Paul Nursey-Bray, Anarchist Thinkers and Thought: An Annotated Bibliography, 1992.

The Anarchist Experience


1590. Bayer, O. Anarchism and Violence: Severino Di Giovanni in Argentina, 1923-1931. Introduction by Alfredo M. Bonnano and Jean Weir. Translated Paul Sharkey. Catania: Elephant Eds., 1986. An attempt to reconstruct the violent revolutionary activities of the Italian anarchist Severino Di Giovanni in Argentina in the 1920s.

1591. Colombo, E. "Anarchism in Argentina and Uruguay," in Anarchism Today, 181-211. Op.cit, entry 1302. An overview of the origins and development of the anarchist movements in Argentina and Uruguay.

1592. Jordan, D. C. "Authoritarianism and Anarchy in Argentina." Current History 68,401 (1975): 1-4. Offers an analysis of the Peronist legacy in Argentina and concludes that, as extreme left wing activities will inevitably provoke right wing extremists to repressive actions, moderation is the key to a politically stable future.

1593. Molneux, M. "No God, No Boss, No Husband: Anarchist Feminism in Nineteenth Century Argentina." Latin American Perspectives 13,1 (1986): 119-45. Based on an analysis of the Argentinean anarchist-feminist journal La Voz de la Mujer published during the period 1896-97.

1594. Quesada, F. Argentine Anarchism and "La Protesta." Translated by Scott Johnson. New York: Gordon Pr., 1978. Documents the thirty five most vital years of the long running newspaper La Protesta, which began in 1897 and has remained the representative newspaper of the anarchist community.

1595. Thompson, R. "The Limitations of Ideology in the Early Argentine Labor Movement: Anarchism in the Trade Unions, 1890-1920." Journal of Latin American Studies 16,1 (1984). Argues that strikes and other industrial action arose in the course of improving working conditions rather than for ideological reasons. Anarchist strength varied from region to region and anarchists were not always true to their theories. The importance of anarchist ideology for the Argentine labor movement has been greatly exaggerated by historians.


1596. Anderson, J. Art and Reality: John Anderson on Literature and Aesthetics. Edited Janet Anderson, Graham Cullum and Kimon Lycos. Sydney: Hale & Iremonger, 1982. A representative collection of Anderson's writings on art and culture.

1597. Anderson, J. Studies in Empirical Philosophy. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1962. A commemorative collection of philosophical essays by Australia's foremost exponent of libertarian ideas.

1598. Andrews, J. A. The Handbook of Anarchy. Edited Bob James. Melbourne: Libertarian Resources, 1986. A collection of writings by a nineteenth century anarchist, 1865-1903.

1599. Baker, A. J. Anderson's Social Philosophy: The Social and Political Life of Professor John Anderson. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1979. A short biographical study of libertarian philosopher John Anderson and his ideas and influence on intellectual affairs.

1600. Baker, A. J., ed. The Sydney Line: A Selection of Comments and Criticisms by Sydney Libertarians. Sydney: L. R. Hiatt, 1963. A selection of articles from the late 1950's and early 1960's reprinted from the Libertarian Society's Broadsheet. A brief introduction outlines the historical background.

1601. Burgmann, V. "One Hundred Years of Anarchism." Arena 74 (1986): 104-14. Surveys the formative years of the Melbourne Anarchist Club and discusses the role of three of its leading protagonists, J. W. Fleming, J. A. Andrews, and David Andrade.

1602. Cresciani, G. "The Proletarian Migrants: Fascism and Italian Anarchists in Australia." Australian Quarterly 51,1 (1979): 4-19. Argues that although the anarchist movement was numerically very small, it was historically significant. Offers an assessment of their motives, activities and influence.

1603. James, B. "John William Fleming." In Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 8, edited by B. Nairn and G. Serle, 521-22. Melbourne: Melbourne Univ. Pr., 1966-86. Gives a brief summary of the life of this Irish immigrant bootmaker who became an anarchist agitator, a member of the Melbourne Anarchist Club and a friend of J. A. Andrews. Includes short bibliography.

1604. James, B. "Latter-Day Witches. Anarchists in Australia." The Raven 1,1 (1986): 69-76. Discusses the formation of the Melbourne Anarchist Club three days before the Haymarket incident in 1886, and the stigma thereafter attached to the movement.

1605. James, B., ed. A Reader of Australian Anarchism, 1886-1896. A.C.T.: Pialligo, 1979. A collection of writings by nineteenth century Australian anarchists including D. A. Andrade, W. R. Winspear and J. A. Andrews, with an introductory essay and brief biographical comments on each of the contributors by the editor.

1606. James, B., ed. What Is Communism? And other Anarchist Essays by J. A. Andrews. Prahran, Vic: Backyard Pr., 1985. Collection of writings and speeches of the nineteenth century anarchist J. A. Andrews.

1607. Libertarian Socialist Organization, Queensland. You Can't Blow Up a Social Relationship: The Anarchist Case against Terrorism. Brisbane, Qld.: Libertarian Socialist Organization, 1978? This pamphlet cites numerous Australian and international examples which demonstrate that terrorist activities are more generally carried out by the right than the left. Exploring the idea of state terrorism and police frame-ups, it concludes by condemning violence as an authoritarian threat to humanism.

1608. Nursey-Bray, P. F. "Francesco Fantin: Internment and Anti-Fascism in Australia." Studi Emigrazione (Rome) 26,94 (June 1989): 195-220. An account of the internment of an anarchist labor organizer in 1942, his death at the hands of fascists in the internment camp, and the subsequent investigation, trial and scandal.

1609. Reeves, A. "David and Charles Andrade." In Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 7, 64-5. Op.cit, entry 1603. A brief summary of the lives of these two brothers who were anarchists and booksellers. David Andrade was instrumental in the formation of the Melbourne Anarchist Club. Includes a short but useful bibliography.

1610. Reeves, A. "J. A. Andrews." In Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 7, 69-70. Op.cit., entry 1603. A brief summary of the Australian anarchist journalist and theoretician whose ideas were mainly derived from Kropotkin. Includes a very short but useful bibliography.


1611. Dulles, J. W. F. Anarchists and Communists in Brazil, 1900-1935. Austin: Univ. of Texas Pr., 1973. A thorough-going examination of the formation and activities of the Brazilian Left in relation to national politics and the emerging labor movement. Includes glossary, index and appendices on prices, wages and strikes.

1612. Maram, S. L. "Labor and the Left in Brazil, 1890-1921: A Movement Aborted." Hispanic American Historical Review 57,2 (1977): 254-73. Suggests that the failure of the anarchist movement in Brazil stemmed more from its lack of internal organization and discord than from the repressive measures taken against anarchists. Assesses the role of immigrants in the formation of the labor movement.


1613. Ames, R. T. "Is Political Taoism Anarchism?" Journal of Chinese Philosophy 10 (March 1983): 27-48. A comparative study of anarchism and Taoism.

1614. Bernal, M. "The Triumph of Anarchism over Marxism." In China in Revolution, edited M. C. Wright, 97-142. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Univ. Pr., 1968. Discusses the origins of radical social movements in China focussing on the way in which the socialist movement was converted to anarchism.

1615. Clark, J. P. "On Taoism and Politics." Journal of Chinese Philosophy 10 (March 1983): 65-88. Argues that Taoist thought is one of the earliest expressions of an organic, ecological anarchism in which a society based on co-operative self realization is the aim.

1616. Clifford, P. "The New Century (Xinshiji ) Magazine and the Introduction of Anarchism to China." Wiener Bietrage zur Gesch. Der Neuzeit (Austria) 7 (1980): 174-90. Looks at the history of the Xinshiji and its influence on political life in early Republican China.

1617. Dirlik, A. "The New Culture Movement Revisited: Anarchism and the Idea of Social Revolution in New Culture Thinking." Modern China 11,3 (1985): 251-301. Considers an area of anarchist influence largely neglected by historians. Concludes that the most significant impact made by the anarchists in China was the radicalization of the discourse on social alternatives and objectives.

1618. Dirlik, A. and Krebs, E. S. "Socialism and Anarchism in Early Republican China." Modern China 7,2 (1981): 117-53. A careful analysis of the differences between socialism and anarchism in early Republican China, which suggests that anarchist ideas dominated revolutionary thought before 1919.

1619. Dirlik, A. The Origins of Chinese Communism. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Pr., 1989. Argues that the anarchist influence on the revolutionary movement in China was strong before 1920, forming a point of resistance to the idea of centralized party rule. Marxist-Leninism, it is suggested, gained strength largely as a response to immediate organizational needs rather than because it was ideologically dominant.

1620. Dirlik, A. "The Path Not Taken: The Anarchist Alternative in Chinese Socialism, 1921-1927." International Review of Social History 34,1 (1989): 1- 41. Discusses the Chinese anarchist movement, its criticism of Bolshevism and the strategy and activities of the anarchist movement in the period in question.

1621. Dirlik, A. "The Revolution that Never Was: Anarchism in the Guomindang." Modern China 15,4 (1989): 419-62. Argues that the controversial participation of anarchist leaders in Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist Party in 1927-8 weakened the movement and made its suppression in 1929 that much easier.

1622. Dirlik, A. "Vision and Revolution: Anarchism in Chinese Revolutionary Thought on the Eve of the 1911 Revolution." Modern China 12,2 (1986): 123-65. Describes the contribution of two Chinese anarchist societies - one in Paris and one in Tokyo - in the reorientation of revolutionary goals from the political to the cultural.

1623. Gaaster, M. "The Anarchists." In Chinese Intellectuals and the Revolution of 1911. Washington: Univ. of Washington Pr., 1969. A discussion of the ideas of Chang Ping-lin, Wu Chih-hui and Liu Shih-p'ei.

1624. Hall, D. L. "The Metaphysics of Anarchism." Journal of Chinese Philosophy 10 (March 1983): 49-64. Argues for an important philosophical link between Taoism and anarchism.

1625. "Internationalist." The Origins of the Anarchist Movement in China. Foreword by Stuart Christie. London: Coptic Pr., 1968. A pioneer work, much of its content drawn from contacts with Chinese workers and sailors. Lacking in historical details, it conveys successfully the spirit of the anarchist movement.

1626. Lang, O. Pa Chin and His Writings. Harvard: Harvard Univ. Pr., 1967. A political and literary biography of the anarchist novelist who came under attack during the Cultural Revolution.

1627. Munoz, V. Li Pei Kan and Chinese Anarchism. New York: Revisionist Pr., 1976.

1628. Pickowicz, P. G. "The Chinese Anarchist Critique of Marxist- Leninism." Modern China 16,4 (Oct. 1990): 450-67. A favorable review of Dirlik's The Origins of Chinese Communism, op.cit, entry 1613. The book was written and released before the events of June 1989, while the review was written in the aftermath. The review reflects on the incisiveness of Dirlik's analysis, and on the anarchist critique of Marxism and the state in general, both of which are seen as vindicated by the Tienmin Square massacre.

1629. Scalapino, R. A. and Yu, G. T. The Chinese Anarchist Movement. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Pr., 1980. Credits anarchism with important contributions to the Chinese communist movement, concluding that it was both its "antithesis and its logical predecessor."

1630. Zarrow, P. Anarchism and Chinese Political Culture. New York: Columbia Univ. Pr., 1990. Concentrating on anarchist influences in the twentieth century, there is a detailed discussion of anarchism and Chinese political culture including the anarchist influences on the Chinese Revolution and on women's liberation. Includes a select bibliography.

1631. Zhelokhovtsev, A. "Ba Jin: Writer and Patriot." Far Eastern Affairs 1 (1984): 120-32. Biographical sketch of a Chinese novelist and translator who was much influenced by the ideas of Bakunin and Kropotkin. Ba Jin is a pseudonym comprising the first syllable of Bakunin and the last of Kropotkin.


1632. Dolgoff, S. The Cuban Revolution: A Critical Perspective. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1977. Examines Castro's regime from an anarchist perspective, detailing the close connection between the Cuban labor and socialist movements and Spanish anarcho-syndicalism.

1633. Ramm, H. "Che Guevara: Leninist or Anarchist." Social Praxis 3,3-4 (1975): 261-72. See entry 1502.


1634. Carr, R. P. Anarchism in France: The Case of Octave Mirbeau. Montreal: McGill-Queens Univ. Pr., 1977. Examines, in the context of nineteenth century France, the connections between anarchism and literature.

1635. Gombin, R. "The Ideology and Practice of Contestation Seen through Recent Events in France." Government and Opposition 5,4 (1970): 410-29. Examines the libertarian trend in the events of May 1968. Reprinted in Anarchism Today, 14-33. Op.cit., entry 1302.

1636. Halperin, J. U. Felix Fineon: Aesthete and Anarchist in Fin de Siecle Paris. New Haven, Conn.: Yale Univ. Pr., 1988. A life of Felix Feneon, who, from the mid-1880s, was intimately involved in three great movements for artistic and social change: symbolist literature, post-impressionist art and anarchist agitation for workers' rights. The study treats the three fields under separate headings.

1637. Longoni, J. C. Four Patients of Dr. Deibler: A Study in Anarchy. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1970. Details the lives and deaths of four anarchists who were executed in France for terrorist activities between 1892 and 1894. Uses primary sources and contemporary reports.

1638. Miller, O. J. "Anarchism and French Catholicism in Esprit." Journal of the History of Ideas 37,1 (1976): 163-74. Considers anarchist ideas in relation to the Catholic orientation of the journal, arguing that the anarchist element has been much underrated in the past. Credits Esprit with a readiness to facilitate dialogue between ideas.

1639. Parry, R. The Bonnot Gang. London: Rebel Pr., 1987. An account of a group of anarchists, who, inspired by Stirner, took to "illegalism" as a form of protest in the years before 1914. The so-called Bonnot Gang, named after Jules Bonnot, was responsible for an armed robbery from the Societe Generate, the largest of the Parisian banks.

1640. Sonn, R. D. Anarchism and Cultural Politics in Fin de Siecle France. Lincoln, Neb. & London: Univ. of Nebraska Pr., 1989. A discussion of anarchist politics and culture in France, in particular Paris, in the 1890s, looking not just at the politics of violence, but also at the anarchist press, libraries, schools, and even the anarchist cabaret.

1641. Sonn, R. D. "Language, Crime and Class: The Popular Culture of French Anarchism in the 1890s." Historical Reflections 11,3 (1984): 351-72. Looks at the influence of the argot of marginalized groups in France, for instance criminals, on anarchist language usage.

1642. Stafford, D. From Anarchism to Reformism: A Study of the Political Activities of Paul Brousse within the First International and the French Socialist Movement. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1971. Aims to redress the alleged bias of Marxist historiography which has led to an unjustifiable neglect of Brousse's political career. Argues that Brousse's "possibilism" suggests one direction in which anarchism today might develop, advocating, as it does, the abandoning of Utopian intransigence and direct action, but the retention of practical and constructive theories of local community organization. Bibliography and index.


1643. Aust, S. The Baader-Meinhof Group: The Inside Story of a Phenomenon. London: Bodley Head, 1987. A detailed history of the activities of the Baader-Meinhof group, later called the Red Army Faction. Illustrations, portraits and plates.

1644. Becker, J. Hitler's Children: The Story of the Baader-Meinhof Terrorist Gang. Philadelphia: Lippincott, c. 1977. A journalistic account of the Baader- Meinhoff group and their activities as urban guerillas. Attempts to show a direct link between Nazi ideology and the ideas informing the actions of the Baader-Meinhoff, and by implication, other left-wing groups.

1645. Carlson, A. R. Anarchism in Germany. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Pr., 1972. The first in a proposed two volume set aimed at covering the period 1830-1933. This volume covers 1830-1889 with special emphasis on the later period. Suggests that the prime significance of anarchism in this period was in the repressive measures it provoked. Includes bibliography and index.

1646. Horchem, H. J. West Germany's Red Army Anarchists. London: Institute for the Study of Conflict, 1974. Details the activities of the Baader- Meinhof Gang from the point of view of Germany's Security Service. Equates anarchism with terrorism and concludes that violent anarchism will not die out while people are still prepared to accept ideological solutions to social conflicts.

1647. Sun, R. "Misguided Martyrdom: German Social Democratic Response to the Haymarket Incident, 1886-87." International Labor and Working-Class History 29 (1986): 56-67. Discusses the way in which the German Social Democrats, while expressing solidarity with the Chicago anarchists and condemning the official handling of the incident, did not extend their support to the anarchist movement as a whole.


Only a representative selection of work on Gandhi is given.

1648. Bandyopadhyaya, J. The Social and Political Thought of Gandhi. Bombay: Allied Pubs., 1969. A general discussion of the social and political aspects of Satyagraha. Chapter VI, "State and Government," examines the relationship of his thought to anarchism.

1649. Bondurant, J. V. Conquest of Violence: The Gandhian Philosophy of Conflict. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Pr., 1958. A classic study of Gandhi's political philosophy of Satyagraha. A comprehensive work with a useful bibliography.

1650. Doctor, A. H. Anarchist Thought in India. Bombay: Asia Publishing Hse, 1964. Seeks to locate modern anarchist thought within Indian philosophy and concludes that an anarchist element was introduced by Gandhi's ideas. Suggests that Gandhian anarchism would, in fact, achieve the opposite of its aims.

1651. Fischer, L. The Life of Mahatma Gandhi. London: Jonathan Cape, 1951. A biographical study with some discussion of Gandhi's important ideas.

1652. Gandhi, M. K. An Autobiography or the Story of My Experiments with Truth. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1982. A work describing the practical application of his beliefs which would lead, Gandhi believed, to a loose federation of village republics.

1653. Gandhi, M. K. The Constructive Programme: Its Meaning and Place. Ahmedabad: Navajiva, 1945. A discussion of the programme for the reconstruction of the Indian social order as one of free decentralized village communities. It details 18 items of social activity, including the building of communal unity, the development of village industries, adoption of craft- based education, outlawing of untouchability, and the improvement of the condition of women. All of this was to be achieved on the basis of Truth and Non-Violence.

1654. Gandhi, M. K. The Essential Gandhi. Edited Louis Fischer. New York: Vintage Bks., 1973. Extracts from a wide range of Gandhi's writings, arranged chronologically, which covers his basic principles and methodology and some of the principal political struggles.

1655. Gandhi, M. K. Selected Writings. Edited Ronald Duncan. A selection which attempts to show the development of Gandhi's philosophy, especially of those ideas which are relevant to Western philosophy.

1656. Green, M. Tolstoy and Gandhi. New York: Basic Bks., 1983. A comparative study of the lives and ideas of the two men that uses a direct juxtaposition of the key stages of their lives as the basis for discussion.

1657. Joll, J. "Anarchism in Action". Government and Opposition 8,1 (1973): 115-23. A review of Geoffrey Ostergaard and Melville Currell, The Gentle Anarchists: A Study of the Leaders of the Sarvodaya Movement for Non- Violent Revolution in India, op. cit., entry 1658.

1658. Ostergaard, G. C. The Gentle Anarchists: A Study of the Leaders of the Sarvodaya, a Movement for Non-Violent Revolution in India. Oxford: Clarendon Pr., 1971. An account of the history, ideology and activities of the Sarvodaya movement, Sarvodaya meaning a social commitment to the welfare of all. Drawing inspiration from Gandhi's Constructive Programme of the 1930s, the Sarvodaya movement of the 1960s shared many common features with anarchism; a belief in direct action, in the need to build from below, from the people; a belief in the need for decentralization, especially economic; a belief in the need to remove the state and create a free society. It remained, of course, committed to non-violent methods. Part of the early chapters published in Anarchism Today, 145-63. Op.cit., entry 1302.

1659. Ostergaard, G. "Indian Anarchism: The Curious Case of Vinoba Bhave." In For Anarchism: History, Theory and Practice, 201-16. Op.cit., entry 1385. Looks at the Indian anarchism in the shape of the Sarvodaya movement. Inspired by Gandhi and carried on by Vinoba Bhave and Jayaprkash Naraya until their deaths respectively in 1982 and 1979.

1660. Richards, G. The Philosophy of Gandhi: A Study of His Basic Ideas. London: Curzon Pr., 1982. An examination of Gandhi's philosophy, arguing that Hindu beliefs provide its foundation. The work examines Gandhi's concept of truth, explores the moral, social and economic consequences of Gandhi's teaching and offers some brief comparisons with the ideas of Paul Tillich and E. F. Schumacher.

1661. Tahtinen, U. The Core of Gandhi's Philosophy. New Delhi: Havzlchas, 1979. Provides an interpretation of Gandhi's ideas in terms of Western moral philosophy with some attention being paid to the issue of violence versus non-violence.


1662. Cohen, J. E. Anarchism and Libertarian Socialism in Israel: A Study o\ Anti-Statist Movements. New York: Buber Pr., 1975.


1663. Bayer, O. Anarchism and Violence: Severino Di Giovanni Argentina 1923-31. Introduction by Alfred M. Bonnano and Jean Weir. Translated Paul Sharkey. Catania: Elephant Eds., 1986. See entry 1595.

1664. Bertrand, C. L. "The Bienno-Russo: Anarchists and Revolutionary Syndicalists in Italy 1919-1920." Historical Reflections 9,2 (1982): pp. 382-402. Argues that infighting between anarchists and reformists led to the eventual defeat of the Italian workers in 1921.

1665. Bertrand, C. L. "Italian Revolutionary Syndicalism and the Crisis of Intervention: Aug.-Dec. 1914." Canadian Journal of History 10,3 (1975): 349- 67. Highlights the paradox wherein heightened class consciousness at the time of the Intervention Crisis could not be effectively mobilized because of severe ideological divisions within the Unione Sindacale Italiana.

1666. Levy, C. "Italian Anarchism, 1970-1926." In For Anarchism: History, Theory and Practice 25-78. Op.cit, entry 1385. A broad discussion of Italian anarchism during its formative period.

1667. Pick, D. "The Faces of Anarchy: Lombrosa and the Politics of Criminal Science in Post-Unification Italy." History Workshop Journal 21 (Spring 1986): 60-81. Argues that Lombrosa's work successfully integrated numerous factors in the production of a coherent theory explaining the position of Italy in the latter part of the nineteenth century.

1668. Ravindranathan, T. R. Bakunin and the Italians. Kingston/Montreal: McGill-Queen's Univ. Pr., 1988. A detailed historical discussion of the important influence of Bakunin, focussing on the development of Italian anarchism in the 1860s and 1870s.

1669. Valpreda, P. The Valpreda Papers. Translated from the Italian by Cormac O Cuillean; with an introduction by Gaia Servadio. London: Gollancz, 1975. Written while the author was detained without trial for over two years, this is the diary of an Italian anarchist ballet dancer who was charged over a bombing incident despite inadequate evidence. A very useful introduction puts this infamous case in its political context and draws parallels with the Dreyfus affair in France


1670. Badinoff, B. and Ozeki, H. "Anarchism in Japan." Anarchy 1,5 (1972): 2-7/24-30. The first part provides a detailed coverage of the pre-war labor movement, including the struggle with the communists; the second surveys contemporary attitudes and activities of anarchist groups.

1671. Bernal, M. "The Triumph of Anarchism over Marxism, 1906 - 1907." In China in Revolution, edited M. C. Wright, 97-142. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Univ. Pr., 1968. Although the main focus is on the Chinese anarchist movement, there is some discussion of the activities of Chinese anarchists in Japan and the relationship between the Japanese and Chinese movements.

1672. Billingsley, P. The Japanese Anarchists. Brighton: Smoothie Pubns., 1974. Produced by the Leeds Anarchist Group as Direct Action Pamphlet No. 4 in the late sixties. A very brief pamphlet outlining the progress of anarchism and syndicalism in Japan with references to Kotoku Shusui and Osugi Sakae. .

1673. Large, S. S. "The Romance of Revolution in Japanese Anarchism and Communism during the Taisho Period." Modern Asian Studies 11,3 (1977): 441-67. Examines the tradition of the Left through two of the leading figures of the period, Osugi Sakae (1895-1923) and Watenabe Masanosuke (1859- 1928), focussing on the establishment of links between individualism and collectivism.

1674. Notehelfer, F. G. Kotoku Shusui: Portrait of a Japanese Radical. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1971. An opponent of militarism and nationalism Kotoku Shusui was executed for high treason in 1911. He was a leader of the early Japanese Socialist movement and became a symbol of protest. The work argues that anarchism in Japan developed through a cultural transformation of the samurai ethic under the pressure of the political changes post 1868. Includes bibliography, glossary and index.

1675. Stanley, T. A. Osugi Sakae, Anarchist in Taish-0 Japan: The Creativity of the Ego. Cambridge, Mass.: Council of East Asian Studies, Harvard University. Distributed by Harvard Univ. Pr., 1981. Primarily a biography of Japan's most important anarchist, which concentrates on psychological motivations rather than Sakae's political ideas. Some attention is paid, however, to his influence within the growing anarchist-socialist tradition in Japan.

1676. Taurumi, E. P. "Feminism and Anarchism in Japan: Takamure Itsue 1894-1964." Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 17,2 (1985): 2-19. Argues that the only political philosophy which fully accommodates the needs of women is anarchism.

1677. Tsuzuki, C. "Anarchism in Japan." Government and Opposition 5,4 (1970): 501-22. Looks at anarchism predominantly as an intellectual movement, examining its influence on the student upheavals in Japan in the 1960s. Concludes that it was not anarchism as such but the emotional appeal of nihilism which sustained the student radicals. Reprinted in Anarchism Today, 105-26. Op.cit, entry 1302.

1678. Tsuzuki, C. "Kotoko, Osugi and Japanese Anarchism." Hototsubashi Journal of Social Studies (March 1966). Discusses the lives and ideas of Kotoko and Osugi in the context of the history of the anarchist movement. Argues that anarchism in Japan grew out of traditional Eastern nihilism.


1679. Chong-sik Lee. The Politics of Korean Nationalism. Los Angeles: Univ. of Calif. Pr., 1963. There is a limited discussion of Korean anarchism, in chapters 9-11, in the context of the anti-Japanese struggle from the late 19th century to 1945.

1680. Ha Ki-Rak. A History of the Korean Anarchist Movement. Taegu, Kor.: Anarchist Pubs. 1986. A history of anarchism in Korea focussing on its origins and its role during the Japanese occupation and in the immediate post war period.

1681. Nym Wales and Kim San. Song of Ariran, A Korean Communist in the Chinese Revolution. New York: Ramparts Pr., 1972. A first-hand account of the career of a Korean revolutionary with some discussion of his terrorist anarchist phase.

1682. Scalapino, R. and Chong-sik Lee. Communism in Korea. 2 vols. Los Angeles: Univ. of Calif. Pr., 1972. A very detailed study of the origin of radical movements in Korea that contains some information on anarchism dispersed through the whole. Useful for background information.


1683. Avrich, P. "Prison Letters of Ricardo Flores Magon to Lilly Sarnoff." International Review of Social History 22,3 (1977): 279-422. While in Leavenworth prison, between 1920 and 1922, Magon wrote 42 letters to Sarnoff in which he described the horrors of prison life and discussed some of the major issues of the day, such as the Russian Revolution.

1684. Coy, P. E. B. "Sociil Anarchism: An Atavistic Ideology of the Peasant." Journal of Inter-Americax Studies and World Affairs 14,2 (1972): 133-49. See entry 1351.

1685. Hart, J. M. Anardiism and the Mexican Working Class, 1860-1931. Austin: Univ. of Texas Pr., 1978. Assesses the role of anarchism and its impact on both urban and rural movements in Mexico in the period 1860- 1931. Discusses its evential decline. Includes index and bibliography.

1686. MacLachlan, C. M. Anarchism and the Mexican Revolution: The Political Trials of Ricado Flores Magon in the United States. Berkeley: Univ.of California Pr., 1991.

1687. Magon, R. F. Me:ico: Land and Liberty. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1977. Essays by the fam>us activist and theorist of the Mexican Revolution.

1688. Poole, D. Compled and introduced. Land and Liberty: Anarchist Influences in the Mexicin Revolution. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1977. A collection of articles first published in the journal Regeneration by Ricardo Flores Magon, William C. Owen and Antonio de P. Aranjo. Includes a detailed introductory essay on Magon and an historical outline of the revolution. Chronology and annotated bibliography.


1689. De Jong, R. "Provos and Kabouters," in Anarchism Today, 164-80. Op.cit, 1302. London Macmillan, 1971. A discussion of contemporary Dutch anarchism.

1690. Van Duyn, R. Message of a Wise Kabouter. Translated by Hubert Hoskins. Foreword by Charles Bloomberg. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co., 1972. See entry 598


1691. Arshinov, P. Hisbry of the Makhnovist Movement, 1918-1921. Preface by Nicolas Walter. Lordon: Freedom Pr., 1987. Translation of Arshinov's history of the anarchist army in the Ukraine, including a discussion of politics, military tactics ind key figures.

1692. Avrich, P. "Anarchism and Anti-Intellectualism in Russia." Journal of the History of Ideas 27,3 (July-Sept. 1966): 381-90. Describes a deep seated distrust of intellectuals in Russian anarchism in the early twentieth century which is ascribed to the influences of Bakunin, Marxism and French syndicalism.

1693. Avrich, P., ed. lie Anarchists in the Russian Revolution. With 44 illustrations. London: lhames and Hudson, 1973. A selection of speeches, manifestos, letters, posters, songs etc. of the anarchists with introductory and linking commentaries by the editor. It is a very useful compilation of primary source documents.

1694. Avrich, P. Kronstadt 1921. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Pr., 1970. Regarded by many as one of the best studies of the Kronstadt revolt. Provides a detailed picture of the Kronstadt programme, the involvement of the anarchists and the relationship of events to general discontent within the Bolshevik party. Includes annotated bibliography and index.

1695. Avrich, P. The Russian Anarchists. New York: Norton, 1978. Well researched history of the ideas, programmes and contributions of the anarchist movement in the Russian Revolution, tracing its emergence at the end of the 19th century to its demise post 1917.

1696. Brinton, M. The Bolsheviks and Workers' Control 1917-1921: The State and Counter-revolution. London: Solidarity, 1970. An analysis of the fate of the Russian Revolution intended as a yardstick for the evaluation of contemporary debates over workers' control and self-management.

1697. Ciliga, A. The Kronstadt Revolt. London: Freedom Pr., 1942. Discusses the Kronstadt Revolt to point up the ways in which the mechanism of social revolution can be distorted and fall prey to counter-revolution.

1698. Ciliga, A. The Russian Enigma. Translated F. C. Renier & A. Cliff. A critical but balanced appreciation of the Russian experience, based on extensive travel in the country over a period of ten years, plus a stay in a Russian prison. Commended by anarchists as giving an accurate picture.

1699. D'Agostino, A. Marxism and the Russian Anarchists. San Francisco: Germinal Pr., 1977. An analysis of the serious disagreements between Marxism and anarchism which goes on to suggest that the Bolshevik Revolution presented anarchists with an insoluble dilemma: to accept the need for an organized seizure of power and therefore cease to be anarchists, or to reject the demand and remain impotent.

1700. Daniels, R. V. "The Kronstadt Revolt of 1921: A Study in the Dynamics of Revolution." American Slavic and East European Review 10 (Dec. 1951): 239-54. Suggests that an analysis of the Kronstadt revolt sheds valuable light both on the conditions which facilitated the emergence of Stalin, and on trends within the contemporary Soviet regime.

1701. Durant, W. The Lesson of Russia. London: G. P. Putnam & Sons, 1933. Records the disillusionment of a radical individualist who journeyed to Russia with high hopes and returned bitterly denouncing the despotism and authoritarian destruction of freedom that he had witnessed.

1702. Footman, D. Civil War in Russia. London: Faber & Faber, 1961. Includes a chapter on Makhno.

1703. Footman, D. "Nestor Makhno and the Russian Civil War." History Today 6,12 (1956): 811-20. Emphasizes the importance of the role of Makhno as an individual in his fight against both White and Red Russians. Notes the importance of his attempt to put anarchist principles into practice when others, such as the Moscow Anarchists, had been cowed into mere rhetoric.

1704. Harrison, F. "The Soviet Response To Anarchism." Our Generation 13,1 (1979): 35-50. Looks at the Marxist-Leninist response to the perceived threat of anarchism and offers a critique of the Soviet position from an anarchist viewpoint.

1705. Kathov, G. "The Kronstadt Rising." Soviet Affairs 2 (1959). Suggests that the perpetuation of lies about the Kronstadt rising, 30 years after the event, demonstrates its enormous political significance. Claims it was the manifestation of the struggle between the government and the revolutionary masses. Includes a bibliographical note.

1706 Malet, M. Nestor Makhno in the Russian Civil War. London: Macmillan, 1982. A sympathetic and extremely thorough investigation of the life, activities and ideas of Makhno, which is useful for details particularly of Makhno's military organization and campaigns. However, the narrative struggles a little to emerge from the plethora of dates and places.

1707. Malia, M. Alexander Herzen and the Birth of Russian Socialism, 1812- 1855. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Pr., 1961. An examination of the forces which shaped Herzen's life and thought before he developed his theory of Russian socialism based on the peasant commune. Does not cover the later part of his life. Includes index and bibliography.

1708. Maloney, P. "Anarchism and Bolshevism in the Works of Boris Pilnyak." Russian Review 32,1 (1973): 42-53. Suggests that Pilnyak saw in the early Bolshevik movement a genuinely Russian and essentially anarchistic alternative to the existing order. Communism was a foreign influence which led to the extinction of these values.

1709. Maximoff (Maksimov) G. P. Bolshevism: Promises and Reality. Glasgow: The Anarchist Fedn., 1940. First published in 1935 this is a first hand assessment of Bolshevism by the former co-editor of Golas Truda. He laments the death of the Russian Revolution but looks forward to a genuine revolution based on free Soviets and communes with democratic, communal production.

1710. Maximoff (Maksimov), G. P. The Guillotine at Work. Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Pr., 1978. An indictment of the suppression of the anarchists in the Russian Revolution.

1711. Mett, I. The Kronstadt Uprising. With an introduction by Murray Bookchin. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1971. First published in the 1930s. Takes as its focus the people involved in the uprising rather than the leaders and manifestoes; also contains hitherto unavailable documents and a good bibliography.

1712. Naimark, N. M. Terrorists and Social Democrats: The Russian Revolutionary Movement under Alexander HI. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Pr., 1983. Provides a record of the activities of various radical groups which were active during the 1880s in Russia. Includes index and bibliography.

1713. Naimark, N. M. "The Workers' Section and the Challenge of the 'Young' Narodnaia Volia, 1881-1884." Russian Review 37,3 (1978): 273-97. Suggests that the Narodnaia Volia continued to dominate the revolutionary movement after the assassination of Alexander II.

1714. Palij, M. The Anarchism of Nestor Makhno. Seattle: Univ. of Washington Pr., 1976. A detailed critique of Makhno's activities and strategies in the Ukrainian peasant movement and Russian Revolution with strong emphasis on the political, cultural and socio-economic heritage of the country. Extensive use of primary sources. Bibliography and index.

1715. Rosenthal, B. G. 'The Transmutation of the Symbolist Ethos: Mystical Anarchism and the Revolution of 1905." Slavic Review 36,4 (1977): 608-27. Examines the emergence of the mystical anarchism of Georgii Chulkov and Viacheslav Ivanov as a short-lived response to the 1905 Revolution.

1716. Voline. (Vselod Mikhailovich Eichenbaum. 1882-1945). The Unknown Revolution, 1917-1921. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1975. Also New York: Free Life Edns., 1975. Detroit: Black & Red, 1974. A detailed social history of the Russian revolution written by a Russian anarchist who was on the editorial board of Golos Truda. Contains substantial discussions of "Bolshevism and Anarchism," 173-436, "Kronstadt (1921)," 441-510, and "Ukraine. 1918-1921," 541-712, and a good introduction by Rudolph Rocker.

1717. Walicki, A. A History of Russian Thought: From the Enlightenment to Marxism. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Pr., 1979. Analyzes key writers and thinkers of the nineteenth century Russian revolutionary tradition, including anarchists, from a Marxist-Leninist perspective.

1718. Yaroslavsky, E. The History of Anarchism in Russia. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1940? A critical review of anarchism in Russia before, during and after the Revolution, written from a Marxist standpoint.

1719. Yelensky, B. In the Struggle for Equality. Chicago: A. Berkman Aid Fund, 1958. A discussion by a Russian born anarchist of the Russian revolutions of 1905 and 1917 and of the role played by the American anarchist movement in helping refugees.


1720. Abad, D. S. After the Revolution. New York: Greenberg Pubs., 1937. A theoretical work, focussing on the future directions of the post revolutionary society. A useful work on social reconstruction written for the Sargossa Congress of 1936.

1721. Ackelsburg, M. A. Free Women of Spain: Anarchism and the Struggle for the Emancipation of Women. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana Univ. Pr., 1991.

1722. Ackelsberg, M. A. "'Separate and Equal?' Mujeres Libres and Anarchist Strategy for Women's Emancipation." Feminist Studies 11,1 (1985): 63-83. Examines the revolutionary role of Mujeres Libres during the Spanish Civil War, noting their efforts to ensure that, as part of the liberation struggle, the anarchist movement empowered women.

1723. Amsden, J. "Industrial Collectivization under Workers' Control: Catalonia, 1936-1939." Antipode 10-11, 3-1 (1979): 99-113. Draws parallels with problems experienced in the U.S.S.R., concluding that the ultimate barrier to success was political.

1724. Amsden, J. "Spanish Anarchism and the Stages Theory of History." Radical History Review 18 (Fall 1978): 66-75. Condemns the use by Carr and Hobsbawm of a theory that suggests history proceeds in stages and is critical of Kaplan for being insufficiently critical of Hobsbawm's approach. Recommends instead the theory of combined and uneven development. See entry 1762.

1725. Bar, A. Syndicalism and Revolution in Spain: The Ideology and the Syndical Practice of the CNT in the period 1915-1919. New York: Gordon Pr., 1981. A detailed and exhaustive study of the changing ideas and tactics of the CNT during a crucial and formative period in its history.

1726. Bolloten, B. The Spanish Revolution: The Left and the Struggle for Power during the Civil War. Chapel Hill: Univ. of Nth. Carolina Pr., 1979. A general study of the struggles within the Left during the Civil War with special attention to the "Friends of Durruti" group and the role of the Communists. A revised and updated version of the author's The Grand Camouflage, 1962.

1727. Bookchin, M. "Looking Back at Spain." Our Generation 17,2 (Spring- Summer 1986): 53-96. Fifty years after Franco launched his attack on the elected government in Spain, Bookchin reflects on the revolutionary nature of the struggle against the Fascists and the reasons why its real social and economic dimensions continue to be so effectively obscured.

1728. Bookchin, M. The Spanish Anarchists: The Heroic Years, 1868-1936. New York: Free Life Eds., 1977. See entry 171.

1729. Borkenau, F. The Spanish Cockpit. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Prv 1963. Provides a detailed and sympathetic account of the anarchists' contribution to the social revolution. Originally published in 1938.

1730. Boyd, C. 'The Anarchists and Education in Spain, 1868-1909." Journal of Modern History 48,4 (Dec. 1976). Available on microfiche from Univ. Microfilms, 300 North Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106. A discussion of the anarchist education programme in Spain, noting its transition from revolutionary to evolutionary goals, and arguing that collaboration with Francisco Ferrer from 1900-1906 isolated anarchists from working class needs.

1731. Brademas, S. J. "A Note on the Anarcho-Syndicalists and the Spanish Civil War." Occidente 11,2 (1955): 121-35. Argues that the Spanish were making war and revolution at the same time, and stresses that, to understand this situation, a strong focus on the key forces for revolutionary change, the working class movements, is necessary.

1732. Breitbart, M. M. "Anarchist Decentralism in Rural Spain 1936-1939." Antipode 10-11,3-1 (1979): 83-98. Describes some of the changes brought about by the implementation of anarchist forms of economic and social organization in rural Spain. Argues that even in defeat they made a valid contribution that can inform latter-day movements.

1733. Breitbart, M. M. "The Integration of Community and Environment: Anarchist Decentralisation in Rural Spain, 1936-39." In The Human Experience of Space and Place, edited by A. Buttimer and D. Seamon, 86-119. London: Croom Helm, 1980. This article is basically a combination of her two articles, entries 1732 and 1733, and concludes that the root of personal freedom is social action.

1734. Breitbart, M. M. "Spanish Anarchism: An Introductory Essay." Antipode 10-11,3-1 (1979): 60-70. This article introduces four others on the theme of Spanish anarchism in a special issue of Antipode, and looks at how collectivization created new social relations of production.

1735. Brenan, G. The Spanish Labyrinth. 2nd edition, 1950. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1971. While only half the book actually deals with Spanish anarchism, the work as a whole gives a good account of the Spanish struggle and the anarchists' part in it. Chapters 6 and 7 deal specifically with the historical background of Spanish anarchism.

1736. Brome, V. The International Brigades: Spain 1936-1937. London: Mayflower-Dell, 1967. An account of the background and motivations of those who went to Spain to support the Republicans. Though not strictly concerned with Spanish anarchism, it contains some useful information on the revolution itself.

1737. Broue, P. and Temime, E. Revolution and the Civil War in Spain,. London: Faber & Faber, 1972. An analysis of the origins, events and consequences of the war, covering political, economic, diplomatic and military factors. Includes bibliography and index.

1738. Carr, R. Modern Spain, 1875-1980. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Pr., 1981. Interprets the Spanish situation as a contradiction between imposed liberalism and entrenched traditional values. Includes glossary, chronology, annotated bibliography, index.

1739. Carr, R. The Republic and the Civil War in Spain. London: Macmillan, 1971. A collection of contributions by specialists. Includes a chapter on anarchist agrarian collectives by Hugh Thomas. Annotated chapter bibliographies, chronology, glossary, index.

1740. Carr, R. Spain 1808-1939. Oxford: Clarendon Pr., 1968. This volume in the Oxford History of Modern Europe series examines the question of why Spanish liberalism failed to provide stability. Includes bibliographical essay, chronological table, index.

1741. Carr, R. The Spanish Tragedy. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1977. Blames the defeat of the Republic on a lack of international support and factionalism within the Popular Front. Includes select bibliography, index, glossary of political terms.

1742. Casas, J. G. Anarchist Organization: The History of the FAI. Translated by Abe Bluestein. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1986. Casas, who served as a general secretary of the CNT, traces the development, suppression and revival of this organization of anarchist militants.

1743. Casey, J. "The Spanish Anarchist Peasant: How Primitive a Rebel?" Journal of European Studies 8,1 (1978): 34-43. A review article suggested by Kaplan's Anarchists Of Andalusia, op.cit., entry 1762, in which it is argued that anarchism could have emerged only under the specific conditions which prevailed in Spain.

1744. CNT-FAI. Buenventura Durruti. Barcelona: Official Propaganda Services, CNT-FAI, 1936? Contains tributes to the anarchist Buenventura Durruti who was killed in battle at Madrid 20 November, 1936.

1745. Coser, L. "Remembering the Spanish Revolution." Dissent 33 (Winter 1986): 53-8. A memoir of the events of 1936.

1746. Diez, G. Spain's Struggle against Anarchism and Communism. New York: Paulist Pr., 1938? A pamphlet written to decry anarchism and communism and their ruthless excesses while defending the Spanish church and clergy against charges of wealth and privilege.

1747. Dolgoff, S. The Anarchist Collectives: Workers' Self-Management in the Spanish Revolution, 1936-1939. Introductory essay by Murray Bookchin. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1974. An important collection of first hand reports and writings concerning the actual workings of self-management initiatives during the revolution.

1748. Eisenwein, G. R. Anarchist Ideology and the Working Class Movement in Spain, 1868-1898. Berkeley, Los Angeles & Oxford: Univ. of California Pr., 1989. Eisenwein repudiates millenarian explanations of Spanish anarchism which depict it as a primitive and undeveloped political theory. Viewing anarchism as a mixture of Proudhonian federalism and Bakuninist collectivism, he argues for its role in providing a working class ideology and identity in the political struggle.

1749. Engels, F. The Bakuninists at Work: Review of the Uprising in Spain in the Summer of 1873. Moscow: Progress Pubs., 1971. Engel's analysis of the Spanish revolt in 1873 in which he attempts to show the revolutionary bankruptcy of anarchist methods and strategies.

1750. Fraser, R. Blood of Spain: An Oral History of the Spanish Civil War. New York: Harper & Row, 1978. Generally reviewed as an excellent oral history which gives an overview of the war. Includes chronology, glossary, bibliography, name index, general index.

1751. Friends of Durruti Group (Barcelona). Towards a Fresh Revolution. Barcelona 1938. Translated by Paul Sharkey. Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Pr., 1978. Written as a message of hope in the face of defeat, this pamphlet analyzes the situation and makes proposals for the future. Contains a preface, written forty years later, which includes further reflections and a call to mobilize.

1752. Garcia-Ramon, D. "The Shaping of the Rural Landscape: Contributions of Spanish Anarchist Theory." Antipode 10-11,3-1 (1979): 71- 82. Sets out to explain the vast transformations which occurred, under anarchist influence, in the use of rural space in Spain.

1753. George, G. "Social Alternatives and the State: Some Lessons of the Spanish Revolution." Social Alternatives 2,3 (1982): 30-44. A discussion of the relevance of the Spanish experience to contemporary social movements.

1754. Gilmore, D. "Letters of Blood and Fire." Radical History Review 18 (1978): 60-5. A review of Kaplan's Anarchists of Andalusia, op.cit., entry 1762, which basically endorses her conclusions.

1755. Golden, L. "The Libertarian Movement in Contemporary Spanish Politics." Antipode 10-11,3-1 (1979): 114-18. Describes the largely unpublicized resurgence of the anarcho-syndicalist National Confederation of Labor which was reconstituted in 1976.

1756. Gregory, W., Morris, D. and Peters, D. The Shallow Grave: A Memoir of the Spanish Civil War. London: Gollancz, 1986. A detailed memoir by Walter Gregory which gives a sympathetic account of the anarchists' role in the revolution.

1757. Hobsbawm, E. J. Primitive Rebels: Studies in Archaic Forms of Social Movement in the 19th and 20th Centuries. Manchester: Manchester Univ. Pr., 1971. Although this covers a broad range of social movements, "The Andalusian Anarchists," which forms chapter five, is a key contribution that is a point of reference for numerous other pieces.

1758. Hobsbawm, E. J. "The Spanish Background." New Left Review 40 (Nov.-Dec. 1966): 85-90. Argues that the blame for the failure to achieve stability in modern Spain lies squarely with the anarchists. Particular reference to Raymond Carr's book on the period 1808-1939. See entry 1740.

1759. Jackson, G. A Concise History of the Spanish Civil War. New York: The John Day Co., 1974. An illustrated introduction to the Spanish Civil war that sets out clearly, and in an attractive way, the main lines of the conflict, both political and military.

1760. Jackson, G. The Spanish Republic and the Civil War 1931-1939. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Pr., 1965. A liberal account of the revolution which is not very sympathetic to the anarchist contribution.

1761. Jackson, G. "The Spanish Popular Front, 1934-7." Journal of Contemporary History 5,3 (1970): 21-35. Refutes any contention that the Popular Front electoral victory was fraudulent, but says internal conflict prevented them from governing effectively. However, despite problems, their period of rule has become significant as a symbol.

1762. Kaplan, T. Anarchists of Andalusia, 1868-1903. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Pr., 1977. Reconstructs this movement from archival material with an emphasis on its social and economic context that argues against the view that it was a spontaneous millenarian movement.

1763. Kaplan, T. "Other Scenarios: Women and Spanish Anarchism." In Becoming Visible: Women in European History, edited by R. Bridenthal and C. Koonz, 400-21. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977. Argues that even within anarchism women continued to be cast in passive roles. Suggests that women were more radical in their behavior and goals when they formed separate associations on the basis of gender.

1764. Kaplan, T. "The Social Base of Nineteenth-Century Andalusian Anarchism in Jerez de la Frontera." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 6,1 (1975): 47-70. Emphasizes the role of petty producers in revolutionary activities and asserts the utility of anarchist strategies in the solution of social problems.

1765. Kaplan, T. "Spanish Anarchism and Women's Liberation." Journal of Contemporary History 6,2 (1971): 101-10. An analysis of the role of women in the revolution. Concludes that, despite anarchist ideology, the role of women did not change substantially.

1766. Kelsey, G. Anarchosyndicalism, Libertarian Communism and the State: The CNT in Zaragoza and Aragon, 1930-37. Boston: Kluwer, 1989.

1767. Kelsey, G. "Civil War and Civil Peace: Libertarian Aragon 1936-37." In The Anarchist Encyclopaedia, edited by S. Christie. Cambridge: Cambridge Free Pr., 1985. A piece written for Christie's collection of information regarding current research on anarchist thought and practice. The anarchist movement in Aragon is given close attention.

1768. Kern, R. "Anarchist Principles and Spanish Reality: Emma Goldman as a Participant in the Civil War 1936-39." Journal of Contemporary History 11,2-3 (1976): 237-59. A negative assessment of Goldman's analysis of the revolutionary struggle.

1769. Kern, R. Red Years Black Years: A Political History of Spanish Anarchism, 1911-1937. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues, 1978. A study of Spanish anarchism covering the period 1911-1937 with ample notes and a comprehensive bibliography. It concludes that, as a social movement, anarchism died out with the consolidation of Franco's dictatorship.

1770. Leval, G. Collectives in Spain. London: Freedom Pr., 1945. A pamphlet containing a brief discussion of collectivization in Spain.

1771. Leval, G. Collectives in the Spanish Revolution. Translated from the French by Vernon Richards. London: Freedom Pr., 1975. A detailed study of a number of representative anarchist collectives, both urban and rural, aimed at presenting an analysis of the social dimensions of the revolutionary struggle. Includes informative bibliographic notes.

1772. Leval, G. Social Reconstruction in Spain. London: Spain and the World, 1938. An early account of the Spanish social revolution with accounts of the formation of industrial and agrarian collectives, education, the family wage system, new cultivation methods etc.

1773. Linehan, F. A. "Right, Left and Centre: The Second Spanish Republic." History Journal 15,1 (1972). A review article of three books: Stanley G. Payne, The Spanish Revolution, 1970; Edward E. Malefakis, Agrarian Reform and Peasant Revolution in Spain 1970; and Richard A. H. Robinson, The Origins Of Franco's Spain. The Right, The Republic and the Revolution, 1970. See entries 1786,1775.

1774. MacDougall, I. Voices from the Spanish Civil War. Edinburgh: Polygon Bks., 1986. These oral recollections of twenty survivors who left Scotland to fight in Spain illuminate the struggle from the point of view of ordinary working class people.

1775. Malefakis, E. Agrarian Reform and Peasant Revolution in Spain: Origins of the Civil War. New Haven: Yale Univ. Pr., 1970. Uses statistics and an historical perspective to show that land reform has been undermined by a lack of concern for agrarian matters among republican leaders.

1776. Maura, J. R. "The Spanish Case." Government and Opposition 5,4 (1970): 456-79. Attempts to explain how and why Spanish anarchism succeeded in developing such a strong mass organization. Reprinted in Anarchism Today, 60-83. Op.cit., entry 1302.

1777. Maura, J. R. "Terrorism in Barcelona and Its Impact on Spanish Politics 1904-1909." Past and Present 41 (1968): 130-83. Argues that the violence of the confrontation in Barcelona between terrorism and official repression meant that terrorism became a legislative issue by 1908.

1778. Meaker, H. H. The Revolutionary Left in Spain, 1914-1923. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Univ. Pr., 1974. A detailed account of anarchist and socialist, activities in Spain between World War I and the Primo dictatorship. Though not sympathetic to the anarchists, nevertheless it is a well- researched study containing much useful information.

1779. Meltzer, A., ed. The International Revolutionary Solidarity Movement: 1st of May Group,. Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Pr., 1976. Deals with one aspect of the guerilla movement in Spain in the post-1960 era.

1780. Meltzer, A., ed. Miguel Garcia's Story. London: BLM Refrac, 1982. A collection of autobiographical fragments by Garcia, a Spanish anarchist who, on being released after 20 years in jail, continued his political opposition to Franco from London.

1781. Meltzer, A., ed. A New World in Our Hearts: The Faces of Spanish Anarchism. Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Pr., 1978. A collection of essays on anarchism in Spain that concentrates on the labor movement, the CNT and the issues pertinent to the emerging democracy in the Spain of the 1970s.

1782. Minta, J. R. The Anarchists of Casas Viejas. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr., 1982. Focuses on anarchist activity in one region during the early 1930s.

1783. Montseny, F. Militant Anarchism and the Reality in Spain. Glasgow: Anti-Parliamentary Communist Federation, 1937. A statement from the front, pledging unity with anti-Fascist forces and looking forward confidently to an anarchist future.

1784. Morrow, F. Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Spain. Including "The Civil War in Spain." New York: Pathfinder Pr., 1974. Originally published in 1938, it remains one of the best Marxist analyses of the revolution. The opening chapter, "The Civil War in Spain," was originally a pamphlet published in 1936 and offers an overview of the history of the Spanish Republic from 1931 to 1936.

1785. Orwell, G. Homage to Catalonia. Harmondsworth: Penguin Bks., 1980. Originally published in 1938, it is an excellent and insightful first-hand account of the nature of the revolution. This edition also contains the essay "Looking Back on the Spanish War" written in 1943.

1786. Payne, S. The Spanish Revolution. New York: 1970. Well-researched and informative, it is nevertheless not sympathetic to the anarchists' struggle.

1787. Paz, A. Durruti: The People Armed. Translated Nancy Macdonald. Montreal: Black Rose Bks., 1977. Published in U.K., Nottingham: Spokesman Bks., 1976. A thorough biography of the Spanish revolutionary Buenaventura Durruti and his contributions to the anarchist cause during the Spanish Civil War. Two thirds of the biography covers the period 1931- 36. Includes, as an appendix, Durruti's interview with the Toronto Daily Star 5/8/36. Contains numerous footnotes and detailed bibliography.

1788. Peirats, J. Anarchists in the Spanish Revolution. Toronto: Solidarity Bks., 1977. One of the best detailed histories on the background to the revolution, and one that discusses the social forces involved.

1789. Preston, P. The Spanish Civil War 1936-39. London: Weidenfeld, 1986. An illustrated history of the Spanish struggle.

1790. Prevost, G. "The Anarchist Critique of the State: Theory and Practice of the Spanish CNT." Our Generation 18,1 (Fall/Winter 1986): 87-102. Discusses the ambivalence of the CNT towards state power, co-operating and, on occasion, participating in its exercise. The post 1977 position of the CNT is reviewed. A response is made by a CNT activist in the same issue. See Juan Gomez Casas, "Ambivalence Towards the State: A Comment," pages 103-8.

1791. Ralle, M. "The Spanish Regional Federation of the International Workingmen's Association: An Enduring Legacy." Cahiers d'Histoire de I'lnstitut de Recherches Marxistes 37 (1989): 85-106. Discusses the Spanish regional federation of the 1st International as the basis for the development of Spanish anarchism despite the legal ban of 1974.

1792. Richards, V. "July 19, 1936: Republic or Revolution?" Anarchy 5 (July 1961): 129-36. Argues that in concentrating on winning the war the anarchist and syndicalist leaders sacrificed the revolution, and, in doing so, lost the war.

1793. Richards, V. Lessons of the Spanish Revolution. London: Freedom Pr., 1972. A considerably expanded version of the original 1953 edition which focuses on why the revolution was defeated. Less concerned with Franco's actual military victory, it concentrates on the forces at work within the revolutionary movement, both within and beyond Spain.

1794. Rider, N. "The Practice of Direct Action: The Barcelona Rent Strike of 1931." In For Anarchism: History, Theory and Practice, 79-108. Op. cit, entry 1385. A discussion of the evolving tactics of the CNT in relation to working class political needs which focuses on housing and the Barcelona rent strike of 1931.

1795. Rocker, R. The Truth about Spain. New York: Freie Arbeiter Stimme, 1936 and The Tragedy of Spain. New York: Freie Arbeiter Stimme, 1937. Two short pamphlets setting out for an American audience the issues of the Spanish Civil War. The Truth about Spain provides a survey of Spanish history preceding the Civil War, emphasizing the positive role of the CNT and its broad level of social support. The reactionary role of the Church in Spanish politics is discussed and its alliance with Fascism noted. The CNT, the FAI and the Spanish people are not, it is stressed, allied to Bolshevism, but are fighting against Fascism for the values of civilization. For The Tragedy of Spain see entry 816.

1796. Seidman, M. "Work and Revolution: Workers' Control in Barcelona in the Spanish Civil War, 1936-38." Journal of Contemporary History 17,3 (July 1982): 409-34. An analysis of the economic and social development in Barcelona as part of the social revolution.

1797. Stein, L. Beyond Death and Exile: The Spanish Republicians in France 1939-1955. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Pr., 1980. An account of the generally disgraceful treatment of Spanish refugees in France. Based on interviews and local archival material.

1798. Tellez, A. Sabate: Guerilla Extraordinary. Introduction Alfredo Bonnano. London: Elephant, 1985. Originally published London: Davis Pr., 1974. A biography of a Spanish anarchist guerilla fighter and leader of the CNT, known as El Quico, who continued his armed resistance to the Franco regime until his death at the hands of the militia in 1960.

1799. Thomas, H. "Anarchist Agrarian Collectives in the Spanish Civil War." In A Century of Conflict, 1850-1950. Essays for A. J. P. Taylor, edited by Martin Gilbert, 247-63. New York: Atheneum Publishers, 1967. An attempt to assess the data relating to agrarian collectives during the revolution, concluding that they were probably a success.

1800. Thomas, H. The Spanish Civil War. New York: Harper & Row, 1961. Often regarded by non-anarchists as the definitive account of the civil war. Takes a somewhat superficial approach to the underlying social forces involved. It concentrates mainly on the military struggles. A new edition has been published London: Hamish Hamilton, 1986.


1801. Aldred, G. A. Pioneers of Anti-Parliamentarism. Glasgow: Strickland Pr., 1940. See entry 3.

1802. The Angry Brigade: 1967-1984. Documents-Chronology. London: Elephant, 1985. Introduction by Jean Weir. Originally published Port Glasgow: Bratach Dubh Pubns., 1978. A collection of statements issued by the Angry Brigade. Weir's introduction seeks to situate the group in relation to anarchism and revolutionary struggle.

1803. Becker, H. "Johann Most." The Raven 1,4 (March 1988): 291-321. An autobiography by Most first published in Freiheit 4, (15 May 1881).

1804. Carr, G. The Angry Brigade: The Cause and the Case. London, Gollancz, 1975. A study of the Angry Brigade based on information collected by Gordon Carr for a BBC television news documentary written and produced in 1973. Illustrations.

1805. Christie, S. The Christie File. Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Pr., 1980. A personal account of the activities of one of Britain's foremost anarchists during the 1960s and 1970s, that discusses, in particular, the massive conspiracy trial of the Angry Brigade in 1971.

1806. Meltzer, A. The Anarchists in London, 1935-1955. Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Pr., 1976. Forward by Stuart Christie. Offers an account of this largely neglected, or misrepresented, period from one who was an active participant at the time.

1807. Nomad, M. "Johann Most, Terrorist of the Word." In Apostles of Revolution, 257-99. New York: Collier Bks., 1961. A study of the revolutionary activities of Most and his career in Germany, London and New York, looking at Freiheit and his relationships with various anarchist groups.

1808. Oliver, H. The International Anarchist Movement in Late Victorian London. New York: St. Martin's Pr., 1983. A succinct study of late 19th century anarchists with some attention given to biographical details and the prevailing intellectual climate. A useful source work about little known anarchists.

1809. Porter, B. "The Freiheit Prosecutions, 1881-1882." History Journal 23,4 (1980): 833-50. An analysis of the prosecution of Johann Most, publisher of Die Freiheit, for the publication of an editorial celebrating the assassination of Tsar Alexander II. After his imprisonment the journal proceeded to identify itself with the Irish rebels who assassinated Lord Cavendish in Phoenix Park and was suppressed. It resumed publication, under Most, in New York. See 1854.

1810. Quail, J. The Slow Burning Fuse: The Lost History of the British Anarchists. London & New York: Paladin, 1978. A description of the British anarchist movement from its origins in the 1880s to about 1930, by which time it had suffered a near total eclipse. Argues that, although never a mass movement, nonetheless, at moments of maximum strength, it was of equal importance to Marxist groups. Includes index and bibliography.

1811. Rogers, C. The Battle of Stepney: The Sidney Street Siege: Its Causes and Consequences. London: R. Hale, 1981. A detailed study of the Sidney Street Seige, in which the association between immigrants from Eastern Europe and the alleged anarchist character of the siege is discussed. There is also discussion of the press uproar over foreign immigrants who were presumed to be responsible for the importation of violent 'foreign' doctrines like anarchism.

1812. Seymour, H. "The Genesis of Anarchism in England." In Free Vistas. Volume Two. Op.cit., 1419. A discussion of the origins of the British movement.

1813. Shelley, D. "Anarchists and the Committee of 100." Anarchy 50 (April 1965). Discusses the relationship between anarchism and pacificism within the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament.

1814. Shipley, P. Revolutionaries in Modern Britain. London: Bodley Head, 1976. A compilation of programmes, goals and strategies of the radical left organizations in Britain based on an analysis of the publications of each group.

1815. Stafford, D. "Anarchists in Britain Today." Government and Opposition 5,4 (1970): 480-500. Examines the resurgence of British anarchism in the light of the appearance of the "New Left" in the early 1960s. Suggests that anarchism" has only a minority appeal. Reprinted in, Anarchism Today, 84-104. Op.cit, entry 1302.


Note that only a selection of the material on Sacco and Vanzetti is presented.

1816. Adamic, L. Dynamite: The Story of Class Violence in America. New York: The Viking Pr., 1931. Argues that the roots of crime and terrorism in America lie deep in American history, especially the history of the labor movement; "the inevitable result of the brutalizing conditions in American industry."

1817. Adelman, W. J. Haymarket Revisited: A Tour Guide of Labor History Sites and Ethnic Neighborhoods Connected with the Haymarket Affair. Chicago: Illinois Labor History Society, 1976. The book takes the reader on an imaginary tour of the remains of those parts of Chicago where working class radicals, mainly of German origin, congregated.

1818. Aldred, G. A. The Chicago Martyrs. With Portraits of the Comrades Who Were Tried. London: Freedom Pr., 1912. See entry 2.

1819. Anderson, T. and Hill. P.J. "An American Experiment in Anarcho- Capitalism." Journal of Libertarian Studies 3,1 (Spring 1979): 9-29. Using 19th century frontier America as a case study, Anderson examines the claims that an absence of government does not lead to disorder because the free market effectively provides necessary services for justice and protection. He concludes that the absence of government in frontier society did not produce chaos. Rights were protected and competitive market organizations offering services such as protection and justice existed without becoming monopolies.

1820. Avrich, P. The Haymarket Tragedy. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Pr., 1984. A detailed study of the Haymarket affair in the framework of an analysis of the origins and development of the anarchist tradition in the United States. Acknowledges the European roots of anarchism, whilst discussing the contributions of Albert and Lucy Parsons, and other radical workers and unionists, to American anarchism.

1821. Avrich, P. The Modern School Movement: Anarchism and Education in the United States. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Pr., 1980. Covers the period 1910-60, examining the successes and eventual collapse of the schools based on Ferrer's model. Argues that education has always been an important concern for radicals and discusses the politics and philosophy of radical educationalists.

1822. Avrich, P. Sacco and Vanzetti: the Anarchist Background. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Pr., 1991.

1823. Brissenden, P. F. The I.W.W.: A Study of American Syndicalism. New York: Columbia Univ. Pr., 1957. A descriptive and historical sketch of what the author describes as the drift from parliamentary to industrial socialism, as epitomized by the history of the Industrial Workers of the World in the United States. Written in 1918, when the I.W.W. was just 13 years old, it attempts to address popular misconceptions about the movement.

1824. David, H. The History of the Haymarket Affair; a Study in the American Social Revolutionary and Labor Movements. New York: Russell & Russell, 1958. A comprehensive history of the incident which the author suggests produced the first "red-scare" in American history.

1825. DeLeon, D. The American as Anarchist: Reflections on Indigenous Radicalism. Baltimore: John Hopkins Univ. Pr., 1978. Attempts to argue the case that a species of anarchist thought is indigenous to the American experience, with its roots in religious dissent and the development of American capitalism. Excellent bibliography.

1826. Eyges, T. B. Beyond the Horizon: The Story of a Radical Emigrant. Boston, Mass.: Group Free Society, 1944. Written as a biographical sketch of his experiences during fifty years of activity in the Socialist and Labor Movement. Includes brief episodes such as meetings with Kropotkin, Trotsky and Most.

1827. Felix, D. Protest: Sacco and Vanzetti and the Intellectuals. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Pr., 1965. Argues in favor of the guilt of Sacco and Vanzetti and seeks an explanation as to why the case, like that of Dreyfus, produced such an enraged reaction from intellectuals.

1828. Foner, P. S., ed. The Autobiographies of the Haymarket Martyrs. New York: Monad Pr., 1977. These autobiographies were first solicited by the Chicago labor journal Knights of Labor while the eight men convicted were awaiting trial. Foner has brought them together in one volume with an editorial essay in which he calls them "America's first labor-revolutionary martyrs."

1829. Gallagher, D. All the Right Enemies: The Life and Murder of Carlo Tresca. New Brunswick & London: Rutgers Univ. Pr., 1988. A biography of Carlo Tresca, 1879-1943, who, born in the Abruzzi, emigrated to the United States in 1904 and played a significant part in the American anarchist movement until his murder in 1943, allegedly at the instigation of Mussolini.

1830. Ganz, M. Rebels: Into Anarchy-And Out Again. In collaboration with Nat. J. Ferber. With illustrations by M. Leone Bracker. Millwood, N.Y.: Kraus Reprint Co., 1976. An autobiography which describes the poverty of immigrant families in America at the turn of the century, Ganz's association with radical activists like Goldman and Berkman, and her eventual conversion to American patriotism in the war against Germany.

1831. Hunter, R. Violence and the Labor Movement. New York: Arno Pr., 1969. Outlines the debate about political as against direct action, characterizing it as social democracy versus anarchism. While conceding that not all anarchists are terrorists, it is argued that terrorism is the dominant tendency. Concludes that propaganda by deed is destructive for society and the labor movement.

1832. Jacker, C. The Black Flag of Anarchy: Antistatism in the United States. New York: Scribner, 1968. Focuses primarily on individualist anarchism, discussing Josiah Warren and Benjamin Tucker.

1833. Kebabian, J. S. The Haymarket Affair and the Trial of the Chicago Anarchists 1886. New York: H. P. Kraus, 1970. A useful collection of original manuscripts, letters, articles and printed material of the anarchists which are otherwise very difficult to obtain.

1834. Larkin, O. "The Trial of Sacco and Vanzetti." In Robert S. Brumbaugh, ed. Six Trials, 92-106. New York: Thomas Y. Cromwell, 1969. A discussion of the trial of Sacco and Vanzetti as one of political note, in a collection that includes the trials of Socrates, Galileo and Dreyfus.

1835. Lerner, M. "Anarchism and the American Counter-Culture." Government and Opposition 5,4 (1970): 430-55. Also in Anarchism Today, 32-59. Op.cit, entry 1302. See entries 1443 and 1849.

1836. Lum, D. D. The Great Trial of the Chicago Anarchists. New York: Arno Pr., 1969. This contemporary version of the Haymarket incident is condensed from the official records.

1837. Lyons, E. Life and Death of Sacco and Vanzetti. New York, Da Capo., 1970. Originally published in 1927 this represents a contemporary account of Sacco and Vanzetti.

1838. Madison, C. "Anarchism in the United States." Journal of the History of Ideas 6,1 (Jan. 1945): 46-66. Contrasts the historical contexts of European and American anarchist movements, suggesting that individualist anarchism was a natural expression of the American pioneer experience while communist anarchism was a foreign importation.

1839. Martin, J. J. Men Against the State: The Expositors of Individualist Anarchism in America, 1827-1908. Colorado Springs: Ralph Myles, 1970. Originally published DeKalb, 111.: Adrian Allen, 1953. A thorough study of the antecedents and development of individualist anarchism, and libertarian thought generally, in the United States. There are chapters on Warren, Spooner and Tucker with discussion of Ezra Heywood, William B. Greene, J. K. Ingalls and Stephen Pearl Andrews. A bibliographic essay and appendices provide useful information on individualist anarchism. Includes detailed bibliography.

1840. McClean, G. N. The Rise and Fall of Anarchy in America. New York: Haskell Hse. Pubns., 1972. Originally published Philadelphia: R.G. Badoux, 1890. Deals primarily with the Haymarket affair, May 4th 1886, and includes biographies and speeches of the anarchists involved. Gives a good feel for attitudes of the period, anarchism being treated unsympathetically as a conspiracy against law and order.

1841. Montgomery, R. H. Sacco-Vanzetti: The Murder and the Myth. New York: Devin-Adair Co., 1960. A discussion of the trial, which lasted from 1920 to 1927, for robbery and murder, of Bartolomeo, Vanzetti and Nicola Sacco. The trial became a cause celebre because of the defendents anarchist allegiance and their alleged role in the distribution of anarchist literature. Many believed that it was their radical politics, in the midst of a red scare, that was the key factor determining their prosecution and execution. This study is unsympathetic to their position. Indeed, it was the first to try to prove that the defendents were fairly convicted.

1842. Nelson, B. C. Beyond the Martyrs: A Social History of Chicago's Anarchists, 1870-1900. New Brunswick: Rutgers Univ. Pr., 1988. The Haymarket bomb, the riot and its aftermath are analyzed as events within a complex process of industrialization, immigration and class formation. Includes select bibliography.

1843. Newfield, J. A Prophetic Minority. N.Y.: New American Library, 1966. Argues that anarchism was an important influence within the New Left and radical thought in the 1960s.

1844. Nomad, M. "Johann Most, Terrorist of the Word." In Apostles of Revolution, 257-99. New York: Collier Bks., 1961. See entry 1807.

1845. Perrier, H., Collomp, C, Cordillot, M. and Debouzy, M. "The 'Social Revolution' in America? European Reactions to the 'Great Upheaval' and to the Haymarket Affair." International Labor and Working Class History 29 (1986): 38-52. The treatment meted out to those caught up in the Haymarket Affair exposed, European radicals believed, the superficiality of the much vaunted freedom and democracy of the United States.

1846. Porter, K. A. The Never-Ending Wrong. London: Seeker and Warburg, 1977. A short personal reflection on memories of the Sacco-Vanzetti trial by the author of Ship of Fools. It includes comments on anarchism and a record of a meeting with Emma Goldman.

1847. Reichert, W. O. Partisans of Freedom: A Study in American Anarchism. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green Univ. Popular Pr., 1976. An attempt to present an objective account of the history of anarchist thought in America. Includes sketches of many little known anarchists as well as some who might be surprised to find themselves called anarchists.

1848. Roediger, D. and Rosemont, F., ed. Haymarket Scrapbook. Chicago: Charles H. Kerr Pubg. Co., 1986. An extensive compilation of documentation, illustration and commentary relating to the Haymarket affair. Includes bibliography.

1849. Roszak, T. The Making of a Counter-Culture. London: Faber & Faber, 1970. Discusses anarchism, specifically the anarchist beliefs of Paul Goodman, in the context of the counter-culture movement of the 1960s.

1850. Russell, F. Tragedy in Dedham : The Story of the Sacco-Vanzetti Case. London: Longmans, 1963. A comprehensive history of the trial and conviction of Sacco and Vanzetti that is sympathetic to their position.

1851. Schaak, M. Anarchy and Anarchists. New York: Arno Pr., 1977. Written in 1899 this comprises a lengthy discussion of the background to the Haymarket incident, covering communism, socialism and nihilism, with a detailed account of the trial and execution of the anarchists. Written from a law and order point of view, but surprisingly free of polemic, given that Schaak was the Captain of Police in charge of the investigation that led to the conviction of Spies, Parsons etc.

1852. Schuster, E. M. Native American Anarchism: A Study of Left-Wing American Individualism. Department of History of Smith College, Northampton, Mass. New York: AMS Pr., 1970. Attempts a delineation of the character of American anarchism and the conditions which fostered its growth. Assesses its significance in American history, emphasizing individualist anarchism and dealing only cursorily with communist anarchism which is regarded as an import.

1853. Sun, R.C. "Misguided Martyrdom: German Social Democratic Responses to the Haymarket Incident, 1886-87." International Labor and Working Class History 29 (1986): 53-67. The German Social Democrats condemned the handling of the incident and expressed solidarity with the Chicago anarchists. However, their support was not extended to anarchism or the anarchist movement in general.

1854. Trautmann, F. The Voice of Terror: A Biography of Johann Most. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Pr., 1980. An attempt to give a balanced view of this man of extremes by allowing him to speak for himself. He was arguably the leading anarchist agitator in late nineteenth century America, after his removal there in 1883, imprisoned time and again, not for what he did, but for what he said. Includes chronology, bibliography, index and a transcript of his "Pittsburg Proclamation." See entry 1809.

1855. Veysey, L. The Communal Experience: Anarchist Mystical Communities in Twentieth Century America. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr., 1978. Originally published as The Communal Experience: Anarchist and Mystical Counter-Cultures in America, New York: Harper & Row, 1973. A discussion of twentieth century intentional communities in America. There is coverage of anarchist communities in Part 1, Chapters 2 and 3.

1856. Werstein, I. Strangled Voices: The Story of the Haymarket Affair. New York: Macmillan, 1970. Details the events of 4 May 1886, discussing the hysteria induced in both press and general population by the vision of an anarchist threat. There is consideration of the social and economic factors underlying the events with a discussion of labor history in America.