1 See Clarence W. Alvord, The Mississippi Valley in British Politics (Cleveland, 1917), Vol. II, p. 216.

2 Archibald Henderson, "A Pre-Revolutionary Revolt in the Old Southwest," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. XVII (1930-31), pp. 191-212.

3 The Whole Worlds of Adam Smith (London, 1882), Vol. III, p. 247.

4 The best works on the land problem during the Revolutionary War period are J. F. Jameson, The American Revolution Considered as a Social Movement (Princeton, 1926), and Thomas P. Abernethy, Western Lands and the American Revolution (New York, 1937).

5 Instructions read May 31, 1779, to the Continental Congress. See Journals of the Continental Congress, Vol. XIV, pp. 619-22.

6 Clarence E. Carter (comp. and ed.), The Territorial Papers of the United Stares (Washington, 1934), Vol. II, pp. 3-6.

7 Journals of the Continental Congress, Vol. XVII, pp. 806-7.

8 See Territorial Papers, Vol. II, pp. 6-9.

9 For an analysis of the cession deeds and the various reservations sec: Menill Jensen, "The Articles of Confederation: A Re-interpretation," Pacific Historical Review, Vol. VI (June 1937), pp. 120-42; and "The Cession of the Old Northwest," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol.1 XXIII (1936), pp. 27-49; and "The Creation of the National Domain, 1781-1784," ibid., Vol. XXVI (1939), pp. 323-43; Abcrnethy, Western Lands and the American Revolution, Chaps. XIX and XX; Payson J. Treat, The National Land System (New York, 1910), pp. 7-14; H. B. Adams, "Maryland's Influence upon Land Cessions to the United States," Johns Hopkins University Studies, Third Series, No. 1 (1885); Thomas Donaldson, The Public Domain; Its History (Washington, 1884), pp. 65-86.

10 Samuel E. Morison, Oxford History of the United States (New York, 1927), Vol. I, p. 191. By permission of Oxford University Press.

11 Clarence P. Gould, "The Land System in Maryland, 1720-1765," Johns Hopkins University Studies, Vol. III (1919), pp. 9ff.; Bevcrley Bond, The Quit-Rent System in the American Colonies (New York, 1919).

12 Oliver P. Chitwood, A History of Colonial America (New York and London, 1931), Chap. XXI.

13 Treat, National Land System, p. 25. By permission of Professor Payson J. Treat.

14 Lewis C. Gray, History of Agriculture in the Southern United States to 1860 (Washington, 1933), Vol. II, p. 639.

15 Journals of the American Congress, Vol. IV, Ordinance of May 20, 1785, p. 5207; J. C. Fitzpatrick (ed.), Journal of the Continental Congress, Vol. XXVIII, pp. 375ff.; The Territorial Papers, Vol. II, pp. 12-18.

16 Treat, National Land System, p. 40.

17 E. C. Kirkland, A History of American Economic Life (New York, 1927), p. 142. Also consult, Elbert J. Benton, "Establishing the American Colonization System in the Old Northwest," Illinois State Historical Society, Transactions (1918), pp. 47-64; and Homer C. Hockett, Western Influences on Political Parties to 1825 (The Ohio State University Bulletin No. 2, Vol. XXII [1917], The Ohio State University Studies -- Contributions in History and Political Science, No. 4), p. 42.

18 Sec debates of June 25 in Max Farrand, Records of the Federal Convention of 1787, Vol. I.

19 A. M. Sakolski, The Great American Land Bubble (New York and London, 1932), p. 111.

20 Henry Tatter, "State and Federal Land Policy During the Confederation Period," Agricultural History, Vol. IX (1935), pp. 178-82.

21 Amelia C. Ford, "Colonial Precedents of Our National Land System as It Existed in 1800," University of Wisconsin Bulletin No. 352 (Madison, 1910), pp. 23-43.

22 Consult the author's article, "Preemption: A Frontier Triumph," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. XVIII (December 1931), p. 332.

23 For resolution of 1787, changing conditions of each sale of land under Ordinance of 1785, consult Territorial Papers, Vol. II, p. 78.

24 ibid., Vol. II, p. 80.

25 For a detailed account consult Beverley W. Bond, Jr., The Civilization of the Old Northwest (New York, 1934), Chap. X; Sakolski, The Great American Land Bubble, Chap. V; also Territorial Papers, Vol. II, consult index for the numerous documents concerning the operations of these companies.

26 Annals of Congress, 1 Cong. 1 Sess., pp. 411-12, 634; ibid., 1 Cong. 3 Sess., p. 1841.

27 ibid., 1 Cong, 1 Sess., p. 411.

28 Louis Pelzer, "Economic Factors in the Acquisition of Louisiana," Mississippi Valley Historical Association Proceedings, Vol. VI (1912), pp. 109-29.

29 Memorial of St. Clair to President Washington, (August 1789), in Territorial Papers, Vol. II, p. 210.

30 ibid., Vol. II, pp. 210-12.

13 31 For a careful treatment of the summary points of this paragraph consult A. P. Whitaker, The Spanish-American Frontier (New York, 1927), Chaps. IX-XIV.

32 Hamilton's report of 1790 on the Public Lands, American State Papers, Public Lands (Washington, 1832) Vol. I, p. 81; also, Donaldson, The Public Domain, p. 98.

33 James Truslow Adams (ed.) Hamiltonian Principles: Extracts from the Writings of Alexander Hamilton (Boston, 1928), p. 40; "Report on Manufactures," pp. 142, 155-61.

34 This viewpoint is not so much in accord with Hibbard, History of the Public Land Policies, p. 1, or Treat, The National Land System, p. 115, as it is with Morison, Oxford History of the United States, Vol. I, p. 190. It will be observed that forty years before the time of Edward G. Wakefield (see below Chap. VIII) Alexander Hamilton was anticipating his plan for systematic colonization -- though it must be admitted that the factors determining these respective views varied somewhat. In England there was a redundancy of labor; in America labor was scarce. Wakefield was well acquainted with the American land system, and undoubtedly understood Hamilton's general economic philosophy.

35 American State Papers, Public Lands, Vol. I, p. 8.

36 Annals of Congress, 6 Cong, 1 Sess., pp. 329, 337, 339.

37 This was the same opinion as that of Adam Smith, see supra, pp. 3-4. ibid., pp. 339, 354, 408-9, 411.

38 ibid., pp. 342, 859, 862, 868.

39 Statutes at Large, Act of May 18, 1796, p. 464; Treat, National Land System, p. 85; Territorial Papers, Vol. II, pp. 552-7.

40 ibid., Vol. II, pp. 639-40, 654; Vol. Ill, pp. 26-66.

41 ibid., Vol. III, pp. 7-8. Report of the Governor of the Northwest Territory on subject of Western Lands, January 1799.

42 Annals of Congress, 6 Cong. 1 Sess., p. 209.

43 James Hall, Notes on the Western States (Philadelphia, 1838), p. 170.

44 Statutes at Large, Vol. II, p. 73; Territorial Papers, Vol. III, pp. 88-97.

45 Annals of Congress, 6 Cong, 1 Sess., p. 652. At this time half of Tennessee was public domain, though due to discrepancies in the cession deed these lands later reverted to North Carolina.