978, quoted on page one, "Fantasy will destroy power. Laughter will bury you."

1441. Law, L. Cities of Illusion. London: Spectacular Times, 1984. A series of statements, quotes, excerpts and cartoons aimed at building a social relationship between the 'readers' mediated by images.

1442. Law, L. The Spectacle: The Skeleton Keys. London: Spectacular Times, 1984. A communications exercise in anarchist ideas using collage, subediting techniques etc. to "flash" messages.

1443. Lerner, M. "Anarchism and the American Counter-Culture." Government and Opposition 5,4 (1970): 430-55. Examines the influence of anarchist ideas on the counterculture of the 1960s, especially in relation to violence and the critique of technology. Suggests that anarchist values may well be of more relevance for the future of American society than has Previously been suspected.

1444. Lowy, M. "Revolution Against Progress: Walter Benjamin's Romantic Anarchism." New Left Review 152 July-Aug. 1985): 42-59. Locates Benjamin's ideas in the cultural atmosphere of the turn of the century and suggests they represent an association of messianic and anarcho-utopian elements set against a neo-Romantic criticism of progress.

1445. Machan, T. R. "Anarchosurrealism Revisited." Philosophy of the Social Sciences 12 (June 1982): 197-9. A response to a response. Machan reacts to Feyerabend's answer to his review essay of Science in a Free Society. See entries 1372,1446.

1446. Machan, T. R. "The Politics of Medicinal Anarchism." Philosophy of the Social Sciences 12 (June 1982): 183-9. A review essay of Paul Feyerabend, Science in a Free Society, London: New Left Bks., 1978, in which Feyerabend's conception of a free society, his ideas on democratic councils and his belief in the equal value of different traditions of knowledge are critically discussed.

1447. Machan, T. R., ed. The Libertarian Alternative: Essays in Social and Political Philosophy. Chicago: Nelson Hall, 1974. Essays in the modern libertarian tradition of market based individualism. Contains some material on anarcho-capitalism.

1448. Maciel, A. S., Enckell, M. and Santin, F. Another Venice: Ciao, Anarchici-Images from an International Rendez-Vous. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1986. International co-edition; text in English and Spanish. Contains commentaries, and 250 photographs, about a meeting, in Venice in 1984, of anarchists from over 30 countries.

1449. Maloney, P. "Anarchism and Bolshevism in the Works of Boris Pilnyak." Russian Review 32,1 (1973): 42-53. Suggests that Pilnyak saw in the early Bolshevik movement a genuinely Russian and essentially anarchistic alternative to the existing order. Communism he saw as a foreign influence which led to the extinction of these values.

1450. Manicas, P. T. "John Dewey: Anarchism and the Political State." Transactions. Charles S. Peirce Society 18 (Spring 1982): 133-58. Argues that although Dewey was not an anarchist, his most characteristic ideas have more in common with anarchist political theory than any other tradition, particularly after the shock of World War I radicalized his thought.

1451. Manuel, F. E., ed. Utopias and Utopian Thought: A Timely Appraisal- Boston: Hough ton Mifflin, 1966. A collection of essays by various authors dealing critically with the question of Utopia and related issues. Although not strictly a work on anarchist thought, it deals with numerous issues and questions of concern to the anarchist tradition. Indeed a large portion of Utopian literature is relevant to anarchism and its themes. But it presents a body of sources that is too extensive to cite. Frank Manuel, himself, has, with Fritzie Manuel, also produced French Utopias, New York: Free Pr.,1966 and Utopian Thought in the Western World. Oxford: Blackwell, 1979. The above entry is presented, then, only as a means of introducing this literature. For further details see entry 2242.

1452. Marsh, M. S. Anarchist Women, 1870-1920. Philadelphia- T Univ. Pr., 1981. A social and intellectual history of American Cmp anarchists. Their backgrounds are treated as the key to understandin^their attitudes and work.

1453. Marx, K, Engels, F. and Lenin, V. I. Anarchism and Anarcho- Syndicalism. New York: International Pubs., 1972. A collection of letters and pamphlets critical of anarchist theory and tactics.

1454. Matejko, A. "The Self-Management Theory of Jan Wolski." International journal of Contemporary Sociology 10,1 (1973): 66-87. A tribute to Wolski who is a friend of the author and is described as a "romantic of work." Wolski's aim is not to abolish the state but to abolish wage-earning by transforming labor into a cooperative partnership.

1455. Maximoff (Maksimov), G. P. Constructive Anarchism. Foreword by George Woodcock. Chicago: Maximoff Memorial Pubn. Committee, 1952. Originally published in 1933. A discussion of the virtues and values of anarchism by the former editor of Golas Truda. Maximoff looks at both the positive and the negative aspects of anarchism, addressing issues that had arisen from discussions among Russian anarchists in exile. The theory of anarchism, its vision of an alternative society and the problems of the political movement are addressed. In the second half of the book Maximoff endorses anarcho-syndicalism as the most productive form of struggle. Also included in this volume is My Credo, originally published in 1927, in which Maximoff gives a concise statement of his philosophy. Woodcock's foreword provides useful biographical details.

1456. McDonald, R. J. Syndicalism: A Critical Examination. London: Constable, 1912. An attempt to educate the English about syndicalism by clarifying its French origins and links with the British Labor Party. Emphasizes that labor must organize and, through organization, be responsible for the rights and needs of all workers.

1457. McElroy, W. "The Culture of Individualist Anarchism in Late Nineteenth Century America." Journal of Libertarian Studies 5,3 (Summer 1981): 291-304. Drawing on material published in Tucker's journal Liberty, McElroy examines the assumptions and views of various anarchists, emphasizing internationalism, social reform, and hostility to formal politics.

1458. McElroy, W., ed. Freedom, Feminism and the State: An Overview of individualist Feminism. Washington: Cato Institute, 1982. Anthology of various feminist writings from the 19th and 20th centuries, covering issues such as liberty, sex, marriage, birth control, religion, voting, war, etc.. Written mainly from an individualist feminist perspective.

1459. McKercher, W. R. Freedom and Anarchy. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., J989. A discussion of liberty and individualism focussing on J. S. Mill, William Morris, and, in Chapter 3, anarchist/libertarian thought and propaganda in England.

1460. McMahon, C. "Autonomy and Authority." Philosophy and Public Affairs 16>4 (Fall 1987): 303-28. Suggests the possibility that the acceptance of the authority of another can be the act of an autonomous agent, and, as such, constitutes an argument which might be used as a justification of political society to anarchists.

1461. Melnyk, G. The Search for Community. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1985. A social history of communes and co-operatives which, it is argued, suggest realistic solutions to modern social and economic problems.

1462. Meltzer, A. Anarchism: Arguments For and Against. Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Pr., 1981. A popular, illustrated introduction to anarchism, setting out the tradition's opposition to authority and clearly distinguishing its tenets from those of Marxism.

1463. Meltzer, A., ed. The 'Black Flag' Anarcho-Quiz Book. Illustrated Phil Ruff, with other contributions. Sanday, Orkney: Simian Pubs., 1976. A quiz book if not for the converted, certainly for the cognoscenti. Answers provided.

1464. Meltzer, A., ed. The International Revolutionary Solidarity Movement: A Study of the Origins and Development of the Revolutionary Anarchist Movement in Europe 1945-73 with Particular Reference to the First of May Group. Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Pr., 1976. Includes a brief historical background to the movement, a selection of articles released by them and a useful chronology.

1465. Miller, D. Anarchism. London: J.M. Dent & Sons, 1984. A general study of theory, practice and potential in the anarchist tradition.

1466. Molnar, T. "On Legitimacy." Diogenes 134 (Summer 1986): 60-77. Examines a shift in attitude regarding the concept of popular sovereignty which indicates a tendency to anarchism.

1467. Momey, R. W. "Two Ways of Justifying Civil Disobedience." Philosophy Research Archives 5,1353 (1979): 356-67. Compares the respective arguments used by anarchists and upholders of legal systems to justify civil disobedience. While there are some similarities, there are major differences in their approaches to the issue of punishment.

1468. Morawski, S. "The Ideology of Anarchism - A Tentative Analysis." Polish Sociological Bulletin 37 (1977): 31-47. The origins of anarchism are, it is argued, to be found in the 19th century. Anarchism's key principles are asserted as spontaneity, social instinct, direct action, free association, freedom as an absolute, and the critique of capitalism.

1469. Morley, L. The Progressive Anarchist. Wakefield: Onex Pubns., 1971. An unusual book from an "anti-expert" which aims to provoke and to challenge irrational beliefs. Argues that authority can be defeated by reason.

1470. Morris, J. "Thoreau, America's Gentle Anarchist." Religious Humanism 3 (Spring 1969): 62-5. Argues that Thoreau was one of America's most out-spoken Idealists who exercised considerable influence over some of America's indigenous anarchist thinkers. Suggests that while not completely opposed to government, he was strongly individualist in his philosophical outlook.

1471. Morris, T. "From Liblice to Kafka." Telos 24 (Summer 1975): 163-70. Argues that, contrary to the views of many critics, Kafka's central concern was the exploration of authority relations rather than class or metaphysical relations. Kafka's outlook, therefore, is closer to the anarchist tradition than has previously been appreciated.

1472. Mufloz, V. Anarchists: A Biographical Encyclopaedia. Translated from the Spanish by Scott Johnson. New York: Gordon Pr., 1981. A series of cryptic biographies in note form covering a number of leading anarchists, and detailing both their major work and activities. Useful for its coverage of a number of anarchists not frequently mentioned, such as Joseph Ishill, Luigi Fabbri, Ricardo Magon, Alberto Ghiraldo, Gustav Landauer, Johann Most and Ramon de la Sagra.

1473. Mufloz, V. Max Nettlau: Historian of Anarchism. Translated by Lucy Ross. New York: Revisionist Pr., 1977. A biography of Nettlau, the foremost historian of anarchism and anarchist thinkers.

1474. Naess, A. "Why Not Science for Anarchists Too? A Reply to Feyerabend." Inquiry 18,2 (Summer 1975): 183-94. Defends science in general against the specific claims made by Feyerabend in "'Science': The Myth And Its Role In Society," op.cit, entry 1371. Suggests that the issues worrying Feyerabend are not representative of all science but only of some trends in industrial societies.

1475. Nedava, J. "Abba Gordin: A Portrait of a Jewish Anarchist." Soviet Jewish Affairs 4,2 (1974): 73-9. A biographical sketch of Gordin, 1887-1964, a Russian Jew who participated in the Russian Revolution and the foundation of modern Israel.

1476. Nettlau, M. Anarchy through the Times. Translated from the Spanish by Scott Johnson. New York: Gordon Pr., 1979. A very good history of anarchist thought and deed by one of the foremost anarchist historians.

1477. Newton, L. "Dimensions of a Right of Revolution." Journal of Value Inquiry 71,1 (Spring 1973): 17-28. Analyzes various anarchist views concerning the right to revolution compared to that advocated by John Locke in his Second Treatise on Government.

1478. Nicholas, J. P. Assassinations throughout History. Chicago: Adams Pr., 1969. Intensely critical of the anarchist position on authority, the author details many famous assassinations, with an emphasis on those committed by self proclaimed anarchists, to demonstrate that anarchists are destructive and irresponsible.

1479. Nomad, M. Apostles of Revolution. New York: Collier Bks., 1961. A revised and expanded version of the original 1933 edition with a new introduction by the author. Examines five revolutionary activists including Bakunin, Nechayev, and Johann Most.

1480. Nomad, M. Dreamers, Dynamiters and Demagogues. New York: Waldon Pr., 1964. A somewhat eccentric series of reminiscences about his life in the anarchist movement with personal accounts of Kropotkin, Malatesta, Nettlau et al.

1481. Nomad, M. Political Heretics: From Plato to Mao Tse Tung. Michigan: Ann Arbor Paperbacks, 1968. Studies of various radical thinkers and their ideas.

1482. Nomad, M. Rebels and Renegades. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Pr., 1968. Looks at the problems associated with the cooperation of workers and intellectuals in the pursuit of power. Intellectuals, it is suggested, often assume control while promising workers power after a notional transition period. Examines a variety of thinkers, such as Malatesta, Ramsay MacDonald, Trotsky and Mussolini.

1483. Novack, D. "The Place of Anarchism in the History of Political Thought." Review of Politics 20,3 (1958): 307-29. Surveys a range of anarchist theorists, and treats anarchism as predominantly a 19th century tradition. Concludes that anarchism is now a minor political force but, nevertheless, its importance as a libertarian philosophy should not be underrated.

1484. Novak, D. "Anarchism and Individual Terrorism." Canadian Journal of Economic & Political Studies 20,2 (1954): 176-84. A brief discussion of the views of a number of anarchists on violence which tends to repeat many of the old myths.

1485. Okuguchi, K. "Natural Equilibrium in the Bush-Mayer Model of Anarchy: A Dynamic Analysis." Public Choice 26 (Summer 1976): 129-35. Stability in the Bush-Mayer (mathematical) model of anarchy is shown to be dependent upon the properties of the individual's utility functions and the number of persons.

1486. Osterfeld, D. "Anarchism and the Public Goods Issue: Law Courts and the Police." Journal of Libertarian Studies 9,1 (Winter 1989): 47-68. Argues that government is not necessary to ensure the provision of public goods. Laws, courts, police etc. can all be provided by the free market.

1487. Osterfeld, D. Freedom Society and the State. Lanham: Univ. Pr. of America, 1983. Classifies proposals for alternative social structures and economic institutions regarded by anarchists as suitable replacements for the State. The book is primarily concerned with the proposals of individualist anarchism in the form of "anarcho-capitalism." Concludes that while the desirability of anarchism is difficult to assess, because of the intrusion of personal value judgements, the case for the removal of government remains convincing.

1488. Ostergaard, G. "G.B.S. - Anarchist." The New Statesman and Nation 5,46 (21 Nov. 1953): 628. Discusses briefly Shaw's little known attachment to individualist anarchism in his early years, a time when he was an admirer of Benjamin Tucker.

1489. Ostergaard, G. Resisting the Nation State: The Pacifist and Anarchist Tradition. Studies in Nonviolence No.ll. London: Peace Pledge Union, 1982. A comparative analysis of the approach to the state of the anarchist and pacifist traditions with particular attention paid to Christian anarchism and Gandhism.

1490. Overy, B. "Approaches to Non-Violent Revolution." Gandhi Marg 17 (2): 1973; pp. 141-149. Expresses concern that the popular image of non- violent revolution might obscure an awareness of attendant difficulties.

1491. Pataud,-E. and Pouget, E. How Shall We Bring About the Revolution: Syndicalism and the Co-operative Commonwealth. Translated from the French by Charlotte and Frederic Charles. Preface by Peter Kropotkin. New introduction by Geoff Brown. London and Winchester, Mass.: Pluto Pr., 1990. Originally published Oxford: New International Pubg., 1913. A classic statement of the anarcho-syndicalist position by two revolutionary French syndicalists of the nineteenth century. They espouse the idea of a general strike which, by overthrowing both capitalism and the state, will usher in the dawn of a new society of equality and freedom.

1492. Pennock, J. R. and Chapman, J. W., ed. Anarchism. (Nomos 19 1978). New York: New York Univ. Pr., 1978. Anarchism was the topic chosen for the 1974 annual meeting of the American Society for Political and Legal Philosophy. Nine papers presented at that meetings plus nine others make up this volume. Because the papers refer to each other some useful dialogue is produced. There are particularly valuable discussions on authority and anarchism and forms of social control in the absence of government. In assessing the common roots of liberals and anarchists their common concern for liberty and equality is stressed. Includes a good bibliography and index.

1493. Peperzak, A. T. "Freedom." International Philosophical Quarterly 11 (Sept. 1971): 341-61. Attempts to develop an analysis that, in ruling out the egocentric/individualist approach, makes sociability possible. Provides a justification for the state, while posing the question of what can be learnt from anarchism.

1494. Perkins, R. and Perkins, E. Precondition for Peace and Prosperity: Rational Anarchy. St. Thomas, Ont: The Authors, 140 Talbot St., 1971. Discusses why governments can never facilitate social harmony and, in fact, threaten the very existence of humanity. Sets out to prove that peace can only come about within a rational social structure based on natural moral law, that is anarchism.

1495. Perlin, T. M., ed. Contemporary Anarchism. Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Bks., 1979. A collection of writings by well known participants in the contemporary movement, with an introductory essay that looks at the revival of anarchism in its social and historical context.

1496. Perry, L. Radical Abolitionism: Anarchy and the Government of God in Antislavery Thought. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell Univ. Pr., 1973. Traces the emergence of various American radical movements from their roots in the anti-slavery arguments of the 1840s and 50s. Annotated bibliography.

1497. Peterson, S. A. "Moral Development and Critiques of Anarchism." Journal of Libertarian Studies 3,2 (Summer 1987): 237-45. Argues that the feasibility of mutual aid associations coping with function like education and health care depends on the level of moral development. Progress in the | latter may make such associations seem more practical in the future.

1498. Pike, D. A. Anarcho-Pacifism: Questions and Answers. A Personal View of Anarchism. Glastonbury, U.K.: D. A. Pike, 1987. A general | discussion of anarcho-pacifism that seeks to describe the rules of an ideal | society as well as to answer the difficult questions always faced by pacifists about their reaction to potential violence against loved ones.

1499. Plamenatz, J. Democracy and Illusion. London: Longman, 1973. Looks! at the problems associated with establishing a valid and useful definition of I democracy by examining the theories of both its champions and its critics, j Includes some discussion of anarchism.

1500. Plechanoff (Plekhanov), G. Anarchism and Socialism. Westport, Conn.: Hyperion Reprint Ed. 1981. Translated by Eleanor Max Aveling. Introduction by Robert Rives La Monte. Written in 1885, just before the 18861 meeting of the International in London, it seeks to discredit anarchism! through attacks on Proudhon, Kropotkin and other anarchists as simplistic, I confused, Utopian thinkers and, in their dedication to violence, productive | of reaction.

1501. Powell, W. The Anarchist Cookbook. With a prefatory note on 1 anarchism today by P. M. Bergman. New York: L. Stuart, 1971. Generally I condemned as irresponsible, dangerous and a disgrace to the publishers. AI comic book approach to civil violence which gives instructions for| concocting a variety of drugs and bombs.

1502. Ramm, H. "Che Guevara: Leninist or Anarchist?" Social Praxis 3,3-4 j (1975): 261-72. Examines the revolutionary theory and practice of Che Guevara, arguing that the conception of history implicit in his revolutionary model is idealist and anarchist.Excerpted from Ramm's book Between Lenin And Guevara: The Marxism of Regis Debray, Kansas: Regents Pr., 1974.

1503. "Ravachol." Commonweal 7,322-323 (16 July - 23 July 1892). A statement by Ravachol of his motives and a justification for his conduct that he was not allowed to read in court.

1504. Reich, C. A. The Greening of America. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1970. A piece d'occasion of the counterculture of the 1960's. Argues a case for the relevance of community as a form of political and social organization.

1505. Reichert, W. O. "Toward a New Understanding of Anarchism." Western Political Quarterly 20,4 (1967): 856-65. Argues that the tendency of some theorists to use the advocacy or acceptance of violence as a basis for categorizing anarchist thought is not adequate.

1506. Reichert, W. O. "Anarchism, Freedom and Power." Ethics 79,2 (Jan. 1969): 139-49. This is a defense of anarchist approaches to power, pointing up the anarchist distinction between social and political power, as elaborated in the works of Kropotkin and Proudhon, and the rejection of authoritarian principles.

1507. Reichert, W. O. 'The Anarchist as Elitist." Our Generation 18,1 (Fall- Winter 1986): 63-86. A discussion of anarchist individualism as elitism with reference to the work of Benjamin Barber and Isaac Kramnick, op.cit., entries 302 and 1307.

1508. Reszler, A. "An Essay on Political Myths: Anarchist Myths of Revolt." Diogenes 94 (Summer 1976): 34-52. Attempts to link the idea of political revolt as espoused by anarchists to the role of myths in political theory, seeking connections with primordial gestures of revolt and the destructive imagery often used in the quest for human liberation.

1509. Ritter, A. "Anarchism and Liberal Theory in the Nineteenth Century." Bucknell Review 19,2 (1971): 37-66. Compares and contrasts the two theories, concluding that the essential differences between them are rooted in conflicting concepts of community.

1510. Ritter, A. Anarchism: A Theoretical Analysis. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1980. Drawing primarily on the works of Godwin, Proudhon, Kropotkin and Bakunin, Ritter aims to demonstrate the need for anarchists to be taken seriously within political theory debates.

1511. Robinson, J. Anarchism and Modern Society. Pamphlet. London: S. E. Parker, 1967. A pamphlet that discusses various forms of anarchism, with the aim of establishing which is the most relevant to modern society.

1512. Rollins, L. A. "Reply to C.J. Wheeler." Personalist 52,2 (Spring 1971): 400-11. See entry 1578 in particular. Also entries 1352, 1379. Sets out to demonstrate that free market anarchism is logically consistent and that it is Wheeler's argument for limited government which entails a contradiction.

1513. Rooum, D. Wildcat: Anarchist Comics. London: Freedom Pr., 1985. A collection of anarchist cartoons based on an anarchist feline character called Wildcat. The strip has appeared in a number of anarchist publications including Freedom.

1514. Roussopoulos, D. I., ed. The Anarchist Papers. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1986. A collection of anarchist essays, including pieces by Murray Bookchin, George Woodcock, Noam Chomsky and Paul Goodman. Also contains material on Goldman and feminism.

1515. Roussopoulos, D. I., ed. The Anarchist Papers 2. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1989. Another useful collection of anarchist essays, with interesting contributions on feminism, green politics, ecofeminism and deep ecology, plus a long critique of Mill's concept of liberty.

1516. Roussopoulos, D. I., ed. The Anarchist Papers 3. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1989. Draws together wide-ranging commentaries on anarchist thought from the French Revolution to the modern green movement.

1517. Routley, R. and Routley, V. "The Irrefutability of Anarchism." Social Alternatives 2,3 (1982): 23-9. An argument designed to show that the state is undesirable, since it is costly in both moral and material terms, and unnecessary, since it can be replaced by alternative social arrangements.

1518. Rubel, M. and Crump, ]., ed. Non-Market Socialism in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. New York: St. Martins Pr., 1987. Claims that nineteenth century socialists were generally agreed that socialism meant a moneyless, classless, stateless society. Proceeds to examine the development of these ideas in the twentieth century, challenging many assumptions along the way.

1519. Runkle, G. Anarchism, Old and New. New York: Delacorte Pr. 1972. The work traces linkages between old anarchism, the New Left and the Radical Right and looks at the American individualist tradition.

1520. Russell, B. Principles of Social Reconstruction. London: Unwin Bks. 1971. Originally published as a series of lectures in 1915. Russell sets out a philosophy of politics in which he argues that political institutions should be refashioned to promote the creative impulses of human beings. He suggests that the existence of the state, war, and property ensure that creativity is suppressed.

1521. Russell, B. Roads to Freedom: Socialism, Anarchism and Syndicalism- London: George Allen & Unwin, 1920. Provides an historical and critical analysis of socialist, anarchist and syndicalist thought. Concludes that each has something positive to offer, but none can be accepted as a whole.

1522. Sampson, R. V. The Anarchist Basis of Pacifism. London: Stuart Morris Memorial Fund, Peace Pledge Union, 1970. Published as Society without the State. London: Peace Pledge Union, 1980. Aims to show that "the anarchist's concern with the problem of power is logically inherent in the pacifist's insistence on the sanctity of human life." Argues that to end war people must not only refuse to fight but must live in a manner conducive to peace.

1523. Sampson, R. V. The Psychology of Power. London: Pantheon Bks., 1965. Rests on the premise that what is morally right cannot be pragmatically wrong or invalidated on the grounds of futility. Power involves the neglect of this moral imperative in the pursuit of political goals. Tolstoyan in inspiration.

1524. Sargent, L. T. "Social Decision Making in Anarchism and Minimalism." Personalist 59A (Oct. 1978): 358-69. Seeks to explain the basis of social decision making in anarchism and minimalism. It also attempts to arrive at clear definitions of anarchism and libertarianism by showing how anarchist and libertarian theories treat the issue of social decision making.

1525. Schecter, S. The Politics of Urban Liberation. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1978. A "libertarian evaluation of political economy and the significance of the urban context.

1526. Schiller, M. "Anarchism and Autonomy." Bucknell Review 21,2-3 (1973): 47-59. Argues that the logical conclusion of political anarchism, since all political authority is unacceptable and illegal, must make direct democracy the only acceptable decision-making system.

1527. Schumann, R. "Questioning the Foundation of Practical Philosophy." Human Studies 1 (Oct. 1978) See Dauenhauer, op.cit, entry 1355 for reply. Examines the implications for anarchist philosophy of Heidegger's "question of being."

1528. Schurmann, R. "On Constituting Oneself an Anarchistic Subject." Praxis International 6 (Oct. 1986): 294-310. Examines Foucault's suggestion that practical anarchism is a likely mode of self-constitution.

1529. Schwarz, F. C. The Three Faces of Revolution. Washington: Capitol Hill Pr., 1972. Having identified the three elements of modern revolution as Communism, Anarchy and Sensualism, it is argued that one must first know the "enemy" before one can mount a counter attack.

1530. Scott, I. "Nineteenth Century Anarchism and Marxism." Social Science 47,4 (1972): 212-18. Treats the difference between anarchism and Marxism as corresponding to the divergence between the libertarian and authoritarian approaches to socialism. Notes the contribution of non- European intellectuals to the development and growth of anarchist philosophy.

1531. Senor, T. D. "What If There Are No Political Obligations: A Reply tfl Simmons." Philosophy and Public Affairs 16,3 (Summer 1987): 260-8$ Argues that Simmons is mistaken about the consequences of the conclusion he reaches in his book Moral Principles and Political Obligations, entry 1538 See also entries 1207 and 1537.

1532. Serge, V. Memoirs of a Revolutionary, 1901-1941. Translated from the French by Peter Sedgwick. London: Oxford Univ. Pr. 1963. A personal account by a participant in the Russian Revolution. It seeks to analyze how and why it went wrong.

1533. Shapiro, J. S. Movements of Social Dissent in Modern Europe. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1962. The first half is an assessment of radical ideas of the period 1815-1914, and the second comprises a collection of selected writings of some of the major thinkers. It includes Godwin, Proudhon, Bakunin and Kropotkin but, surprisingly, it does not deal with Marxism.

1534. Shatz, M. S., ed. The Essential Works of Anarchism. New York: Quadrangle Bks., 1972. An introductory anthology containing excerpts from important anarchist writings. It includes a thoughtful introductory essay by the editor.

1535. Shaw, G. B. "The Impossibilities of Anarchism." In The Socialism of Shaw, edited and introduced by James Fuchs, 109-44. New York: Vanguard Pr., 1926. Not the categorical rejection that the title suggests, but rather a rejection of individualist anarchism while expressing a qualified sympathy for anarcho-communism.

1536. Shipka, T. A. "A Critique of Anarchism." Studies in Soviet Thought 27,3 (1984): 247-61. Argues that authority and autonomy must be seen as compatible. The disappearance of government inevitably leads to the appearance of quasi-political structures that perpetuate authority.

1537. Simmons, J. A. "The Anarchist Position: A Reply to Klasko and Senor's Comments on Moral Principles and Political Obligations." Philosophy and Public Affairs 16,3 (Summer 1987): 269-79. Highlights the differences in philosophical and practical anarchism and argues that the integrity of his position requires a shift in the citizen-state relationship. See entries 1207 and 1531.

1538. Simmons, J. A. Moral Principles and Political Obligations. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Pr., 1979. Deals with the relationship between political and moral obligations concluding that political obligations should not override moral principles.

1539. Simon, T. W. "Democratizing Eutopia: Environmentalism, Anarchism, Feminism." Our Generation 17,1 (Fall-Winter 1985-6): 123-50. Considers three novels, Ecotopia (1975) by Ernest Callenbach, Woman on the Edge of Time (1976) by Marge Piercy, and The Dispossessed (1974) by Ursula Le Guin, in an exploration of the continuities between environmentalism, feminism and anarchism.

1540. Smith, J. B. Direct Action versus Legislation. London: Freedom Office, 1909. Pamphlet first published Glasgow: Free Action Anarchist Group, 1899. An appeal to circumvent Parliament, referendums and party government by direct mass action.

1541. Smith, M. P. The Libertarians and Education. London: Allen & Unwin, 1983. Brings together the views of educational libertarians from Godwin to A.S. Neill and Paul Goodman. Includes discussions on Fourier, Proudhon, Tolstoy and Ferrer.

1542. Sneed, J. D. "Order without Law: Where Will Anarchists Keep the Madmen?" Journal of Libertarian Studies 1,2 (Spring 1977): 117-24. Explores the problem of the provision of prison, court and police services in an anarchist society. Evaluates the possibility of competing private agencies providing them.

1543. Solneman, K. H. Z. The Manifesto of Peace and Freedom: The Alternative to the Communist Manifesto. Translated from the German by Doris Pfaff and John Zube. Edited by Edward Mornin. New York: Mackay Society, 1983. A discussion of anarchism as a realistic social alternative to the existing order. Marxism is rejected and an egalitarian, classless, stateless anarchist society described and promoted.

1544. South London Anarchist Group. Compiled. Anarchist Songbook: To Tunes You Know. London: The Group, 1981? A collection of topical lyrics to popular tunes on themes of anarchism, feminism, peace, anti-authority etc.

1545. Spring, J. A Primer of Libertarian Education. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1975. Also New York: Free Life Edns., 1975. An analysis of the libertarian critique of institutionalized education ranging from Rousseau and Godwin to A. S. Neill and Paulo Freire. Some mention is also made of the relevance of the ideas of Max Stirner, Francisco Ferrer, Wilhelm Reich and Leo Tolstoy.

1546. Stalin, J. Anarchism or Socialism? Moscow: Foreign Languages Pubg. Hse., 1952. Stalin's critique of anarchism.

1547. Stenstad, G. "Anarchic Thinking." Hypatia 3 (Summer 1988): 87-100. Explores the potential of anarchic thinking which denies the limitations of a single reality and therefore opens up a whole range of possibilities for theory and action.

1548. Sturber, D. L. The Anarchist Constitution. San Francisco: The Radical! Pubg. Co., 1903. Dedicated to the prostitutes of America, as the greatest| victims of injustice, the work sets out the main articles of a constitution for an anarchist society.

1549. Suskind, R. By Bullet, Bomb, and Dagger: The Story of Anarchism. New York: Macmillan, 1971. Looks at the history and philosophical roots of anarchism concentrating on its violent manifestations in France, Spain, Italy and the United States. Includes a detailed treatment of the Haymarketf Affair.

1550. Tao, R. H. S. "Anarchy versus Authority: Towards a Democratic Theory of Law." Archiv fur Rechts und Sozialphilosphie 63,3 (1977): 305-26.J Points to the autocratic bias of traditional legal theory and its inability tc provide an adequate theory of democracy. Argues, drawing on Hegel and Kelsen, that anarchism, with its vital affirmation of human freedom,] presupposes a society organized along radically democratic lines.

1551. Tassi, A. "Anarchism, Autonomy and the Concept of the Commor Good." International Philosophical Quarterly 17 (Summer 1977): 273-83.1 Suggests that the concept of autonomy has a necessary connection with thef 'common good', but that the latter must be distinguished from the liberal^ concept of 'public good' with which autonomy has a different connection.

1552. Taylor, M. Anarchy and Co-operation. London: Wiley, 1976. Discusse the anarchist critique of state authority using mathematical models.j Challenges the idea that the state is necessary and argues that its existence inhibits voluntary co-operation. See entry 1554.

1553. Taylor, M. Community, Anarchy and Liberty. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1982. An analysis of the political philosophy of anarchist approaches to liberty and equality. Discusses a stateless social order and its possible regulatory mechanisms including the market, using mathematical models. Concludes that communitarian ideals are not necessarily incompatible with individual liberty.

1554. Taylor, M. The Possibility of Co-operation. Cambridge & New York:j Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1987. Revised edition of Taylor's Anarchy and Co operation. A critique of the liberal theory of the state using game theory ar mathematical models. More time is devoted to theories of collective actioij than in the earlier version. See entry 1552.

1555. Taylor, R. Freedom, Anarchy and the Law. Buffalo: Prometheus Bks., 1982. Intended as a text for undergraduate law and political philosophy students, it explores, from a libertarian perspective, the rationale for governments as coercive institutions.

1556. Tcherkesoff (Cherkezov), V. Pages of Socialist History: Teaching and Acts of Social Democracy. New York: C. B. Cooper, 1902. Part published as Concentration of Capital: A Marxian Fallacy, London: Freedom Pr., 1911. A collection of pieces, written originally for Les Temps Nouveaux and Freedom, making up a critical discussion of Marxism from an anarchist standpoint.

1557. Thackrah, J. R. Encyclopedia of Terrorism and Political Violence. London & New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1987. References relate to ideas, theories and terms, as well as leading figures and victims. Only partially linked to anarchist theory and practice. Includes an index and select bibliography.

1558. Thomas, P. Karl Marx and the Anarchists. London & Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980. A reasonably comprehensive analysis of Marx's disputes with the anarchists, focussing on Stirner, Proudhon and Bakunin. Key issues of disagreement are canvassed, and Marx's importance as a theoretician and revolutionary activist assessed.

1559. Tullock, G., ed. Further Explorations in the Theory of Anarchy. Blacksburg, Va.: Univ. Pubs., 1974. Contains four papers reflecting a range of attitudes towards contemporary anarchism, from mathematical approaches to sympathetic skepticism.

1560. Uyl, D. D. "Freedom and Virtue." Reason Papers (Winter 1979). Argues that coercion is incompatible with moral virtue, highlighting the political factors favouring a libertarian approach to human interaction.

1561. Uyl, D. D. "Government and Governed." Reason Papers (Fall 1975). Attempts to spell out what forms the organization of public power would take within a libertarian social structure.

1562. Vagts, A. "Intelligensia versus Reason of State." Political Science Quarterly 84,1 (1969): 80-105. Discusses the thought, and activities, of thinkers like Voltaire and Proudhon, as well as lesser known members of the European intelligentsia, who share a condemnation of the state as irrational and unethical.

1563. Van Dun, F. "Collective Action, Human Nature and the Possibility of Anarchy." Philosophica 21 (1978): 33-53. Essentially a critique of Michael Taylor's Anarchy And Cooperation, op. cit., entry 1552, making use of game theory to test the logic of collective action. Concludes that the argument against anarchy retains its force.

1564. Van Duyn, R. Mesage of a Wise Kabouter. Translated Hubert Hoskins. Foreword by Charles Bloomberg. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co., 1972. See entry 598.

1565. Venturi, F. Roots of Revolution. New York: Knopf, 1960. An account of the conspiracies and struggles associated with populism in nineteenth century Russia. Deals with the period 1848-81. Includes bibliographic notes and a chronological table.

1566. Vizetelly, E. A. The Anarchists. Reprint of 1911 edition. New York: Kraus Reprint, 1972. Chronicles 40 years of anarchist violence generally condemning it as perverted individualism. There is an attempt, however, to understand the social context of terrorist activities and thus the motivations underlying them.

1567. W. H. C. (sic) Confessions of an Anarchist. London: Grant Richards, 1911. A "confession" by a professed anarchist who claims to have seen the error of his ways. Claiming that anarchism is immoral and violent the author calls for the suppression of anarchist publications.

1568. Wakeman, J. Anarchism and Democracy. London: Freedom Pr., 1920. A polemical defense of anarchism that is stronger on rhetoric than argument.

1569. Walker, E. C. "Communism and Conscience." In Individual Anarchist Pamphlets. New York: Arno Pr., 1972. Originally published by Walker himself, New York: 1904, this pamphlet discusses the idea of equal rights and the responsibilities they imply. The more liberty one has, Walker argues, then the more responsibility. Communists and socialists are criticized for seeing problems in social rather than individual terms.

1570. Walter, N. About Anarchism. Reprinted Melbourne: Brickburner Pr., 1977, with a couple of very minor additions to the text. Originally published London: Freedom Pr., 1969. An introduction to the basic ideas, aims, and methods espoused by anarchists.

1571. Warner, C. "The Proprietary Theory of Justice in the Libertarian Tradition." Journal of Libertarian Studies 6, 3-4 (Summer-Fall 1982): 289- 316. On the assumption that the proprietary theory of justice is the key to libertarian analysis, Warner sketches the theory and its roots in early doctrines of natural law, evaluating the contributions of Grotius, Locke, and Pufendorf, and tracing the possible implications of the theory for anarchism.

1572. Warner, S. D. "Anarchical Snares: A Reading of Locke's Second Treatise." Reason Papers 14 (Spring 1989): 1-24. Noting that Locke argues on occasion that the doctrine of natural rights can lead to anarchism, Warner seeks to show that the theory of natural rights can co-exist with a case for the existence of government.

1573. Warriner, G. Confessions of an Anarchist Disguised as a Poet. Cirencester, U.K.: Warriner, 1987. A collection of poems published by the poet himself.

1574. Warner, C. "'Oh, Ye Are For Anarchy!' Consent Theory in the Radical Libertarian Tradition." Journal of Libertarian Studies 8,1 (1986): 111-37. An historical perspective on the anarchy versus limited government debate.

1575. Webster, N. H. World Revolution: The Plot against Civilization. 6th Edition. Revised, edited and brought up-to-date by Anthony Gittens. Devon' Britons Pub. Co., 1971. Traces and links the historical developments of socialism and anarchism, concluding with an exhortation to Britain to save herself and Christian civilization from the menace they represent.

1576. Weisbord, A. The Conquest of Power: Liberalism, Anarchism Syndicalism, Socialism, Fascism, and Communism. 2 vols. London: Seeker & Warburg, 1938. Presents, from a Marxist perspective, an exposition and critique of major political traditions. The section on anarchism, in the first volume, depicts it as negative and futile.

1577. Weiss, T. G. "The Tradition of Philosophical Anarchism and Future Directions in World Policy." Journal of Peace Research 12,1 (1975): 1-17. Surveys the literature of philosophical anarchism and argues that it has heuristic value, both for the clarification of global values and for the resolution of global problems.

1578. Wheeler, C. J. "Justice and Anarchy." Personalist 52,2 (Spring 1971): 393-400. Sets out the weaknesses in the concept of free market anarchism. See entries 1352,1379,1512.

1579. White, J. R. The Meaning of Anarchism. Introduction by Albert Meltzer. Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Pr., 1980. A very brief pamphlet which looks at the anarchist position on political power with particular reference to the Spanish situation.

1580. White, J. D. "Despotism and Anarchy: The Sociological Thought of L.I. Mechnikov." Slavonic and East European Review 54,3 (1976): 395-411. Locates Mechnikov, a little studied social theorist, within the tradition of nineteenth century Russian political thought. There are similarities with Kropotkin in his ideas regarding the importance of collective action.

1581. Wilde, O. The Soul of Man under Socialism. Preface by Robert Ross. London: A. L. Humphreys, 1912. Criticizes the institutions of government and private property from an individualist anarchist perspective. Condemns altruism for perpetuating rather than eliminating poverty, and proposes a solution in the form of libertarian, as opposed to authoritarian, socialism.

1582. Winterer, L. The Social Danger: Or, Two Years of Socialism in Europe and America. Translation of he Socialisme Contemporain, Paris: 1894, by Rev. J. p. Roles. Chicago & New York: Belford, Clarke & Co, 1886. A study that looks at the history and theory of anarchism and the character of anarchist movements in European countries, Russia and America. The negative approach is characterized by L'Abbe Winterer's assertion that just as Christian literature endorses virtue, so anarchist literature endorses crime.

1583. Wittfogel, K. A. "Marxism, Anarchism and the New Left." Modern Age 14,2 (Spring 1970): 114-28. Concludes that the efforts of the New Left to discredit Western liberal democracies benefit the authoritarian communist regimes of which they are supposed to be equally critical.

1584. Woodcock, G., ed. The Anarchist Reader. London: Fontana, 1977. A useful collection of readings covering a wide range of anarchist thought. Includes pieces by Read, Faure, Bookchin, Ward and Goodman, as well as contributions from the classic thinkers.

1585. Woodcock, G. "Anarchist Phases and Personalities." Queen's Quarterly 87,1 (1980): 82-96. A review of ten of the books on anarchism which appeared during the late seventies.

1586. Wooden Shoe. Anarchy in the Film. London: The Wooden Shoe, 1967. Originally published as the sixth edition of the journal Anarchy, this is a collection of short essays on anarchism and the cinema.

1587. Woodworth, F. Anarchism. Tucson, Ariz.: The Match! Pamphlet Series, 1974. A discussion of the meaning of anarchism and of the workings of a stateless society in the form of a catechism. The essay first appeared in The Match! a monthly anarchist journal edited by Woodworth, 9-11 (Sept.- Nov. 1973).

1588. Yarros, V. Anarchism: Its Aims and Methods. Boston: Benjamin R. Tucker, 1887. Argues that, while the final goal is the abolition of the state, the policy of anarchists must be to win the confidence of people and persuade them, through education, to reject state authority. Thus, anarchism does not necessarily mean violence.

1589. Zerzan, J. and Carnes, A. Questioning Technology: A Critical Anthology. London: Freedom Pr., 1988. Argues that those who reject the tyranny of persons often overlook the dominating potential of technology because it is viewed as objective and value-free. Concludes that human judgement must be used to control technology and decide on its appropriate use in pursuit of human liberty.