Michael Palij, The Anarchism of Nestor Makhno, 1918-1921: An Aspect of the Ukrainian Revolution, 1976.

Appendix

LEADERS OF THE MAKHNO ARMY

Most of Makhno's associates were selected carefully from among his friends at Huliai-Pole; however, as the movement widened, a number of able partisans from other places joined the leadership. Almost to a man, they were of poor peasant origin, with little formal education. Most of them, however, had good military training. According to a Bolshevik author, Makhno's commanders "completed the school of the [First World] War, acquiring combat experiences. Some of them served in the tsarist army and were promoted to the rank of noncommmissioned officers, sergeant majors and ensigns."1 Ideologically, they were largely either Anarchists or Socialist-Revolutionaries. Besides Makhno, the most prominent leader of the partisan army was Fedir Shchus', a former sailor on the tsarist mine layer loann Zlatoust and the son of a respectable peasant of Divrivka (Velyka Mykhailivka). He started his partisan career as an associate of the partisan leader Nykyfor Brova, a former sailor who was killed in the second half of July 1918. Shchus' took his place as a commander of Brova's partisan group. In September, he joined Makhno and became his close associate. Although he occupied various positions in the army, including chief of staff, he was famous as commander of the Makhno cavalry that was composed of peasant Cossacks who spent their lives on horseback.2 This was the best cavalry in the field during the Revolution, unmatched by either the Bolsheviks or Denikin. For example, at the end of July 1919, at the town of Hlodosy, Kherson province, a cavalry force of 100 men under Shchus' routed an elite Bolshevik cavalry four times its size. In June 1921, Shchus' was killed in a battle against the Bolsheviks in Poltava province.4

Another of Makhno's closest and ablest associates was Semen Karetnyk, a peasant from Huliai-Pole who had attended school for only one year before joining the Anarchists in 1907. In 1918 he was co-founder of the partisan army and from that time on he remained in the movement in various capacities including membership on the Revolutionary Military Council and, occasionally, commander of the army. His main job, however, was to command an infantry brigade. Karetnyk was wounded several times during his campaigns. After Makhno made an agreement with the Bolsheviks against Wrangel, Karetnyk was appointed commander and was instrumental in attacking Wrangel across the frozen Syvash Lagoon and in storming Symferopil'. However, on November 26, immediately after Wrangel was defeated, Frunze ordered the Red troops to attack Karetnyk forces. While he was struggling back to his region, Karetnyk and his staff were killed by the Bolsheviks.5 Only the cavalry unit commanded by Marchenko, who had learned the Red troops' password, escaped.

Marchenko himself, a peasant from Huliai-Pole, was a prominent associate of Makhno. He received elementary education in his home town and in 1907 joined the Anarchist group. He helped to found the partisan army, in which he served at different times, as a member of the Revolutionary Military Council and commander of a cavalry regiment. He was wounded in battle several times and was once a prisoner of Denikin. Marchenko managed to escape from the trap in which Karetnyk was killed, though only 250 of his 1,500 men survived. In January 1921, in a battle against the Bolsheviks in Poltava province, he too was killed.

Borys Veretelnyk, like most of the partisan leaders, was a poor peasant from Huliai-Pole. He worked in a local factory and later went to Petrograd to the Putilov factory. Following the outbreak of the Revolution he became actively involved in it, revealing organizational and oratorical abilities. In mid-February 1918 he returned to Huliai-Pole via Odessa, where he became preoccupied with revolutionary propaganda. In contrast to other leaders, he was a Socialist Revolutionary and joined the Anarchist group, as well as the partisan army, only after he returned to Huliai-Pole. In the army he rose to the position of chief of staff. In early June 1919, while leading a hastily organized detachment in a battle to defend Huliai-Pole against superior Denikin forces, Veretelnyk was surrounded and perished with his detachment near the village of Sviatodukhivka.

Petro Havrylenko, a peasant from Huliai-Pole, and an Anarchist since the 1905 Revolution, was a member of the Makhno staff and commander of the Third Brigade. He played a major role in defeating

Denikin at Perehonivka in September 1919. During most of 1920 he was in the Bolshevik prison in Kharkiv. After Makhno agreed with the Bolsheviks in mid-October to fight Wrangel, Havrylenko was released and appointed chief of staff of the Crimean Army. Following Wrangel's defeat, Havrylenko and his entire staff were executed by the Bolsheviks.

Among the other cofounders of the army were Hryhorii Vasylivs'-kyi, Vasyl Danyliv, and Izydor Liutyi. Vasylivs'kyi, a peasant from Huliai-Pole, was a family man who had received an elementary education and joined the Anarchist group before 1917. He was a member of Makhno's staff and occasionally substituted for him as commander of the army. In December 1920 he was killed fighting the Bolsheviks in Kyiv province. Danyliv, a poor peasant blacksmith from Huliai-Pole, served in the artillery during the war and commanded a partisan artillery detachment.9 Liutyi, a peasant and house painter from Huliai-Pole, who was also a close friend of Makhno, had obtained an elementary education and was an Anarchist. In September 1919, he was killed in the battle against Denikin at Perehonivka.

Also among Makhno's associates were two brothers, Oleksander and Ivan Lepetchenko, peasant Anarchists from Huliai-Pole. They commanded their own partisan detachment against the Austro-German troops and later joined Makhno. In the spring of 1920 Oleksander was seized by the Bolsheviks at Huliai-Pole and, after he refused to join them, he was shot. His brother Ivan, according to a Soviet source, gave himself up to the Bolsheviks in the fall of 1921.n

In the ranks of the partisan army were Makhno's two older brothers, Sava and Hryhorii. The former, the oldest, was active in the movement against the Austro-German troops and Denikin, but did not fight the Bolsheviks, preferring to stay home with his large family. Nevertheless, at the end of February 1920, the Bolsheviks captured and executed him. Hryhorii was a large, strongly built, and good-hearted man. He was active in the movement from the very beginning and he served as an associate of the chief of staff. He was killed in September 1919 in the battle against Denikin at Perehonivka.12

Viktor Bilash was a railroad engineer from Novospasivka and joined Makhno at the beginning of 1919, serving as commander of the Second Brigade, a member of the staff, and chief of staff. He was Makhno's best strategist. Because of his partisan activities, Austrian troops destroyed his homestead and executed his grandfather, father, and cousin. In 1921 Bilash was seized by the Bolsheviks and put in prison where he wrote his memoirs about the Makhno movement.

Similarly educated, and also from Novospasivka, was the peasant, Vasyl Kurylenko. Kurylenko had been an Anarchist since 1910 and a popular militant propagandist, as well as an able commander of a cavalry regiment, a member of the Revolutionary Military Council, and occasionally Makhno's diplomatic representative. Kurylenko was wounded five times and, on July 8, 1921, he was killed by the Bolsheviks near the village Mariivka.

One of the most dynamic and popular partisan leaders was Vdovy-chenko, a Novospasivka peasant with an elementary school education. After joining Makhno, he became an infantry brigade commander and played an important role in the defeat of Denikin at Perehonivka. In March 1921 he was wounded and captured by the Bolsheviks, who tried to recruit him to their ranks. He refused and later, when he failed in an attempt to take his own life, he was executed.15

One of Makhno's earliest associates was Oleksander Chubenko, a railroad engineer and Socialist Revolutionary. He joined Makhno's movement from the outset, occupying different positions, including that of Makhno's aide and diplomatic representative. At the beginning of 1920 he was seized and imprisoned by the Bolsheviks. He was among those released after Makhno's agreement with the Bolsheviks to fight against Wrangel, and was appointed commander of a special commando demolition unit.16

Still another prominent partisan leader, Khoma Kozhyn, a peasant, was a nonparty man who began his career in the partisan group led by Shchus'. After joining Makhno, Kozhyn became a commander of a machine-gun regiment and participated in the defeat of Denikin at Perehonivka. Kozhyn was mortally wounded in August 1921.

In contrast to other partisan leaders, Oleksander Kalashnykiv was a worker who had been a second lieutenant during the war. In 1917 he became secretary of the Anarchist group at Huliai-Pole and was a co-founder of the partisan army in which he was commander of an infantry brigade. In the summer of 1919, he organized the uprising of Makhno troops in the Red Army and headed their subsequent arrival at the Makhno camp with some Red units. In the summer of 1920, Kalashnykiv was killed in a battle against the Bolsheviks.

One of the few educated men in the Makhno movement was Chor-noknyzhnyi, a teacher from Novopavlivka, in the Pavlohrad district. He served as chairman of the Second Congress, which was held on February 12, 1919, at Huliai-Pole. He also participated in the campaign against the Bolshevik and anti-Bolshevik Russian forces.

Sereda, a peasant, was commander of a partisan detachment. In the fall of 1920 he was seriously wounded during the fighting against Wrangel and was taken to Kharkiv for an operation. One week later, after Wrangel's defeat, he was transferred to jail and in March 1921 he was shot by the Bolsheviks.

Dermenzhi was a telegrapher from Izmail and a sailor who participated in the uprising on the Russian warship Potemkin in the summer of 1905. He commanded an independent partisan group and in the fall of 1918 joined Makhno who appointed him head of the field communication service.21

Petro Petrenko, from Huliai-Pole, was a junior officer of the tsarist army. He headed an independent partisan group and in the fall of 1918 joined Makhno and was appointed commander of the Chaplino-Hryshyne front, and later commanded a brigade. He was killed in the fighting.22

Although most of the leaders of the Makhno movement were Ukrainians, especially from Huliai-Pole, a number of them, in the later period, were either Russian or Jewish Anarchists who came mainly from Russia in the spring and summer of 1919 after the Bolshevik regime destroyed the Anarchist groups in Soviet Russia.

The most prominent of them was Peter Arshinov (Marin), a smith from Katerynoslav, who started his revolutionary career in 1905 as a Bolshevik. For several months he edited the illicit Bolshevik newspaper Molot (Hammer) at Kizyl-Arvat in Turkmenistan. In the summer of 1906 he returned to Amur, outside Katerynoslav, where he worked in the Shoduara factory and soon joined the Anarchist group. At the beginning of March 1907, he was sentenced to death for the assassination of Vasylenko, a chief of a railroad workshop in Oleksandrivs'k, but at the end of April he escaped to Paris via St. Petersburg and Helsinki. At the beginning of 1909 he returned to Russia and in Briansk he was arrested, but escaped and settled in Moscow. In August 1910 he was arrested in Austria for transporting arms to Russia and jailed for nine months in Tern op il, Galicia. In May 1911 he was handed over to the Russian authorities and a Moscow court sentenced him to twenty years imprisonment in Butyrki where he met Makhno.23 On March 1, 1917, Arshinov was released and remained in Moscow as an editor of Anarchist publications.

After the destruction of Anarchist groups in Russia, Arshinov moved to Ukraine and at the end of April 1919 he became Makhno's secretary. Subsequently Makhno put him in charge of educational and propaganda activities, including the publication of newspapers. In the summer of 1920 Arshinov left the partisan army to write the history of the Makhno movement. In 1922 he went abroad, first to Berlin and in 1925 to France, where he was editor of the Anarchist periodical Delo truda. In 1935 he rejoined the Bolsheviks and returned to Soviet Russia where he soon disappeared.24

Next to Arshinov, the most prominent Russian in the Makhno movement was Volin (Boris M. Eichenbaum), an educated man who had been a Socialist Revolutionary since 1905. In 1907 he was imprisoned for revolutionary activities, but he escaped to France where he joined the Anarchists in 1911. In August 1916 he was arrested for his antiwar propaganda, but managed to escape to America where he worked in the Anarchist movement. In July 1917, he returned to Russia as coeditor of the Anarchist newspaper Golos truda, published in St. Petersburg. After the destruction of the Anarchist groups in Russia, he came to Ukraine as a Nabat editor. At the end of August 1919, he joined the Makhno army, where he became Arshinov's assistant in the education and propaganda section and chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council. In November while doing propaganda among the population in the Kryvyi Rih area, Volin apparently deliberately fell into Bolshevik hands and was taken to Moscow, but released on October 1, 1920. after the Makhno agreement with the Bolsheviks against Wrangel. At the end of November, he was again arrested in Kharkiv-and put into Butyrki prison in Moscow. Soon after, he was released and authorized to leave Russia. For a while he lived in Berlin where, with Arshinov, he published a monthly, Anarchicheskii vestnik. In 1925 he went to France where he died in 1945 at the age of 63.

Another leading member of Nabat was Aaron Baron. The tsarist regime exiled him to Siberia for his revolutionary activities, but he managed to escape to America, where he settled in Chicago as coeditor of the Anarchist paper Alarm. In June 1917, he returned to Russia and became active in the Anarchist movement. In the fall of 1918, he was one of the organizers of Nabat. In 1919 Baron joined Makhno's army, occupying prominent political and military positions. He even dreamed of taking over its leadership. In November 1920, while attending the Anarchist conference in Kharkiv, the Bolsheviks arrested him and jailed him at Orel for two years, whence he was transferred to the Solovetsky Islands until January 5, 1925. After returning to Moscow, he was soon arrested again and exiled to Altai, Siberia. His wife, Fania Avrutska, also was arrested.26

IAkov Sukhovolskii, known as IAsha Alyi, was exiled by the tsarist regime for his activities during the 1905 Revolution, but he escaped at first to Britain and then to America. In 1917 he returned to Russia where he became active in the Anarchist movement. He, too, actively participated in the organization of Nabat and in 1919 joined the partisan army where he became a close collaborator of Makhno. In September 1920, the Bolsheviks seized and shot him.27

Josif Gutman, known as Emigrant, a printer, emigrated to America in his youth and joined an Anarchist group. After the outbreak of the Revolution, he returned to Ukraine where he became active in the Anarchist movement. He was one of the organizers of Nabat and became one of its secretaries. In 1919 he joined the Makhno movement, working in the propaganda section. In September 1920, when Gutman was on his way from Kharkiv to Makhno's headquarters at Starobil'sk', he was seized the Bolsheviks and shot. Gutman's wife, Liia, also a member of Nabat, was arrested in November 1920 and imprisoned in Butyrki.28

Ivan Kartashev was an active Anarchist and a member of Nabat. In 1919 he joined the Makhno propaganda section. In November 1920, on the way to Kharkiv, he and his wife were seized by the Bolsheviks and shot.29

Aronchik was a worker and from 1917 an active Anarchist in Russia and in Ukraine. He was one of the leading members of the Nabat organization. In 1919 he joined the Makhno movement working as political propagandist at Huliai-Pole and its vicinity. He was seized by the Bolsheviks but after their agreement with Makhno he was released. In November 1920, he was again arrested by the Bolsheviks.30

Abram Budanov was a worker from the Donets Basin and an active Anarchist. He was the cofounder of Nabat and one of its leaders. In 1919 he joined the Makhno movement, occupying various positions including commander of a partisan detachment, political propagandist, and a diplomatic agent. In October 1920, he was a member of a delegation that arranged the agreement with the Bolsheviks against General Wrangel. A few months later, he was arrested by the Bolsheviks and sent first to the prison in Moscow and then to Riazan. He escaped from prison twice, the second time in summer 1921.

Besides the members of Nabat, a number of Anarchists from Russia joined the Makhno movement either in groups or individually. In May 1919, a group of thirty-six Anarchists from Ivanovo-Voznesenske, near Moscow, arrived at Huliai-Pole. Some of them joined the combat units, propaganda section, or the village communes. A few of them became prominent partisan leaders.

One was Makeev, a worker from Ivanovo-Voznesenske, and a member of its Anarchist group. He was active during all the phases of the Revolution in Russia; later, however, he became disillusioned with the Bolshevik regime. After coming to Huliai-Pole in April 1919, he worked as a political propagandist in the area, and later joined the army. Subsequently he became a member of the Makhno staff. At the end of November 1919, during the fighting against General Slashchov near Oleksandrivs'k, Makeev was killed.

Aleksandr Cherniakov, a bookkeeper, spent three years in exile for his revolutionary activity. During the Revolution, he worked as political activist in Petrograd and later in Ivanovo-Voznesenske. In 1918 he was arrested several times by the Bolsheviks and in 1919 along with thirty-six others joined the Makhno army, working in the propaganda section. After the defeat of General Wrangel, Cherniakov was arrested by the Bolsheviks and sent to prison in Russia.

Peter Rybin, called Zonov, was a worker from Orel province. He emigrated to America where he participated in the Anarchist movement, but following the outbreak of the Revolution he returned to Russia. Later he settled in Katerynoslav and joined the local Bolshevik group as a specialist, to organize industry and transport. In the summer of 1920 he became disillusioned with the Bolsheviks and left their ranks. In the fall he joined the Makhno movement in the propaganda section, and later served as secretary of the Revolutionary Military Council. In-January 1921, he went to Kharkiv to deliver a protest to Rakovskii against breaking the agreement with Makhno and the arrest of Anarchists. However, he too was arrested and one month later was shot by the Bolsheviks.35

Viktor Popov, a former sailor, was a Russian Socialist Revolutionary. In 1919 he organized a partisan detachment to fight Denikin. Subsequently, as he moved into Ukraine, Popov joined Makhno's army and the Anarchists. Besides his combat duties as a commander of a partisan detachment, he worked as diplomatic agent. At the end of September, he became a member of the delegation to negotiate an agreement with the Bolsheviks against General Wrangel. Later, he was appointed Makhno's military and political representative, with Kurylenko and Budanov, to Kharkiv. In November, after the defeat of Wrangel, Popov was arrested in Kharkiv and sent to a prison in Moscow where after one year he was shot.36

Mikhalev-Pavlenko was a former engineer officer and a member of the Petrograd Anarchist group. At the beginning of 1919 he joined the Makhno army. He organized and commanded an engineering detachment that operated on the railroad lines. On June 1516, 1919, while fighting Denikin, he was seized along with Burbyha by the Bolsheviks at the Haichur railroad station, and, on the next day, he was shot in Kharkiv.37

One of the most devoted Anarchists in the Makhno army was IAkovlev (Kahan), called IAsha. He joined the partisan army in 1919, soon became a member of Makhno's staff, and at one point was a chairman of the Huliai-Pole council. In September 1919, in the battle at Perehonivka, he was seriously wounded and taken to the hospital at Uman'. When the Denikin troops occupied Uman', IAkovlev was seized and, in spite of protests by the hospital personnel, he was shot.

There were a number of other prominent partisan leaders who played important roles in the Makhno movement whose lives and activities were scarcely known. Among them was Petro Havriushenko, called Havriusha, chief of Makhno's bodyguard; he was killed in 1920 fighting against the Bolsheviks. Koliada was a commander of an independent partisan unit and in the fall of 1918 he joined Makhno who appointed him a member of his staff. Havrylo Troian was one of the cofounders of the Makhno army and the gentlest among Makhno's associates. In 1921 he was killed fighting the Bolsheviks. Tykhonenko was the head of the supply service. Seregin, a peasant and an Anarchist since 1917, was among the first who joined Makhno and for some time was commander of the supply service.39 Moisei Kalynychenko was a worker from Huliai-Pole and an Anarchist from 1907, who joined the Makhno movement in 1918 and was a member of the Revolutionary Military Council. Lev Holyk was the head of counterintelligence in the Makhno army.40


Notes

1. Nikulin, "Gibel' Makhnovshchiny," p. 173; see also Efimov, "Deistviia protiv Makhno," pp. 2067.

2. Andrii Moskalenko to L. Bykovskyi; Makhno, Ukrainskaia revoliutsiia, 3:7073; Vasyl' Dubrovs'kyi to author; Omelianovych-Pavlenko, Zymovyi pokhid, 2: 25; Chernomordik, Machno i makhnovshchina, pp. 22526.

3. "Makhnovskaia armiia," pp. 23; Dubrovs'kyi to author.

4. "Makhnovskaia armiia," p. 2; "Zamietki k knigi Arshinova," p. 7.

5. Arshinov, Istoriia makhnovskogo dvizheniia, pp. 180, 221; Voline, Unknown Revolution, p. 260; Gorelik, Goneniia na anarkhizm, p. 30; Footman, "Nestor Makhno," p. 124; Omelianovych-Pavlenko, Zymovyi pokhid, 2:28; Kubanin, Makhnovshchina, p. 159; "Makhnovskaia armiia," p. 6; Dubiv, "Ulamok z moho zhyttia," no. 7, p. 919; "Zamietki k knigi Arshinova," p. 6; Serge, Memoirs of a Revolutionary, p. 122.

6. Arshinov, Istoriia makhnovskogo dvizheniia, p. 221; Voline, Unknown Revolution, p. 260; Footman, "Nestor Makhno," p. 124; Omelianovych-Pavlenko, Zymovyi pokhid, 2:28; Kubanin, Makhnovshchina, p. 159; Semanov, "Makhnovshchina i ee krakh," p. 58.

7. Voline, Unknown Revolution, pp. 26061; Arshinov, Istoriia makhnovskogo dvizheniia, pp. 125, 22122; Makhno, Russkaia revolutsiia, 1:17071.

8. Voline, Unknown Revolution, p. 261; Arshinov, Istoriia makhnovskogo dvizheniia, p. 222; Gorelik, Goneniia na anarkhizm, p. 29; "Zamietki k knigi Arshinova," p. 6; Serge, Memoirs of a Revolutionary, p. 122.

9. Voline, Unknown Revolution, p. 260; Arshinov, Istoriia makhnovskogo dvizheniia, pp. 221, 225; "Zamietki k knigi Arshinova," p. 6.

10. Arshinov, Istoriia makhnovskogo dvizheniia, p. 226; Voline, Unknown Revolution, p. 263; "Zamietki k knigi Arshinova," p. 6.

11. Semanov, "Makhnovshchina i ee krakh," p. 60; Gorelik, Goneniia na anarkhizm, p. 31; Voline, Unknown Revolution, p. 263; Arshinov, Istoriia makhnovskogo dvizheniia, p. 226.

12. Meleshko, "Nestor Makhno ta ioho anarkhiia," no. 2, p. 10; Gorelik, Goneniia na anarkhizm, p. 31; Arshinov, Istoriia makhnovskogo dvizheniia, p. 227; Voline, Unknown Revolution, p. 263; "Zamietki k knigi Arshinova," p. 6; Sako-vich, "Proryv Makhno," p. 12; Peters, Nestor Makhno, p. 15.

13. Makhno, Makhnovshchina, p. 49; Arshinov, Istoriia makhnovskogo dvizheniia, p. 223; Belash, "Makhnovshchina," pp. 199200.

14. Esbakh, "Poslednie dni makhnovshchiny na Ukraine," p. 44; Arshinov, Istoriia makhnovskogo dvizheniia, p. 222; Voline, Unknown Revolution, p. 261; "Zamietki k knigi Arshinova," p. 6; Semanov, "Makhnovshchina i ee krakh," p. 60; Antonov-Ovseenko, "V borot'bi za Radians'ku Ukrainu," no. 5, p. 117.

15. Arshinov, Istoriia makhnovskogo dvizheniia, pp. 194, 223; Voline, Unknown Revolution, pp. 21011, 261; "Zamietki k knigi Arshinova," p. 6; Nikulin, "Gibel' makhnovshchiny," p. 196.

16. Makhno, Makhnovshchina, p. 49; Mazepa, Ukraina v ohni, 1:63; Kubanin, Makhnovshchina, pp. 26, 176; Arshinov, Istoriia makhnovskogo dvizheniia, p. 227; Semanov, "Makhnovshchina i ee krakh," p. 49.

17. "Makhnovskaia armiia," p. 6; "Zamietki k knigi Arshinova," p. 6; Arshinov, Istoriia makhnovskogo dvizheniia, p. 226; Voline, Unknown Revolution, p. 263; Semanov, "Makhnovshchina i ee krakh," p. 60.

18. Arshinov, Istoriia makhnovskogo dvizheniia, pp. 22425; Voline, Unknown Revolution, p. 262.

19. Arshinov, Istoriia makhnovskogo dvizheniia, p. 225; Voline, Unknown Revolution, p. 263.

20. Gorelik, Goneniia na anarkhizm, p. 33; Voline, Unknown Revolution, p. 263.

21. Belash, "Makhnovshchina," p. 217; Makhno, Makhnovshchina, p. 24; Makhno, Ukrainskaia revoliutsiia, 3 : 142.

22. Voline, Unknown Revolution, p. 263; Arshinov, Istoriia makhnovskogo dvizheniia, p. 227; Kubanin, Makhnovshchina, p. 1 75.

23. P. Arshinov, Dva probega, pp. 21-26, 58-59, 71-73.

24. Gorelik, Goneniia na anarkhizm, p. 48; Makhno, Makhnovshchina, p. 48; Semanov, "Makhnovshchina i ee krakh," pp. 40, 43; E. Z. Dolin (Moravskii), V vikhri revoliutsii, p. 442; Nomad, Apostles of Revolution, p. 340; L. Lipotkin, "Vsevolod Mikhailovich Eikhenbaum (Volin)," DTP, no. 17, pp. 1619; Arshinov, Istoriia makhnovskogo dvizheniia, pp. 1216; "K voprosu ob anarkho-bol'shevizme i ego roli v revoliutsii," AV, no. 1 (July 1923), p. 64; Peters, Nestor Makhno, pp. 27, 96; Avrich, Russian Anarchists, pp. 24143.

25. Lipotkin, "V. Eikhenbaum (Volin)," pp. 1819; Maksimov, "V. Eikhenbaum (Volin)," pp. 1319; Gorelik, Goneniia na anarkhizm, pp. 5051; Makhno, "Otkrytoe pis'mo t-shchu Maksymovu," p. 11; Makhno, Po povodu "raz'iasneniia" Volina, pp. 510; Goldman, Living My Life, pp. 78687; Woodcock, Anarchism, p. 416; Serge, Memoirs of a Revolutionary, pp. 110, 153; Arshinov, Istoriia makhnovskogo dvizheniia, p. 237; Teper, Makhno, p. 54.

26. Gorelik, Goneniia na anarkhizm, pp. 3637; Maximoff, Guillotine at Work, pp. 51012, 540, 54243; Teper, Makhno, p. 32; Serge, Memoirs of a Revolutionary, p. 153; Semanov, "Makhnovshchina i ee krakh," p. 55; "Goneniia na anarkhizm," AV, no. 1 Quly 1923), pp. 7475; Avrich, Russian Anarchists, p. 215.

27. Gorelik, Goneniia na anarkhizm, p. 34; Teper, Makhno, p. 85.

28. Gorelik, Goneniia na anarkhizm, pp. 29, 38; Belash, "Makhnovshchina," p. 226.

29. Gorelik, Goneniia na anarkhizm, p. 30.

30. Ibid., pp. 27-28.

31. Ibid., p. 49; Voline, Unknown Revolution, p. 263.

32. Arshinov, Istoriia makhnovskogo dvizheniia, pp. 23637; Wojna, "Nestor Makhno 'Anarchism czynu,' " p. 66.

33. Arshinov, Istoriia makhnovskogo dvizheniia, p. 225; Voline, Unknown Revolution, p. 262; Gorelik, Goneniia na anarkhizm, p. 57; "Zamietki k knigi Arshinova," p. 6.

34. Gorelik, Goneniia na anarkhizm, p. 61; Makhno, Makhnovshchina, p. 48.

35. Gorelik, Goneniia na anarkhizm, pp. 3233; Arshinov, Istoriia makhnovskogo dvizheniia, pp. 22324; Voline, Unknown Revolution, pp. 26162; Maxi-moff, Guillotine at Work, p. 348.

36. Gorelik, Goneniia na anarkhizm, p. 32; Maximoff, Guillotine at Work, p. 128.

37. Voline, Unknown Revolution, p. 262; Arshinov, Istoriia makhnovskogo dvizheniia, p. 225; Gorelik, Goneniia na anarkhizm, p. 31.

38. "Makhnovskaia armiia," p. 6; Semanov, "Makhnovshchina i ee krakh," p. 40.

39. Voline, Unknown Revolution, pp. 26364; Arshinov, Istoriia makhnovskogo dvizheniia, pp_. 22627; Kubanin, Makhnovshchina, p. 175; "Zamietki k knigi Arshinova," p. 6.

40. Makhno, Russkaia revoliutsiia, 1:159, 163; Makhno, Makhnovshchina, p. 50.