1 The present writer published "Some Facts Bearing on the Safety-Valve Theory " in the December, 1936 issue of the Wisconsin Magazine of History,

2 Sparks, Life and Writings of Franklin, II, 313.

3 Ibid., II, 443-444. Cf. E. G. Wakefield, England and America, II, 104.

4 Sparks, op. cit., II, 472.

5 Lieutenant James Allen, in charge of harbor work at Chicago, wrote to his chief, General Charles Gratiot, on September 30, 1835, speaking of laborers and mechanics: "The influx of this class of emigrants has been great, too; but the apparent facilities offered them of securing valuable portions of public land, by settling on it . . . have encouraged mechanics and laborers, on arriving, or soon after, to abandon their appropriate trades and occupations for a bright hope of soon making their fortunes under the preemption laws -- Some of my best workmen; and who had been on the works since their commencement have, since the sales at this place, refused to continue at a rate of wages from $1.50 to $2.00 per day, and have gone to Milwaukee and elsewhere to make locations on public land in the confident expectation of securing it at the minimum price when it shall be brought into market. The constant changes of workmen, thus made, has been embarrassing and expensive to the work." Autograph letters, XVII, 148-149 (Ms. Chicago Historical Society). For this citation I am indebted to Dr. Bessie L. Pierce.

6 Carl de Haas, Wie Sieht es in Wiskonsin Aus (Elberfeld u. Iserlohn, 1 p. 91.

7 Carl Schurz, in attempting to escape from Rastatt (1849) committed himself and companions absolutely to the confidence of a passing laborer, because laborers generally in the Rhine country favored the revolution. Schurz, Reminiscences, I, 225.

8 U. Chevalier, Society, Manners and Politics in the United States (Boston, 1839), p. 144.