"Whenever any form of government is destructive of these ends [life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness]
it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it, and to institute new government in such form as to them shall seem most likely to affect their safety and happiness.”
Declaration of Independence, 1776
"The right of free union and of equally free secession is the first, the most important, of all political rights." Mikhail Bakunin (1814-1876)
"Federalism, Socialism, Anti-Theologism," 1867.
Bibliography (with some links) on SecessionSee also Organizations for Secession
Social Justice and the Liberal State, 1980.
When in the Course of Human Events: Arguing the Case for Southern Secession (Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000)
"Secession as an International Phenomenon," Abstracts of Papers, 2007. Program
Bakunin, Mikhail (1814-1876)
"Federalism, Socialism, Anti-Theologism," 1867.
"Republic of Montana: Second Amendment secession," Reasononline, June 2008
"How to Secede in Business Without Really Leaving," in David Gordon, ed., Secession, State and Liberty, Transaction Publishers, 1998.
“A Liberal Theory of Secession,” Political Studies 32, (1984): 21-31.
Birch, Anthony H.
"Another Liberal Theory of Secession," Political Studies 32 (1984): 596-602.
A Consent Theory of Political Obligation, 1987.
Bledsoe, Albert Taylor
Is Davis a Traitor, or Was Secession a Constitutional Right Previous to the War of 1861? (Charleston, S.C: Fletcher and Fletcher, 1866. [pdf file]
The War Between the States or Was Secession a Constitutional Right Previous to the War of 1861-65? (Arranged without verbal changes from "Is Davis a Traitor") 1915. [pdf file]
"A Libertarian Theory of Secession and Slavery," LewRockwell.com
Bonner, Thomas N.
"Horace Greeley and the Secessionist Movement, 1860-1861," The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 38, No. 3, (Dec., 1951): 423-444.
Boucher, Chauncey Samuel (1886-)
The Nullification Controversy in South Carolina (1916). [pdf file]
"The Ethics of Secession" in David Gordon, ed., Secession, State and Liberty, Transaction Publishers, 1998.
Bradford, M. E.
"Dividing the House: The Gnosticism of Lincoln's Rhetoric," Modern Age 23 (1979): 10-24.
A Better Guide than Reason: Studies in the American Revolution (LaSalle, Ill.: Sherwood Sugden, 1979).
"The Lincoln Legacy: A Long View," Modern Age 24 (1980): 355-63.
The Reactionary Imperative (Peru, Ill.: Sherwood Sugden, 1990).
“Secession and Self-Determination: A Territorial Interpretation,” Yale Journal of International Law 16 (1991): 177-202.
"Towards a Theory of Secession," Ethics, vol. 101, no. 2, Jan. 1991.
Secession: The Morality of Political Divorce From Fort Sumter to Lithuania and Quebec, 1991.
“Theories of Secession,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 26, no. 1 (1997): 31-61.
“Democracy and Secession,” in Secession and National Self-Determination, M. Moore (ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
“What's So Special About Nations?,” in J. Couture, K. Nielsen, and M. Seymour (eds.), Rethinking Nationalism, Calgary, University of Calgary Press, 1998.
"The Quebec Secession Issue: Democracy, the Rule of Law, and Minority Rights," paper presented for Department of Intergovernmental
Affairs, Office of the Privy Council, Government of Canada, 2000.
“Political Legitimacy and Democracy,” Ethics, 112/4 (July, 2002): 689-719.
“The Making and Unmaking of Boundaries: What Liberalism Has to Say,” in States, Nations, and Borders: The Ethics of Making
Boundaries, ed. Allen Buchanan and Margaret Moore (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003).
Justice, Legitimacy, and Self-Determination, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
“Uncoupling Secession from Nationalism and Intrastate Autonomy,” in Negotiating Self-Determination, H. Hannum and E. F. Babbitt (eds), Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2006.
"Secession," Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2007.
Justice, Legitimacy, and Self-Determination: Moral Foundations for International Law (Oxford Political Theory), Oxford University Press, USA, 2007.
Secession: The Legitimacy of Self-Determination (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1978).
Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia
Constitution of the Confederate States of America, March 11, 1861.
(ed. with Richard Sakwa) Contextualizing Secession: Normative Studies in Comparative Perspective, Oxford University Press, USA, 2003.
Secession: The Ultimate States Right (Carlton, Vic: Melbourne University Press, 1986).
Daly, Dr John C. K.
The Palestinian Struggle and the Lakota Nation's secession from the USA," Voices, 01/28/08
"Fighting terrorism since 1492,"
[American Indians have suffered under foreign invaders for 500 years. Now the descendents of Sitting Bull are fighting back, withdrawing from treaties with Washington.]
ISN Security Watch (25/01/08).
Desrochers, Pierre, and Eric Duhaime
"A Secessionist View of Quebec's Options," in David Gordon, ed., Secession, State and Liberty, Transaction Publishers, 1998.
DiLorenzo, Thomas J. [Archives at LRC]
"Yankee Confederates: New England Secession Movements Prior to the War Between the States" in David Gordon, ed., Secession, State and Liberty, Transaction Publishers, 1998.
"Secession and Liberty," LewRockwell.com, November 28, 2000.
The Real Lincoln: A New Look at Abraham Lincoln, His Agenda, and an Unnecessary War (Roseville, Calif.: Prima, 2002)
"A Plagiarist's Contribution to Lincoln Idolatry," Nov. 28, 2005.
"Happy Secession Day," July 4, 2006
"The Men Who Destroyed the Constitution," August 26, 2006.
Lincoln Unmasked: What You're Not Supposed to Know About Dishonest Abe, 2006.
Lincoln’s Greatest Failure
(Or, How a Real Statesman Would Have Ended Slavery):, Nov. 15, 2012.
"The American Tradition of Secession," Nov. 21, 2012.
"Why the Totalitarians Among Us Love Lincoln," Nov. 29, 2012.
"Spielberg’s Upside-Down History: The Myth of Lincoln and the Thirteenth Amendment", Nov. 30, 2012.
"Why is Secession Difficult in Well-Established Democracies? Lessons from Quebec," British Journal of Political Science, Vol. 26, No. 2 (Apr., 1996), pp. 269-283.
Dos Santos, Anne Noronha
Military Intervention and Secession in South Asia: The Cases of Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Kashmir, and Punjab (Psi Reports), Praeger Security International, 2007.
Doyle, Don H.
Secession as an International Phenomenon:
From America's Civil War to Contemporary Separatist Movements, 2010.
Durand, Greg Loren
America's Caesar: the Decline and Fall of Republican Government in the United States of America
Ebeling, Richard M.
Book Review of When in the Course of Human Events: Arguing the Case for Southern Secession, by Charles Adams (Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000), Freedom Daily, November 2000
Encyclopedia Britannica (1911)
Evans, Mark; Davis, Charles
"Self-Determination, the Right to Secession for the Dine (Navajo) Nation," Workers' Herald, December 1983.
“Recent Developments of Swiss Federalism.” Publius 32 (Spring 2002).
ed., Secession, State and Liberty Transaction Publishers, 1998.
"Rethinking the Constitution, Completely," Daily Article, Posted on 8/16/2007.
Graham, John Remington
A Constitutional History of Secession (2002).
Autonomy, Sovereignty, and Self-Determination: The Accommodation of Conflicting Rights, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.
"Lakota Sioux Secede From US, Declare Independence," Rapid City Journal (South Dakota), December 21, 2007.
Hawes, Robert F.
One Nation, Indivisible? A Study of Secession and the Constitution, Fultus Corporation, 2006.
"The Dynamics of Secession," U. of Arizona, unpublished, 1990.
"Secession, Intervention, and Just War," Course Syllabus for
GOVT 661, Cornell University
Herman, Daniel Justin
Review of Charles Adams. When in the Course of Human Events: Arguing the Case for Southern Secession.
Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000. H-CivWar (July, 2000).
"How the South Won (This) Civil War," Newsweek, April 2008,
Hood, Mary D.
"Bibliography on Secession
and International Law,"
for America’s Regional Santa Clara University School of Law
Conference on Secession and International Law, Jan. 31-Feb.2, 2001.
"Against Centralization," Salisbury Review, June 1993.
"Nationalism and Secession," Chronicles, Nov. 1993.
"The Rationale for European Secession" in David Gordon, ed., Secession, State and Liberty, Transaction Publishers, 1998.
"Secession, the State, and the Immigration Problem," LewRockwell.com (2201).
Democracy -- The God That Failed (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 2001).
"Centralisation Leads to Poverty," 2005-06-28 --
[Download video of speech at Antwerp -- 74 min]
Horowitz, Donald L.
"'Self-Determination: Politics, Philosophy, and Law," in Margaret Moore (ed.), National Self-Determination and Secession (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1998).
Houston, David Franklin (1866-)
A critical study of nullification in South Carolina () [pdf file]
Hülsmann, Jörg Guido
“Secession and the Production of Defense,” in The Myth of National Defense, ed. Hans-Hermann Hoppe (Auburn, Ala.: Ludwig von Mises Institute, 2003).
Howe, Daniel Wait
Political History of Secession: To the Beginning of the American Civil War (1914). [pdf file]
Constitutionalizing Secession in Federalized States: A Procedural Approach, Ashgate Publishing, 2006.
"Bye, Bye, Miss American Empire: Or, the Sweet Smell of Secession," Orion Magazine, July/August 2007.
Kendall, Frances, and Lon Louw
After Apartheid: The Solution for South Africa (San Francisco: Institute for Contemporary Studies, 1987).
Kennedy, James Ronald, and Walter Donald Kennedy
The South Was Right (Gretna, La.: Pelican Publishing, 1994).
Kennedy, John T.
"Economic Secession," Anti-State.com, 3/18/2003
"Most Likely to Secede", Good Magazine, January 2008.
Scott Horton Interviews Christopher Ketcham, February 14, 2008. [43 min MP4 file]
"The Last Roundup," Radar, May/June 2008. -- For decades the federal government has been developing a highly classified plan that would override the Constitution in the event of a terrorist attack. Is it also compiling a secret enemies list of citizens who could face detention under martial law?
"The American secessionist streak,"
Los Angeles Times, September 10, 2008.
"Staten Island is Voting, but It's Only a Sitcom Secession," New York Times, March 11, 1990.
Kizer, Jr., Gene H.
"The Right of Secession"
The Breakdown of Nations, 1957, 1978.
"The Constitutional Right of Secession in Political Theory and History," Journal of Libertarian Studies Volume 17, no. 4 (Fall 2003), pp. 39–100.
Kohen, Marcelo G.
(ed.)Secession: International Law Perspective (2006).
The Breakdown of Nations (1957).
Kunstler, James Howard
The Long Emergency: Surviving the End of Oil, Climate Change, and Other Converging Catastrophes of the Twenty-First Century, 2005.
Breakup: The Coming End of Canada and the Stakes for America (New York: W. W. Norton, 1994).
Leef, George C.
"Book Review: Secession, State & Liberty edited by David Gordon," The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty, Vol. 49 No. 6, June 1999.
Theories of Secession, Routledge, 1998.
"Secession and the Future of Iraq:
Should the Kurds, and Others, Be Able to Withdraw to Create Their Own Nations?" FindLaw, Thursday, Apr. 17, 2003.
Livingston, Donald W.
Secession and the Modern State" Stalking the Wild Taboo, December 1996.
“The Secession Tradition in America” in David Gordon, ed., Secession, State and Liberty, Transaction Publishers, 1998.
“The Very Idea of Secession,” Society 35, no. 5 (July–August 1998).
"Dismantling Leviathan," Harper's, May 2002.
"Southern Secession and Reconstruction," Ludwig von Mises Institute, February 29, 2004.
"The US Constitution," Ludwig von Mises Institute, February 29, 2004.
"The Rise of the Nation-State," Ludwig von Mises Institute, February 29, 2004.
"Diseconomies of Scale - Dismembering Leviathan," Vermont Commons, Issue 4 - August 2005.
"What is "Secession"?" Vermont Commons, Issue 7 - November 2005.
"Republicanism and Size (Part 1)," Vermont Commons, Issue 11 - March 2006.
"Republicanism and Size (Part 2)," Vermont Commons, Issue 12 - April 2006.
"Republicanism and Size (Part 3)," Vermont Commons, Issue 15 - Summer 2006.
"Hume and the Secession of the American Colonies," April 2006. [Video]
"The New England Secession Tradition," Vermont Commons, 2007.
Loring, C . W .
Nullification and Secession (New York, 1893)
"Lincoln, Secession and Slavery," Cato Institute, June 1, 2002.
Margalit, Avashai, and Joseph Raz
"National Self-Determination." The Journal of Philosophy 87 (1990): 439-461.
“The Right of Secession as a Human Right,” Annual
Survey of International and Comparative Law 3 (Fall 1996).
McGee, Robert W.
"Secession Reconsidered," Journal of Libertarian Studies, Fall 1994.
“Secession as a Tool for Limiting the Growth of State and Municipal Government and Making it More Responsive: A Constitutional Proposal,” Western State University Law Review 21 (Spring 1994), pp. 499–513.
Monahan, Patrick J., and Michael J. Bryant
“Coming to Terms with Plan B: Ten Principles Governing Secession.” With Nancy C. Cote. C.D.
Howe Institute Commentary 83 (June 1996).
"Secede & Survive: Secessionist Theory and News," Vermont Commons, 01/29/2008.
“Introduction,” in Secession and National Self-Determination, M. Moore (ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
The New Village Green. Gabriola Island, BC, Canada: New Society Publishers, 2007.
Morse, H. Newcomb
"The Foundations and Meaning of Secession," Stetson Law Review 15 (1986): 419-36.
Naylor, Thomas H. (Founder of the Second Vermont Republic)
(and William H. Willimon) Downsizing the U.S.A, 1997.
The Vermont Manifesto, 2003.
"George F. Kennan - Godfather of the Vermont Independence Movement," Vermont Commons, Issue 1 - April 2005.
"Nonviolent Vermont Independence," Vermont Commons, Issue 2 - May 2005.
The Scourge of Bigness: A Secessionist Primer," Vermont Commons, Issue 7 - November 2005.
"Liberals and Conservatives-Relics of the Past ," Vermont Commons, Issue 12 - April 2006.
Surging Gold Prices and the American Endgame," Vermont Commons, Issue 13 - May 2006
"New UVM Poll Indicates 37,000 Vermonters Favor Independence," Vermont Commons, Issue 15 - Summer 2006.
"Secession Fever," Vermont Commons, Issue 16 - Autumn 2006.
"The 2006 Elections - Much Ado About Nothing," Vermont Commons, Issue 17 - Winter 2007.
video: NECN: Vermont independence gains traction
Secession (Feral House, 2008)
"12 Reasons Why Secession Is Still Such a Tough Sell in Vermont & Elsewhere," June 15, 2008.
“Domesticating Secession”, in Stephen Macedo, ed., Secession and Self-Determination, NOMOS XLV, New York: New York University Press (in press).
“National Autonomy”, in H. LaFollette, ed., Oxford Handbook in Practical Ethics, Oxford University Press (2003).
“Citizenship” (with Will Kymlicka), in R. Frey and C. Wellman, eds, Blackwell Companion to Applied Ethics, Oxford: Blackwell (2003).
"Secession and (Constitutional) Democracy," in F. Requejo, ed., Democracy and National Pluralism, London: Routledge Press (2001).
"The Ethics of Secession as the Regulation of Secessionist Politics," in M. Moore, ed., Self-Determination and Secession , Oxford University Press (1998).
"Towards a Philosophy of Federalism," in J. Baker, ed., Group Rights, University of Toronto Press (1994);
"Return of the Citizen," (with Will Kymlicka) Ethics v.104/2 (1994).
Negotiating Nationalism: Nation-Building, Federalism, and Secession in the Multinational State, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.
The Vermont Village Green: Alternative to Empire," Second Vermont Republic, Sept. 1, 2007.
State of the Second Vermont Republic," Second Vermont Republic, Jan. 15, 2008.
The Absurd: Vermont and the Empire," Second Vermont Republic, Feb. 1, 2008.
"Could Vermont Survive Economically as an Independent Republic?" Second Vermont Republic, February 15, 2008.
"Novacadia," Second Vermont Republic, April 15, 2008.
Secession: How Vermont and all the Other States Can Save Themselves from the Empire Feral House,
"The Paradoxical Nature of the Geopolitics of Secession," Second Vermont Republic, August 15, 2008.
"Americans Rediscover the Right of Self-Determination,"
Second Vermont Republic
November 28, 2012
Ordinances of Secession: 13 Confederate States of America
“Separation Anxiety: International Responses to Ethno-Separatist Claims,” Yale Journal of International Law (Winter 1998).
"Was the Union Army's Invasion of the Confederate States a Lawful Act?" in David Gordon, ed., Secession, State and Liberty, Transaction Publishers, 1998.
On Secession (video)
Fragmentation of Yugoslavia: Nationalism in a Multinational State, St. Martin's Press, 1996.
"Secession, Majority Rule and Equal Rights: A Few Questions," Macquarie Law Journal, 2003.
(ed. with Igor Primoratz)
Identity, Self-determination And Secession, Ashgate Publishing, 2006.
(with Peter Radan) Creating New States, Ashgate, 2007.
(with Peter Radan) On the Way to Statehood: Secession and Globalization, Ashgate, 2008.
Perkins, Howard Cecil
Northern Editorials on Secession (Gloucester, Mass.: American Historical Association, 1964).
“In Defense of Self-Determination,” Ethics 105 (January 1995).
Porter, Wm. D. (William Dennison) (1810-1883)
"State sovereignty and the doctrine of coercion" (1860)
Potter, David M.
"Horace Greeley and Peaceable Secession," Journal of Southern History (Baton Rouge), VII (May, 1941): 145-159.
Nullification and Secession in the United States, 1897. [pdf file]
Premdas, Ralph R., S. W. R. de A. Samarasinghe, and Alan B. Anderson
ed., Secessionist Movement in Comparative Perspective, 1990.
Remington Graham, John
A Constitutional History of Secession (Gretna, La.: Pelican Publishing, 2002).
Rockwell, Jr., Llewellyn H.
"Secede, New England!" WorldNetDaily, March 09, 2000.
"Secede?" LewRockwell.com, 1992.
Rothbard, Murray N.
Ethics of Liberty (Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press, 1982.
"Nations by Consent: Decomposing the Nation-State" in David Gordon, ed., Secession, State and Liberty, Transaction Publishers, 1998.
“Consequences of the Quebec Secession Reference: The Clarity Bill and Beyond.” C.D. Howe Institute Commentary 139 (April 2000).
Human Scale. New York, NY: Coward, McCann, and Geoghegan, 1980.
Rebels Against the Future: The Luddites and Their War on the Industrial, 1995.
"Imperial Entropy: Collapse of the American Empire," Counterpunch, February 22, 2005.
Collapse of the American Empire," Vermont Commons, Issue 1 - April 2005.
"The Middlebury Declaration," Vermont Commons, Issue 2 - May 2005.
"Small Is Powerful," Vermont Commons, Issue 3 - June/July 2005.
"Breakdown Of Nations," Vermont Commons, Issue 4 - August 2005.
"Apostle of Catastrophe: Derek Turner interviews ecologist and anarcho-communalist Kirkpatrick Sale," Quarterly Review – No. 3. – Autumn 2007.
"The Logic of Secession," [43 min. MP4 file] October 5, 2007 at League of the South conference entitled "Southern Secession: Antidote to Empire and Tyranny"
"Secession and Sanity": Bruce Levine Interviews Kirkpatrick Sale, Vermont Commons, Issue 22 - Mud Season 2008.
DISPERSIONS: "You Know Your Empire Is Collapsing When" by Kirkpatrick Sale, Vermont Commons, Issue 23 - Spring 2008.
Saxer, Urs W.
“The Transformation of the Soviet Union: From a Socialist Federation to a Commonwealth of Independent States,” Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Journal (July 1992).
Small Is Beautiful (1973).
Secession And International Law: Conflict Avoidance-regional Appraisals, United Nations Publications, 2006.
writings on secession, Department of Political Science, University of Buffalo
The American union : its effect on national character and policy, with an inquiry into secession as a constitutional right, and the causes of the disruption (1862).
Separatism: Democracy and Disintegration, Rowan & Littlefield, 1998.
Stampp, Kenneth M.
of a Perpetual Union," in The Imperiled Union:
Essays on the Background of the Civil War
(Oxford, England, 1980).
Why Switzerland? 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
Stephens, Alexander Hamilton
A Constitutional View of the Late War Between the States (1868).
Stromberg, Joseph R.
"Republicanism, Federalism and Secession in the South, 1790 to 1865," in David Gordon, ed., Secession, State and Liberty, Transaction Publishers, 1998.
Review of When in the Course of Human Events:
Arguing the Case for Southern Secession
by Charles Adams (New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000), LewRockwell.com
Sugg, John F.
"Take your nation and shove it; Secessionists from Vermont, Alaska and Dixie proclaim their desire to smash the 'American Empire'," Creative Loafing, Atlanta, October 10, 2007.
“Constitutionalism and Secession,” University of Chicago Law Review 58 (1991): 633-70.
"Vermont Passes Resolution
To Secede From The US," rense.com, 11-3-5.
"The ethics of secession." Nation Planet. 23 Nov. 2004. 26 Nov. 2004.
“The New Constitutional Duty to Negotiate,” Policy Options (January–February 1999), pp. 41–44
“Profundity Rampant: Secession and the Court, II,” Policy Options (September 1999), pp. 44–49.
Vermont Commons is a multimedia newspaper dedicated to the proposition that Vermonters should peaceably secede from the United States Empire.
Weed, Thurlow (1797-1882)
"What I know about" Horace Greeley's secession, war and diplomatic record: a letter written (not published) in 1870," (1872).
“Toward a Proceduralist Theory of Secession,” Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence 13 (July 2000).
"Constitutionalizing the Right to Secede." The Journal of Political Philosophy 9 (2001): 182-203
Autonomy, Self Governance and Conflict Resolution (Kindle Edition), Taylor & Francis, 2007.
Wellman, Christopher Heath
“A Defense of Secession and Political Self-Determination,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 24, no. 2 (Spring 1995): 142-171.
A Theory of Secession: The Case for Political Self-determination, 2005.
White, Melvin Johnson (1878-)
The Secession Movement in the United States, 1847-1852 (1910). [pdf file]
List of active autonomist and secessionist movements
List of historical autonomist and secessionist movements
"Secessionist movements of Canada"
Alaskan Independence Party
Quebec Sovereignty Movement
Hawaiian Sovereignty Movement
American Indian Movement
Republic of Lakotah
Republic of New Afrika
Puerto Rican Independence Party
Secession in the United States
List of U.S. state secession proposals
State of Lincoln
State of Franklin
State of Jefferson
Republic of Texas (group)
"Do States Have a Right of Secession?" Capitalism Magazine (April 19, 2002).
"Secession: The Last, Best Bulwark of Our Liberties" in David Gordon, ed., Secession, State and Liberty, Transaction Publishers, 1998.
Woods, Jr., Thomas E.
Secede! (review of Secession, State and Liberty,
Edited with an introduction by David Gordon, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1998),
Wright, William C.
The Secession Movement in the Middle Atlantic States (Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1973).
"When is Political Divorce Justified?" in David Gordon, ed., Secession, State and Liberty, Transaction Publishers, 1998.
Young, Robert A.
“How Do Peaceful Secessions Happen?” Canadian Journal of Political Science 27, no. 4 (December 1994).
Zachary, G. Pascal
"Secession! Why stick around? The Bay Area is already a nation unto itself," SFGate, Sunday, April 20, 2003.
"N.M. Will Secede to New Nation, Prof. Says,"
Albuquerque Tribune, February 17, 2000.