Michael Palij, The Anarchism of Nestor Makhno, 1918-1921: An Aspect of the Ukrainian Revolution, 1976.

Primary Sources

Akademiia nauk URSR, Kiev. Instytut istorii. Mortaki v bor'be za vlast' Sovetov na Ukraine, noiabr' 1917-1920 gg.: Sbornik doku-mentov [Sailors in the struggle for Soviet power in Ukraine, November 1917-1920: collection of documents]. Compiled by V. I. Aleksandrova and T. S. Fedorova; edited by N. I. Suprunenko. Kiev: Izd-vo Akademii nauk Ukr. SSR, 1963. The Bolshevik sailors' struggle for Bolshevik power in Ukraine October 1917-December 1920; 509 items from Russian and Ukrainian state and regional archives.

-----------. Radians'ke budivnytstvo na Ukraini v roky hromadiankoi viiny, lystopad 1918-serpen' 1919: Zbirnyk dokumentiv i ma-terialiv [Soviet build-up in Ukraine during the Civil War years, November 1918-August 1919: collection of documents and materials]. Edited by M. A. Rubach. Kiev: Vyd-vo Akademii nauk Ukr. RSR, 1962. Materials, including Lenin's articles and speeches, on the Bolshevik struggle for power in Ukraine, and the organization of authorities from central to local, including the committees of the poor; 468 documents from Russian and Ukrainian state and regional archives.

Aleksandrov, comp. "Boevaia deiatel'nost' S. K. Timoshenko na frontakh grazhdanskoi voiny: Iz dokumentov proshlogo" [Military activity of S. K. Timoshenko on the fronts of the Civil War: from documents of the past]. VIZ, no. 2 (February 1941), pp. 76-95. Orders (23) of Marshal S. K. Timoshenko to divisions of the First Cavalry Army dealing with the struggle mainly against Denikin and Wrangel from November 1919 to November 1920.

Alekseev, S. A., comp. Denikin, lUdenich, Vrangel. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo, 1927. Selected, memoirs of the three generals as well as from Lukomskii, Rakovskii, Voronovich, Skobtsov, Obolenskii, Valen-tinov, Gori, and others, dealing with the Russian Civil War and the intervention.

-----------. Revoliutsiia na Ukraine po memuaram belykh [Revolution in Ukraine according to memoirs of the Whites]. Edited by N. N. Popova. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo, 1930. Memoirs of Russian and Ukrainian military and political personages on the Ukrainian Revolution.

Aleksieev, I. Iz vospominanii levogo esera [From the memoirs of a Leftist Socialist Revolutionary]. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo, 1922. The underground movement in Ukraine during 1917 and 1918, sympathetic to the Bolsheviks.

Andriievs'kyi, Viktor. Z mynuloho [From the past]. 2 vols. Berlin: Ukrains'ke slovo, 1921. Revolutionary events from May 1917 to summer 1919, primarily in Poltava province, where the author was a prominent politician.

Antonov-Ovseenko, Vladimir. "V borot'bi proty Denikina i soiuz-nyts'koi okupatsii" [In the struggle against Denikin and the Allied occupation]. LR, no. 1 (45) (1931), pp. 111-54.

-----------. "V borot'bi proty Dyrektorii" [In the struggle against the Directory]. LR, no. 1 (40) (1930), pp. 103-32; no. 2 (41), pp. 104-51 ;nos. 3-4 (42-43), pp. 78-107; no. 5 (44), pp. 173-93. A personal account of the Directory's social policy in 1919, the Bolshevik intervention of 1919, the French intervention in South Ukraine, and Makhno's campaigns against Denikin.

-----------. "V borot'bi za Radians'ku Ukrainu" [In the struggle for Soviet Ukraine]. LR, no. 2 (46) (1931), pp. 85-114; no. 3 (47); no. 4 (48), pp. 78-107; no. 5 (49) (1932), pp. 112-52. A detailed account of Makhno's campaigns against Denikin in the spring of 1919, the conflict with the Bolsheviks, Makhno's alleged cooperation with Hryhor'iv and Hryhor'iv's uprising against the Bolsheviks.

-----------. Zapiski o grazhdanskoi voine [Notes about the Civil War]. 4 vols. Moscow: Izd. Vysshii voen. red. sovet, 1924-33. These fairly objective, well-documented memoirs, by a Red Army commander, include orders, telegrams, letters, and recorded conversations on the campaigns on the Volga and Ukrainian fronts as well as on the organization, tactics, and strategy of the Red troops.

Arbatov, Z. "Bat'ko Makhno" [Father Makhno]. Vozrozhdenie (Paris) 29 (1953): 102-15. A personal account of Makhno's life and activities through his release from Polish prison.

-----------. "Ekaterinoslav 1917-1922 gg." ARR 12 (1923): 83-148. Valuable memoirs of the Revolution, including Makhno's activities in Katerynoslav, stressing the terror of the Denikin and Bolshevik troops.

Astrov, N. "IAsskoe sovieshchanie: Iz dokumentov" [Reports of the Jassy Conference: from documents]. Golos minuvshago na chuzhoi storonie [Voice of the past in a foreign land], 16, no. 3 (Paris, 1926): 39-76.

Ataman Grigor'ev. Memoirs. 12 pp. Copy in author's possession.

Aten, Marion, and Arthur Orrmont. Last Train over Rostov Bridge. New York: J. Messner, 1961. Combat experiences during the Russian Civil War,- 1918-20, by an American pilot who joined the anti-Bolshevik Russian forces.

Auerbakh, V. A. "Revoliutsionnoe obshchestvo po lichnym vospomi-naniiam" [Revolutionary society according to personal memoirs]. ARR 14 (1924): 5-38; 16 (1925): 49-99. Memoirs of the Revolution, largely in Ukraine, including Katerynoslav province.

Aussem, V. "K istorii povstanchestva na Ukraine: O dvukh partizan-skikh diviziakh" [To the history of the partisan movement in Ukraine: about two partisan divisions]. LR, no. 5 (20) (1921), pp. 7-21. Five documents as well as an article by a Bolshevik partisan leader on the organization of the Bolshevik partisans in the Neutral Zone in the second half of 1918.

Averdukh, K. K. [Averius]. Odesskaia "Chrezvychaika": Bol'shevitskii zastienok: Fakty i nabliudaniia [The Odessa "Chrezvychaika": Bolshevik torture-chamber: facts and observations]. Vol. 1. Kishinov, 1920.

Bachyns'kyi, Vasyl'. "Povstanchyi viddil bratslavs'koho povitu" [A partisan unit of Bratslav district]. LCK, no. 3 (1930), pp. 5-6. Campaigns of a partisan group, primarily Ukrainian Galician troops, against the Bolsheviks in Bratslav district during the spring of 1920.

Balkovskii, A. "Begstvo na Don k generalam Alekseevu i Kornilovu v 1917-m godu: Vospominaniia komandira baterii" [Escape to the Don to Generals Alekseev and Kornilov in 1917: memoirs of a battery commander]. Voennyi sbornik (Paris), no. 6 (January 1965), pp. 39-45.

Bechhofer, C. E. In Denikin's Russia and the Caucasus, 1919-1920: Being the Record of a Journey to South Russia, the Crimea, Armenia, Georgia, and Baku in 1919 and 1920. London: W. Collins, 1921. Account by a British war correspondent of the Denikin campaigns, emphasizing the internal conditions within the Volunteer Army, from October 1918 to March 1920.

Bekesevych, P. "Moi spomyny z ostannikh dniv okupatsii Ukrainy avstro-nimets'kymy viis'kamy" [Memoirs from the last days of the occupation of Ukraine by the Austro-German troops]. LCK, no. 3 (1931), pp. 4-6. Political and military conditions in the Right Bank Ukraine during the second half of 1918.

Belash, V. "Makhnovshchina: Otryvki iz vospominanii" [The Makhno movement: excerpts from memoirs]. LR, no. 3 (30) (May-June 1928), pp. 191-231. The Makhno movement by one of its commanders, later its chief of staff. Written in Bolshevik captivity.

Beliaevskii, V. A. Kto vinovat: Vospominaniia o belom dvizhenii, 1918-1920 [Who is guilty: memoirs about the White movement, 1918-1920]. Buenos Aires, 1960.

Belyi arkhiv [BA] [White archive]. Edited by IA. M. Lisovoi. 3 vols. Paris, 1926-28. Documents, memoirs, articles, transcripts of conferences, correspondence, and reports, concerning Bolshevik history and anti-Bolshevik Russian movements.

Belyi, M. P., R. A. Kuznetsova, and K. F. Chumak, comps. Vospominaniia o G. I. Kotovskom [Memoirs about G. I. Kotovskii]. Kishinev: Kartia moldoveniaske, 1961.

Berkman, Alexander. The Bolshevik Myth: Diary 1920-1922. New York: Boni and Liveright, 1925. A 2-year diary of observations of political life in Soviet Russia and Ukraine by a Russian-American Anarchist.

-----------. "Nestor Makhno: The Man Who Saved the Bolsheviki." Personal recollections. Nice. 30 pp. Copy in author's possession. Firsthand account of Makhno and his movement with additional information from other eyewitnesses.

Bieloe dielo: Lietopis bieloi borby [The White affair: chronicle of the White struggle]. 7 vols. Berlin: "Miednii vsadnik," 1926-33. The Russian anti-Bolshevik movement from 1917 through 1920. Accounts by Generals P. Shatilov, P. N. Wrangel, and the Kuban Ataman A. P. Filimonov.

Bobriv, VasyP. "Do zustrichiv ta portretiv" [About meetings and portraits] . SV, no. 229 (October 3, 1927).

-----------. "Zustrichi ta portrety: Otaman Zelenyi" [Meetings and portraits: Otaman Zelenyi] . SV, no. 172 (July 27, 1927). Memoirs about Otaman Zelenyi's conflict with the Directory, January 1919.

"Boevye dokumenty N. A. Shchorsa" [Military documents of N. A. Shchorsa]. VIZ, no. 1 (1939), pp. 122-25. War operations, military reports, and other documents dealing with the military campaigns in Ukraine by the Bolshevik partisan units, organized in the Neutral Zone, December 1918-August 1919.

Bohun, M. "Fragmenty zi spomyniv pro 'Narodniu Oboronu Kherson-s'koi gubernii': Na peredodni kintsia denikinshchyny na Kherson-shchyni" [Fragments from memoirs about the people's defense of Kherson province: on the eve of the end of the Denikin movement in Kherson province]. Ukrains'kyi skytalets, no. 2 (24) (1923), pp. 32-37. Attitudes of different groups within the Volunteer Army toward Ukrainian statehood, its policy in Ukraine, and the disintegration of the army during the second half of 1919.

Bor'ba trudiashchikhsia mass za ustanovlenie i uprochenie Sovetskoi vlasti na Stavropol'e, 1917-apr. 1921 gg.: Sbornik dokumentov i materialov [The struggle of the workers for the establishment and consolidation of Soviet power in the Stavropol' region, 1917- April 1921: collection of documents and materials]. Stavropol: Kn. Izd-vo, 1967. A one-sided selection dealing with Red troops against the Kuban and Terek Cossacks and the Volunteer Army in the North Caucasus from the end of 1917 to 1921.

Bozhyk, Stepan. "Deshcho pro ukrains'kykh partisan v 1919 rotsi: Uryvok z dennyka" [Something about Ukrainian partisans in 1919: excerpts from a diary]. KCK 1924, pp. 140-44. Activities of Makhno, Hryhor'iv, and other partisan leaders in 1919.

Browder, R. P., and A. F. Kerensky, eds. The Russian Provisional Government 1917. Documents. 3 vols. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1961. Documents issued by the Provisional Government, military communications, memoirs, and other items from the collection of the Hoover Institution.

Brylyns'kyi, Maksym. "Z denikintsiamy: Opovidannia-spomyn" [With Denikin's men: story-memoirs]. LCK, no. 2 (1929), pp. 8-10.

Budak. "Borot'ba z nimtsiamy ta hetmantsiamy; Istymivs'kyi raion na Zynovyivshchyni: Spohady komandira Pershoho Khersons'koho chervono-gvardiishoho, partyzans'koho, armii Muraviova, zahonu t. Tsymbaliuka" [Struggle against the Germans and the Hetman's men; Istymiv district in the Zynoviiv region: recollections of the commander of the First Kherson Red-Guard, Partisan Army of Muraviov, a unit of comrade Tsymbaliuk]. Visti, no. 265 (1927).

Bunyan, J., comp. Intervention, Civil War, and Communism in Russia, April-December, 1918: Documents and Materials. Baltimore, Md.: The John Hopkins Press, 1936. Domestic and international affairs of Russia from April to December, 1918.

Bunyan, J., and H. H. Fisher, comps. The Bolshevik Revolution, 1917- 1918: Documents and Materials. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1934. Public documents, reports of the contemporary press, participants, and observers, with summaries of events described in the documents.

Ch., M. "Desiat' dniv u Kyivi v sichni 1919 r.: Spomyny z Trudovoho Kongresu" [Ten days in Kiev, January 1919: memoirs from the Labor Congress]. LCK, no. 5 (1931), pp. 5-8; no. 6, pp. 3-6. The Labor Congress in Kyiv in January 1919 and the unification of eastern and western Ukraine.

Cheriachukin, A. "Donskiia delegatsii na Ukrainu i Berline v 1918- 1919 gg." [The Don delegations in Ukraine and Berlin in 1918- 1919]. Donskaia lietopis (Belgrad) 3 (1924): 163-231. Memoirs of the Don Cossacks' envoy to the hetman about his negotiations over the Ukrainian-Don Cossack border, political conditions in Ukraine, the anti-hetman activities of Denikin's followers, and the uprising against the hetman.

Cherkasov. "Pravda o huliaipol'skikh sobytiiakh" [The truth about the Huliai-Pole events]. Nabat (Kharkov), no. 21 (June 30, 1919), P\2- .. Chubinskii, M. " 'Na Donu': Iz vospominanii Ober-Prokurora" [In the Don: from memoirs of public procurator]. Donskaia lietopis' (Belgrad), no. 1 (1923), pp. 131-68; no. 3 (1924), pp. 268-309.

Chykalenko, IEvhen. Spohady, 1861-1907 [Memoirs, 1861-1907]. New York: Ukr. Vil'na Akademiia Nauk u SSh. A., 1955. A prominent patron of learning and politician deals with national life and aspirations.

-----------. Uryvok z moikh spomyniv za 1917 r. [An excerpt from my memoirs for 1917]. Prague: Vyd. Fondu im. IE. Chykalenka pry Ukrains'komu akademichnomu komiteti, 1932.

D., O. "Mestnyky: Spomyny iz partyzanky na Velykii Ukraini" [Avengers: memoirs from the partisan movement in Ukraine]. KCK 1923, pp. 158-66. Partisan activities against the Bolsheviks and the local authority in Poltava province, July 1921.

Danilov, I. "Vospominaniia o moei podnevol'noi sluzhbie u bol'she-vikov" [Memoirs about my forced service with the Bolsheviks]. ARR 14 (1924): 39-131; 16 (1925): 162-230. A Bolshevik officer who later defected to the West describes the Bolshevik campaigns against Makhno from the end of 1920 to the spring of

1921. Daushkov, S. "Skarbynyk otamana Makhna" [Treasurer for Otaman Makhno]. Kaliendar dlia ukrains'kykh pratsiuiuchykh liudei pry-iatel' narodu na rik 1938, pp. 45-48. Lvov: Nakl. "Hrumads'koho holosu," 1937. Davatts, V. Gody: Ocherki piatdietnei bor'by [Years: essays of five years of struggle]. Belgrade: Russkaia tip., 1926.

_______. Na Moskvu [On Moscow]. Paris: I. Rirakhovskii, 1921.

Davnyi, R. Pro Sichovykh Stril'tisiv [About the Sich Riflemen]. Vienna: Nakl. "Chornohory," 1921. The campaign of the Sich Riflemen against the Bolsheviks and Denikin from late 1917through 1919. Includes an article by D. Doroshenko about the victims of the Red troops at Kruty.

Degras, F., ed. Soviet Documents on Foreign Policy. Vol. 1. London: Oxford University Press, 1951. Diplomatic statements, communiques, reports, interviews, and speeches. Vol. 1 includes 1917 to 1924.

Denikin, A. I. "Bor'ba generala Kornilova" [Struggle of General Kor-nilov]. FA, no. 37 (1937), pp. 12-13. The formation of the Volunteer units by General Alekseev in the Don at the end of 1917.

-----------. "Getmanstvo i Direktoriia na Ukraine" [The hetman government and the Directory in Ukraine]. In Revoliutsiia na Ukraine po memuaram belykh, pp. 136-85. Compiled by S. A. Alekseev. Moscow, 1930. A selection from vols. 3-5 of Ocherki russkoi smuty; deals with the hetman government, stressing the German, Bolshevik, and anti-Bolshevik Russian policies in Ukraine in 1918, the establishment of the Directory, and French intervention.

-----------."Kubanskii pokhod" [The Kuban march]. FA, no. 41 (1938), pp. 13-17; no. 42, pp. 2-15. The fighting between the Volunteer troops and Bolsheviks in the Kuban during winter and spring, 1918, the death of General Kornilov and the treatment of his corpse by the Bolsheviks, the formation of a volunteer unit in Jassy, Romania, by Colonel Drozdovskii, and its march to the Don.

-----------. La decomposition de I'armee et du pouvoir Fevrier-Septembre 1917. Paris: J. Povolozky, 1922.

-----------. Ocherki russkoi smuty [Sketches of the Russian turmoil]. 5 vols. Paris: J. Povolozky, 1921-26. Detailed memoirs of World War I and the anti-Bolshevik movement, from 1914 to April 1920. Includes numerous documents.

"Denikintsy o sostoianii svoego tyla: Soobshch. Kandidov" [Denikin's men (commenting) about the conditions in the rear: Kandidov's report]. KA 5 (72) (1935): 191-99. A report to General Wrangel at the end of March 1920 by a member of a military court about the causes of evacuation of Odessa by the troops of the Volunteer Army and their demoralization.

Derevenskii, Iv. [pseud.]. "Bandity: Ocherki perioda grazhdanskoi voiny" [Bandits: essays of the Civil War period]. BY, no. 24 (1924), pp. 252-73. Partisan activities of Orlyk, Struk, and others in the district of Kyiv and of the peasants' attitude from August 1920 to May 1922, by a Soviet Russian agent.

Die deutsche Okkupation der Ukraine: Geheimdokumente. Strasbourg: Editions Promethee, 1937. Confidential diplomatic papars, military reports, and other materials that passed between the German and Austro-Hungarian representatives in Ukraine and the Ministries of Foreign Affairs in Berlin and Vienna from February to November 1918. They depict the German colonial policy of oppressions and punitive expeditions, and the disintegration of their troops.

"Dnevnik i vospominaniia kievskoi studentki" [Diary and memoirs of a Kiev student girl]. ARR 15 (1924): 209-53. Political events in Kyiv from February 1919 through March 1920, stressing the terror of the Bolsheviks and Denikin troops.

Dobranitskii, M. "Zelenye partizany, 1918-1920 gg." [Green partisans, 1918-1920]. PR, nos. 8-9 (31-32) (1924), pp. 72-98.

"Doklad nachal'nyku operatsionnago Otdeleniia germanskago vostoch-nago fronta o polozhenii del' na Ukraine v marte 1918 goda" [Report to the chief of the operational division of the German Eastern Front about conditions in Ukraine in March 1918]. ARR 1 (1921): 288-94. Conditions in Ukraine in March 1928 by Collin Ross, a German publicist, who accompanied German troops in Ukraine and served with the military section of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs after autumn 1917.

"Doklad o dieiatel'nosti Kievskago tsentra Dobrovol'cheskoi armii" [Report about the activities of the Kiev center of the Volunteer Army]. BA, nos. 2-3 (1928), pp. 119-32. A report of the Volunteer Army section in Kyiv during 1919.

Dontsov, Dmytro. Rik 1918, Kyiv [The year 1918, Kiev]. Toronto: Homin Ukrainy, 1954. Diary of political events in Kyiv from May 1918 to February 1919.

Doroshenko, Dmytro. lAk bulo proholosheno het'manstvo u Kyivi 29 kvitnia, 1918 roku [How the hetman regime was proclaimed in Kiev April 29, 1918]. Winnipeg: Vyd. Tsentralia "Sichei," 1927.

_______. Istoriia Ukrainy 1917-1923 rr. 2 vols. 2nd ed. New York: Bulava, 1954. An authoritative study by a prominent Ukrainian historian and minister of foreign affairs of the hetman government of the first two years of the Ukrainian Revolution, including the Central Rada and the hetman state.

-----------. Moi spomyny pro nedavnie mynule, 1914-1920 [My memoirs about the recent past, 1914-1920]. 2nd ed. Munich: Ukrains'ke vyd-vo, 1969. Objective view of sociopolitical conditions in Ukraine and the Revolution, based on the author's recollections and on documents. Emphasizes Russian efforts to destroy Ukrainian national life in occupied Galicia.

-----------. "Pis'ma" [Writings]. Vozrozhdenie (Paris), no. 17 (1951), pp. 152-57. Letter to S. Melgunov in 1926 in response to his article about Russo-Ukrainian relations. Doroshenko maintained that neither he nor the Ukrainian people hated Russia, but were striving for the independence of both the Ukrainian and Russian states.

-----------. "Voina i revoliutsiia na Ukraine" [War and revolution in Ukraine]. In Revoliutsiia na Ukraine po memuaram belykh, pp. 64-98. Compiled by S. A. Alekseev. Moscow, 1930.

-----------. "Voina i revoliutsiia na Ukraine: Iz vospominanii" [War and the Revolution in Ukraine, from memoirs]. Istorik i sovremennik (Berlin) 1 (1922): 207-45; 2:180-205; 4 (1923): 178-209; 5 (1924): 73-125. Russian occupation of East Galicia during World War I, and the effort to eliminate Ukrainian national life; the Central Rada's conflict with the Provisional Government, the first Bolshevik invasion, and the assistance of Austro-German troops in expelling the enemies.

Doroshenko, Natalia. "Poltavs'ki spomyny, 1917-20: Fragmenty" [Poltava memoirs, 1917-20: fragments]. KD 1933, pp. 56-92.

Dorozynska, Elzbieta [Zaieska]. Na ostatniej placowce: Dziennik z zycia wsi podolskiej w latach 191 7-1921 [In the last stronghold: diary from the life in a village in Podillia province] . Warsaw: Gebethner i Wolff, 1925. A Polish landowner and physician describes life in Podillia province during the Ukrainian Revolution.

Dotsenko, Oleksander. Litopys ukrains'koi revoliutsii: Materiialy i dokumenty do istorii ukrains'koi revoliutsii, 1917-1923 [Chronicle of the Ukrainian Revolution: materials and documents about the history of the Ukrainian Revolution]. Vol. 2, pts. 4-5. Kiev, 1923-24. By the aide of S. Petliura based on official documents and the author's archives, diaries, recollections, captured secret documents, and interviews with political and military leaders as well as on contemporary publications, Ukrainian and foreign; a substantial portion consists of letters, memoranda, telegrams, appeals to the population, and other documents pertaining to the Ukrainian government and its relations with foreign countries. A number of documents in Polish deal with Petliura-Pilsudski relations.

-----------. Zymovyi pokhid: 6.XII, 1919-6. V, 1920 [The winter campaign: December 6, 1919-May 6, 1920]. 2nd ed. New York (?), 1966 (?). Guerrilla warfare in the rear of the Denikin and Bolshevik forces: an account of the prelude to the campaign, the campaign, partisan activities, Bolshevik policy in Ukraine, and related documents. Published in Warsaw in 1932 as vol. 2, pt. 6, of the author's Litopys ukrains'koi revoliutsii.

Drabatyi, L. "Epizod z evakuatsii Kyieva v 1919 r." [An episode during the evacuation of Kiev in 1919]. TR, no. 30 (1964), pp. 3-6. Evacuation of the Directory from Kyiv at the beginning of February 1919, as a result of the Bolshevik attack.

Drozdovskii, M. G. Dnevnik [A diary]. Berlin: O. Kirkhner, 1923. A Russian officer describes the advance of his troops through South Ukraine from Jassy to the Don, February to April, 1918: conditions there, the attitude of the populace toward the Russians and Germans, and the conflict in the Volunteer Army.

Dubas, Pavlo. "'Nestor Makhno ta ioho anarkhiia'-F. Meleshka" ["Nestor Makhno and his anarchy"-F. Meleshka]. Novyi shliakh (Winnipeg), January 18, 1960. An account similar to the author's "Z raionu Makhna," below.

-----------. "Z raionu Makhna" [From the region of Makhno]. LCK, no. 3 (1932), pp. 7-8. A Galician Ukrainian officer in the Austrian army describes an Austrian punitive expedition.

Dubiv, Volodymyr. "Ulamok z moho zhyttia: Spomyn " [Fragment from my life: memoirs]. Vyzvol'nyi shliakh (London), no. 6 (219) (1966), pp. 737-44; no. 7 (220), pp. 916-23. Bolshevik persecution of Ukrainians, including Makhno men, in a prison in Kharkov at the end of 1920.

Dubreuil, Charles. Deux annees en Ukraine, 1917-1919. Paris: H. Paulin, 1919. Ukraine, its land, people, and history, based on observations of a traveler during the Revolution.

Dubrovs'kyi, Vasyl'. Letter to author. Richmond, Va., July 25, 1964.

Dubynets', Ivan. Horyt' Medvedyn: Istorychno-memuarnyi narys [The burning of Medvedyn: historic and memoir sketch]. New York: 1952. Uprisings of a village in Kaniv district against the Bolshevik regime at the end of 1920, and its subsequent destruction by Bolshevik troops.

Dunin-Kozicka, Marja. Burza od wschodu: Wspomnienia z Kijow-szczyzny, 1918-1920 [Storm from the east: memoirs from the Kiev province, 1918-1920]. Warsaw: Dom Ksiazki, 1929. A Polish landowner describes her vicissitudes in Kyiv province during the Ukrainian Revolution and the Bolshevik and Denikin invasions.

Eideman, R. "Makhno." AR, nos. 1-2 (1923), pp. 27-28. Memoirs of the commander of the Bolshevik forces fighting against Makhno in 1920.

-----------. "Piataia godovshchina odnogo uroka: Zamechaniia k state'etov. Esbakha" [Fifth anniversary of a lesson: remarks about the article of Comrade Esbakh]. VR, no. 12 (1926), pp. 32-39. Campaign of the Red troops against Makhno during the first half of 1921, stressing Makhno's military tactics. The author, formerly an officer in the tsarist army, commanded Red troops against Denikin and against Makhno. Arrested in the late 1930s, he died in the Cold Hill prison in Kharkov in 1937.

"The Fastov Pogrom." The Nation 111 (December 8, 1920): 646-47.

Fedenko, Panas. Isaak Mazepa, borets'za voliu Ukrainy [Isaak Mazepa, fighter for the freedom of Ukaraine]. London: Nashe slovo, 1954.

--------. Istoriia revoliutsii, 1917-1921 [History of the Revolution]. I. Tsentral'na Rada. N.p., n.d.

-----------. "Mynulo pivstolittia: Zymovyi pokhid Armii Ukrains'koi Narodnoi Republiky 1919-1920 rr." [A half-century later: the winter campaign of the Army of the Ukrainian People's Republic, 1919-1920]. SV, no. 218 (November 26, 1971), p. 2; no. 219 (November 27), p. 2; no. 220 (November 30), p. 2; no. 221 (December 1), p. 2; no. 222 (December 2), p. 2; no. 223 (December 3), p. 2; no. 224 (December 4), p. 2; no. 225 (December 5), p. 2. Reprinted in book form. New York: Svoboda, 1972. The winter campaign in the rear of the Russian Bolshevik and anti-Bolshevik forces from December 1919 to May 1920, set against the political and military background.

-----------. Ukrains'kyi rukh u 20 stolitti [The Ukrainian movement during the twentieth century]. London: Nashe slovo, 1959. Competent survey of the Ukrainian national movement in the twentieth century.

-----------.Vlada Pavla Skoropads'koho: Piat'desiati rokovyny pere-vorotu v Ukraini [The government of Pavlo Skoropads'kyi: the fiftieth anniversary of a coup d'etat in Ukraine]. London: Nashe slovo, 1968.

Filippov, N. Ukrainskaia kontrrevoliutsiia na sluzhbie u Anglii, Frantsii i Pol'shi [The Ukrainian counterrevolution at the service of England, France, and Poland]. Moscow: Moskovskii rabochii, 1927. The Directory's foreign relations, supplemented by a number of documents, including the Ukrainian-Polish political and military conventions of April 21 and 24, 1920.

Frunze, M. V. Izbrannye proizvedeniia [Selected works]. Moscow: Voen. izd-vo, 1965. Articles and speeches dealing with the organization of the Red Army, its struggle during the Civil War, its military and political education, and the role of the rear in the war.

-----------. "Pamiati Perekopa i Chongara: Stranichka iz vospominanii" [In memory of Perekop and Chongar: a page from memoirs]. Voennyi vestnik (Moscow), no. 6 (1928), pp. 40-48.

-----------. Sobranie sochinenii [Collected works]. 3 vols. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo, 1926-29. Volume 1 includes documents about Frunze's military operations in Turkestan, and subsequently in Ukraine against Wrangel and Makhno, from January 1919 through 1920.

-----------. "Telegrammy i prikazy" [Telegrams and orders]. Borba klassov (Moscow), no. 12 (1935), pp. 50-61. Telegrams to Lenin and orders to the Bolshevik troops of the south from September to November 1920.

-----------. "Vrangel." In Perekop i Chongar: Sbornik statei i materialov [Perekop and Chongar: a collection of articles and materials]. Moscow: Gos. voen. izd-vo, 1933.

Genkin, E. B., comp. Razgrom nemetskikh zakhvatchikov v 1918 godu: Sbornik materialov i dokumentov [Defeat of the German invaders in 1918: a collection of materials and documents]. Edited by M. B. Mitina and I. I. Mintsa. Moscow: Gos. Polit. izd-vo, 1943. German policy in East Europe, largely in Ukraine, and the struggle of the populace against the Germans from February 1918 to February 1919.

Gerasimenko, K. V. Bat'ko Makhno: Iz vospominanii belogvardeitsa [Father Makhno: from memoirs of a White guard]. Edited by P. E. Shchegolova. Moscow: Giz, 1928. A Soviet revision of the author's original article "Makhno."

-----------. "Makhno." Istorik i sovremennik (Berlin) 3 (1922): 151- 201. A biased, personal account containing factual errors about Makhno and his movement by a Denikin follower and later a Bolshevik agent acting in West Europe, particularly in Czechoslovakia.

Gerasimov, E., and M. Erlikh. Nikolai Aleksandrovich Shchors: Boevoi put' [Nikolai Aleksandrovich Shchors: road of struggle]. Moscow: Gos. voen. izd-vo NKO SSR, n.d. The biography of a Red Army commander, with emphasis on his campaign against the Ukrainian forces during the Revolution. Germany. Auswartiges Amt. Germany and the Revolution in Russia, 1915-1918: Documents from the Archives of the German Foreign Ministry. Edited by Z. A. B. Zeman. London: Oxford University Press, 1958. Documents (136) related to German policy toward the Revolution in Russia from January 1915 to March 1918.

Gol'denweizer, A. A. "Biegstvo: IiuF-oktiabr' 1921 g." [Escape: July-October 1921]. ARR 6 (1922): 161-303. Comprehensive, subjective, personal account of a jurist about political events in Kyiv, emphasizing Russian life there, from February 1917 to July 1921.

Golder, Frank Alfred, ed. Documents of Russian History, 1914-1917. Translated by Emannel Aronsberg. New York: The Century Co., 1927. Materials taken largely from two newspapers, Rech' and Izvestiia, which contained most of the official documents of the period.

Goldman, Emma. Anarkhizm. Petrograd: Knigoizd-vo "Golos truda," 1921.

-----------. Living My Life. Garden City, N.Y.: Garden City Publishing Co., 1931. Autobiography of a Russian-American anarchist, containing a description of her visit to Soviet Russia that revealed the greatly disappointing conditions of life under the Bolshevik dictatorship.

-----------. My Disillusionment in Russia. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1923. Detailed account of the author's trip to Soviet Russia where she met many revolutionary and anarchist leaders.

-----------. My Further Disillusionment in Russia: Being a Continuation of Miss Goldman's "My Disillusionment in Russia." Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1924. An indictment of the Bolshevik regime by an eyewitness.

Gordienko, G. "Svidetel'stva o Makhno: Glazami iunoshi" [Evidences about Makhno: in the eyes of a youth]. NRS, March 16, 1970, p. 7. A personal account describing the behavior of Makhno partisans in Oleksandrivs'k in August 1919.

Grazhdanskaia voina na Ekaterinoslavshchine, fevral' 1918-1920 gg.: Dokumenty i materialy [The Civil War in Ekaterinoslav province, February 1918-1920: documents and materials]. Edited by A. IA. Pashchenko. Dnepropetrovsk: "Promin','' 1968. Partisan activities and the Bolshevik struggle "for Soviet power" in Katerynoslav province. It contains, in chronological order, 292 documents, most of which are published for the first time.

Grazhdanskaia voina na Ukraine, 1918-1920: Sbornik dokumentov i materialov [The Civil War in Ukraine, 1918-1920: collection of documents and materials]. Edited by S. M. Korolivskii, N. K. Koles-nik, and I. K. Rybalka. 3 vols, in 4. Kiev, 1967. The struggle of the Bolshevik and anti-Bolshevik Russian forces for power in Ukraine, the policy of Austro-German troops, and Allied intervention in South Ukraine. It contains 2,682 items from Russian and Ukrainian state and regional archives, including Bolshevik party and military organizations and institutions. Dates and sources are provided.

Grebenshchikov, V. "K dvenadtsatiletiiu osvobozhdeniia Kryma: Dokumenty grazhdanskoi voiny" [To the twelfth anniversary of the liberation of the Crimea: documents of the Civil War]. VR, nos. 11-12 (1932), pp. 113-17. Orders of M. V. Frunze to the Bolshevik troops at the southern front, November 5 to 17, 1920.

"Grigor'ievskaia avantura (mai 1919)" [The Hryhor'iv adventure (May 1919)]. LR, no. 3 (1923), pp. 152-59. The struggle of the Red Army against Otaman Hryhor'iv.

Grunfel, Judith. Iz vospominanii o bor'be za svobodu i narodovlastie v Odesse, 1918-1920 gg. [From memoirs about a struggle for freedom and people's authority in Odessa, 1918-1920]. New York, 1962.

Gukovskii, A. I., ed. "Agrarnaia politika Vrangelia" [The agricultural policy of Wrangel]. KA 1 (26) (1928): 51-96. Application of White Army law from May 25, 1920, and reports about the situation in the villages, compiled for the Allies by Wrangel's Department of Agriculture.

-----------. "Iz istorii vneshnei politiki pravitel'stva Vrangelia: Economicheskiie otnosheniia s Frantsiei" [From the history of the Wrangel government's domestic policy: economic relations with France]. KA 1 (32) (1929): 125-57. Reports from Paris by a commercial agent of Wrangel's government from May to July, 1920; includes documents about the foundation of a Russo-French commercial society for trade, industry, and transportation.

-----------. "Krym v 1918-1919 gg.: Materialy osvedomitel'nykh organow Dobrovol'cheskoi armii i diplomatichekogo predstavitelia Vsevelikogo voiska donskogo" [Crimea in 1918-1919: materials of the intelligence of the Volunteer Army and the diplomatic representative of the Great Don Army]. KA 2 (27) (1928): 142-81; 3 (28): 55-85. Documents of the Volunteer Army concerning the attitude of the populace toward it, the labor movement, and the underground activities of the Bolsheviks and their partisans.

_----------. "Nachalo vrangelevshchiny" [Origin of the Wrangel movement] . KA 2 (21) (1927): 174-81. Minutes of the first conference of the Council of the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces of South Russia on April 9, 1920, dealing with the political and economic situation in Crimea.

-----------. "V tylu 'Vooruzhennykh sil IUga Rossii' " [In the rear of the 'Armed Forces of South Russia']. KA 3 (34) (1929): 224-28. Political and economic conditions in the Crimea during the occupation by Wrangel in April 1920.

Gul', Roman. "Kievskaia epokheia, noiabr'-dekabr' 1918 g." [Kievan epic, November-December, 1918]. ARR 2 (1922): 59-86. The Ukrainian struggle against the German and Russian forces, largely in Kyiv.

-----------. Ledianoi pokhod: S Kornilovym [Ice march: with Kornilov] .

Berlin: S. Efron, 1921. A Russian officer's account of the Kornilov campaigns against the Bolsheviks in the Don and Kuban basins in the winter of 1917-18.

Gulevich, K.,- and R. Gassanova. "Iz istorii borby prodovolstvennykh otriadov rabochikh za khleb i ukreplenie sovetskoi vlasti, 1918- 1920 gg." [From the history of the struggle of the workers' food collecting detachments for bread and the consolidation of Soviet power, 1918-1920]. KA 4-5 (89-90) (1938): 103-53.

Gurev, V. I. "Ekaterinoslavskii pokhod: Vospominaniia" [Katerynoslav march: memoirs]. Manuscript, 1939. Copy in author's possession. Unpublished memoirs of a Russian officer about the Eighth Corps, in late 1918, organized under the hetman and stationed in Katerynoslav.

Gurko, V. I. "Iz Petrograda cherez Moskvu, Parizh i London v Odessu, 1917-1918 gg." [From Petrograd via Moscow, Paris, and London to Odessa, 1917-1918]. ARR 15 (1924): 5-84. Firsthand account of the early formation of the anti-Bolshevik Russian organizations, their conflicts, records of the Jassy Conference, activities of the delegations to Paris and London, and the French intervention in South Ukraine.

-------. "Politicheskoe polozhenie na Ukraine pri germane" [Political conditions in Ukraine during the hetman regime]. Revoliutsiia na Ukraine po memuaram belykh, pp. 212-21. Compiled by S. A. Alekseev. Moscow, 1930.

Hak, Anatol'. "Pravda pro Huliai-Pole: Spohad" [The truth about Huliai-Pole: recollection]. Suchasnist' (Munich) 12, no. 9 (141) (1972): 65-73.

-----------. Vid Huliai-Polia do N'iu Iorku: Spohady [From Huliai-Pole to New York: memoirs]. Neu Ulm, W. Germany, 1973.

Halahan, Mykola. Z moikh spomyniv [From my memoirs]. 4 vols. Lvov: "Chervona Kalyna," 1930. A Ukrainian Social Democrat and diplomat deals with the underground activities in the Russian Empire prior to 1905, the disintegration of the tsarist regime, and the vicissitudes of World War I and the Ukrainian Revolution; stresses the activities of the political parties, the spontaneous organization of Ukrainian military formations, the conflict with the Russian regime, and his diplomatic missions in the Kuban, Romania, and Hungary.

Hal'chevskyi-Voinarovs'kyi, IAkiv. "Proty chervonykh okupantiv" [Against the Red invaders]. Krakivs'ki visti (Krakow), nos. 139- 289 (294-444) (June 29-December 27, 1941). Detailed account of a former partisan leader about the partisans' campaigns against the Bolsheviks during the Revolution.

Hirniak, Nykofor, ed. "Avstriis'ki ta nimets'ki generaly i dyplomaty proty Vasylia Vyshyvanoho" [Austrian and German generals and diplomats against Vasyl' Vyshyvanyi]. Visti [The news] (Munich), no. 102 (1961), pp. 51-53; no. 103, pp. 79-84; no. 104, pp. 124-26; no. 105 (1962), pp. 18-21;no. 106, pp. 64-66;no. 107, pp. 80-90. Correspondence between Austrian and German diplomats and generals about the activities of Archduke Wilhelm F. Hapsburg (Vasyl' Vyshyvanyi) and the Ukrainian Sichovi Stril'tsi in Katerynoslav and Kherson provinces from May to October, 1918.

Hodgson, John E. With Denikin's Armies: Being a Description of the Cossack Counterrevolution in South Russia, 1918-1920. London: L. Williams, 1932. A British war correspondent for the Daily Express deals with the military operations and policies of the Denikin forces and the Don Cossacks, mainly in the Don Basin and Ukraine.

Hoffman, Max. Der Krieg der versaumten Gelegenheiten. Munich: G. Pehl, 1924. Chief of staff of the German eastern front deals with German policy in Eastern Europe, including the Brest-Litovsk Treaty and the German evacuation of the eastern front after November 1918.

Holub, Andrii. "Zbroina vyzvol'na borot'ba na Khersonshchyni v zapilliu voroha, 1917-1919 roky" [Armed liberation struggle in Kherson province in the rear of the enemy, 1917-1919]. Za derzhavnist' (Toronto), no. 11 (1966), pp. 175- 89.

Holyns'kyi, Petro. "Ostanni dni UHA: Uryvok zi spomyniv" [The last days of the UHA: excerpt from memoirs] .IKCK 1930, pp. 142-60.

Horbenko, Kh. "Spohady pro denikinshchynu" [Memoirs about the Denikin movement]. Strilets'ka dumka Starokonstantyniv, nos. 48-49 (1919).

Hornykiewicz, Theophil, ed. Ereignisse in der Ukraine 1914-1922, deren Bedeutungen und historishche Hintergrunde. 4 vols. Philadelphia: W. K. Lypynsky East European Research Institute, 1966- 70. Austrian State Archives documents about the Ukrainian question under the Habsburgs, the events of the Ukrainian Revolution, and East European problems in general.

Hryhor'iv, N., ed. The War and Ukrainian Democracy: A Compilation of Documents from the Past and Present. Toronto: Industrial and Educational Publishing Co., 1945. Source material concerning the democratic spirit and tradition of the Ukrainian people, with the emphasis on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Hryshko, H. "1917 rik v Odesi: Spomyny z chasiv vyzvol'nykh zmahan'" [The year 1917 in Odessa; memoirs from the period of the liberation struggle]. RN, nos. 5-6 (29-30) (1930), pp. 128-35; nos. 7-8 (31-32), pp. 178-87; nos. 9-10 (33-34), pp. 237-45; nos. 11-12 (35-36), pp. 281-92. Memoirs about the political and military movement headed by Dr. Ivan M. Lutsenko in Odessa in 1917 and after.

Hrytsyk, Ustia. "Deshcho z toho, shcho perezhyla" [Something from what (I) experienced]. IKCK 1929. pp. 89-97. A young woman's account of the events in Poltava province during the war and the Revolution.

IAkir, I. E. Vospominaniia o grazhdanskoi voine [Memoirs from the Civil War]. Moscow: Voen. izd-vo, 1957. A Red Army commander's account of the campaign of the Red troops against the Ukrainian troops, Makhno, and Denikin.

lAkymiv, E. "Hostyna Makhna v Umani: Zi spomyniv ochevydtsia" [Makhno's visit to Uman': from memoirs of an eyewitness]. IKCK 1930, pp. 78-80. Makhno and his partisans during their visit to the Ukrainian Galician military unit at Uman' at the end of August 1919.

lEremiiv, Mykhailo. "Za lashtunkamy Tsentral'noi Rady: Storinky zi spohadiv" [Behind the scenes of the Central Rada: pages from memoirs]. UI, nos. 1-4 (17-20) (1968), pp. 94-104. The secretary of the Central Rada reveals its inner workings.

lEroshevych, P. "Spohady z chasiv het'mana Pavla Skoropadskoho na Ukraini i povstannia narodu Ukrains'koho proty vlady het'mana ta nimtsiv-okupantiv" [Memoirs from the period of the Hetman Pavlo Skoropads'kyi in Ukraine and the uprising of the Ukrainian people against the hetman and the German invaders]. Tabor: Voenno literaturnyi zhurnal (Kalisz), no. 9 (1929), pp. 57-80; no. 10, pp. 75-83.

Igrenev, G. "Ekaterinoslavskiia vospominaniia, avgust, 1918 g.-iiun', 1919 g." [Katerynoslav memoirs, August 1918-June 1919]. ARR 3 (1922): 234-43. A teacher of law deals with political and military developments in Katerynoslav from August 1918 to June 1919, particularly the struggle for control of the city between the Ukrainian and the Makhno-Bolshevik forces.

"Instruktsiia Trots'koho ahitatoram-komunistam na Ukraini" [The instructions of Trotsky to the propagandist-Communists in Ukraine]. Syn Ukrainy, no. 1 (August 7, 1920), pp. 9-10.

Irchan, M. [Babiuk, M.]. Makhno i makhnivtsi: Vrazhinnia ochevydtsia [Makhno and his men: observations of an eyewitness]. Kamenets Podolski: Strilets', 1919.

-----------. "Makhno i makhnivtskVrazhinnia ochevydtsia" [Makhno and his men: observations of an eyewitness]. IKCK 1936, pp. 115-22. An account by a Ukrainian officer, based on a meeting with them at their headquarters on September 24, 1919.

-----------.Pro ukrains'ki povstannia: Sokolovs'kyi i susidni hrupy [About the Ukrainian partisans: Sokolovs'kyi and neighboring groups]. Kamenets Podolski: Strilets', 1919.

IUrtyk, H. [Tiutiunyk, IUrii]. "Stykhiia: Zi spomyniv" [Spontaneity: from memoirs]. LNV, no. 3 (1921), pp. 233-38.

-----------. "Zvenyhorods'kyi Kish vil'noho kozatstva" [Zvenyhorod camp of Free Cossacks]. LNV, no. 2 (1921), pp. 125-33.

Ivanov, M., ed. "'Ot vlasti otkazyvaius': Dokumenty o getmanshchine iz arkhiva Khar'kovskogo gubernskogo starosty" [(I) 'abdicate my authority': documents about the hetman government from the Kharkiv province Starosta]. LR, no. 2 (7) (1924), pp. 224-31. Telegrams and dispatches of the district Starostas and declarations of landlords indicating dissatisfactions and uprisings of the peasants against the hetman government from June to December 1918.

Ivanys, Vasyl'. Borot'ba Kubani za nezalezhnist [The struggle in Kuban for independence]. Munich, 1968.

_______. Stezhkamy zhyttia: Spohady [Roads of life: memoirs]. 5 vols. Toronto: Peremoha, 1958-62. Comprehensive, objective memoirs, including documentary material and interviews, by a member of the Kuban Rada (1918-20), minister of commerce and industry (1919), and the head of the government (1920), from the end of the nineteenth century to the 1950s. Vols. 2, 3, and 4 deal with the Revolution and Civil War in the territories of the Kuban and Don Cossacks.

"Iz deiatel'nosti M. V. Frunze na frontach grazhdanskoi voiny" [From the activities of M. V. Frunze on the fronts of the Civil War]. VIZ, no. 10 (1940), pp. 143-49. Telegrams, orders, and reports of M. V. Frunze from February 1919 to November 1920.

"Iz istorii grazhdanskoi voiny na Ukraine v 1918 g." [From the history of the Civil War in Ukraine in 1918]. KA, no. 4 (95) (1939), pp. 180-82.

"Iz istorii Sowlasti na Ukraine: O Pervom Vseukrainskom S'ezde Sovetov i Pervom Sovetskom Pravitel'stve Ukrainy" [From the history of Soviet authority in Ukraine: about the First All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets and the First Soviet Government of Ukraine]. LR, no. 4 (9) (1924), pp. 166-85. Memoirs and documentary material about the attempt to establish the first Soviet government in Ukraine.

"Iz materialov kievskoi chrezvychaiki" [From the materials of the Kiev secret police]. BA, nos. 2-3 (1928), pp. 113-16. A brief description of people executed by the Bolshevik secret police in Kyiv for their alleged anti-Bolshevik activities.

"Iz materialov Zafrontbiuro: Deiatel'nost Kompartii v Kharkove i Khar'kovskom okruge" [From materials of the bureau at the rear: activities of the Communist party in Kharkiv and the Kharkiv region]. LR, no. 1 (10) (1925), pp. 25-36. A report to the Central Committee of KP(b)U from the secretary of the Kharkiv underground district committee and other reports about Communist underground activities during the occupation of Ukraine by Denikin's army from November to December 1919.

K-ak nemetskie okkupanty ugnetali i grabili nash narod v 1918 g.: Istoricheskie dokumenty [How the German invaders suppressed and robbed our people in 1918: historic documents]. 2nd ed. Moscow: Voenizdat., 1941. The German policy of repression in Ukraine in 1918, documents selected for propaganda value.

Kakhovskaia, I. K. "Delo Eikhgorna i DenikinaTz vospominanii" [Affair of Eichhorn and Denikin: from memoirs]. In Puti revoliutsii: Stat'i, materialy, vospominaniia, pp. 191-260. Berlin: Skify, 1923. A Russian Left Socialist Revolutionary's memoirs dealing with the assassination of Field Marshal von Eichhorn in Kyiv in late July 1918, the attempt on the life of the hetman, and Denikin's occupation of Kyiv in August 1919.

Kalyna, V. "Na Odesu" [To Odessa]. SV, no. 255 (September 26, 1952), p. 3. An account by an officer of a Ukrainian Sich Riflemen unit of its campaign against the Bolshevik troops in the Uman' region at the end of summer 1919, its meeting with Makhno, and its subsequent agreement against Denikin.

-----------. "V Umani" [In Uman']. SV, January 19, 1953. An account of Makhno during his visit to the Ukrainian Galician military unit at Uman' at the end of August 1919.

Kandiskaliv, P. Dolyna troiand i smerty: Spohady: Materiialy dlia istorii tak zvanoho "Beloho Dvizheniia" [The valley of roses and death: memoirs: materials for the history of the "White movement"] . Manuscript. 1964.

Kantorovich, VI. "Frantsuzy v Odesse" [The French in Odessa]. BY, no. 19 (1922), pp. 198-210.

Kapulovskii, I. "Organizatsiia vostaniia protiv Getmana" [Organization of the uprising against the hetman]. LR, no. 4 (1923), pp. 95-102. Deals with organization of partisan groups and uprising against the hetman police and the German troops in the Zvenyhorodka district in the spring and summer of 1918.

Karinskii, N. "Epizod iz evakuatsii Novorossiiska" [Episode from the evacuation of Novorossisk]. ARR 12 (1923): 149-66.

Kedrovs'kyi, V. 1917 rik: Spohady chlena Ukrains'koho Viis'kovoho Heneral'noho Komitetu i tovarysha sekretaria viis'kovykh sprav u chasi Ukrains'koi Tsentral'noi Rady [The year 1917: memoirs of a member of the Ukrainian Military Central Committee and deputy of the secretary of military affairs during the Ukrainian Central Rada]. Winnipeg: Tryzub, 1967. Authoritative memoirs written in 1923 describing the Ukrainian Revolution from March to October 1917, stressing the organization of military forces.

-----------. "Pochatok ukrainizatsii v rossiis'kii armii i Pershyi ukrains'kyi viis'kovyi z'izd" [The beginning of Ukrainization in the Russian Army and the First Ukrainian Military Convention]. VK, no. 1 (27) (1967), pp. 24-31.

-----------. "Ukrainizatsiia v rossiis'kii armii" [Ukrainization in the Russian Army]. UI, nos. 2-3 (15-16) (1967), pp. 61-77. Deals with the formation of separate Ukrainian military units in the Russian Army during the first half of 1917.

_______. "Ukrainizovani chastyny i reguliarna armiia" [Ukrainized units and the regular army]. VK, no. 2 (33) (1968), pp. 37-39.

Kedryn, I., ed. Beresteis'kyi myr-z nahody 10-tykh rokovyn 9-11-1918-9-11-1928: Spomyny ta materialy [The Brest-Litovsk peace conference-on the occasion of its tenth anniversary, November 9, 1918-November 9, 1928: memoirs and materials]. Lvov, 1928. Memoirs and other materials by German, Austrian, and Ukrainian participants in the Brest-Litovsk peace conference, including Ludendorff, Hoffman, Czernin, Liubyns'kyi, and Serviuk.

Kharaktemyk. "Zhadky z mynuloho" [Recollection of the past]. LNV 106, no. 6 (1931): 503-10. Activities of the Russians in Ukraine during the second half of 1918, and the coup against the hetman regime.

Kiev. Instytut istorii partii. Bolshevistskie organizatsii Ukrainy v period ustanovleniia i ukrepleniia sovetskoi vlasti (noiabr' 1917-aprel' 1918 gg.): Sbornik dokumentov i materialov [Bolshevik organizations of Ukraine during the time of the establishment and consolidation of Soviet power (November 1917-April 1918): collection of documents and materials]. Kiev: Gos. izd-vo polit. lit-ry USSR, 1962. The Bolshevik struggle for establishing and maintaining power in Ukraine; contains 652 items from the Russian and Ukrainian state, central, and regional party archives from November 1917 to April 1918.

Kievshchina v gody grazhdanskoi voiny i inostrannoi voennoi inter-ventsii, 1918-1920 gg.: Sbornik dokumentov i materialov [Kiev province during the Civil War and foreign military intervention, 1918-1920: collection of documents and materials]. Compiled by I. U. F. Borshch and edited by P. T. Tron'ko. Kiev: Gos. Izd-vo polit. Lit-ry USSR, 1962. Documents (510) from Russian and Ukrainian state and regional party archives; the Bolshevik struggle for power against the Ukrainian government; and the German and Austrian forces in Kyiv province from March 1918 to December 1920.

Km, D., ed. "K istorii frantsuzskoi interventsii na iuge Rossii, dekabr' 1918-aprel' 1919 gg." [History of French intervention in South Russia, December 1918-April 1919]. KA 6 (19) (1926): 3-38. Reports from an associate of the "South Russian National Center" and V. V. Shulgin to Admiral Kolchak about French intervention and conditions in South Ukraine.

Kiselev, Mikhail. Agitpoezd: Vospominaniia o bor'be s kontrrevoliutsiei na Ukraine, 1918-1919 gg. [The agitation train: memoirs about the struggle against the counterrevolution in Ukraine]. Moscow: Molodaia gvardiia, 1933. An officer of the Red Army describes Bolshevik propaganda in Ukraine and the campaigns against Hry-hor'iv, Makhno, and Denikin, especially the Bolshevik retreat from Ukraine.

Kochehar, Mykhailo. "Tretii viis'kovyi zizd u Kyivi" [The Third Military Convention in Kiev]. IKCK 1934, pp. 128-29. Reminiscences of the Ukrainian congress in November 1917, its impact on the actions of the Central Rada, and the formation of the First Ukrainian Revolutionary Regiment.

Kokh, S. E. "Vstriecha s Makhnovtsami: Materialy po grazhdanskoi voinie" [Meeting with the Makhno men: materials about the Civil War]. Chasovoi (Paris), nos. 35-36 (192-). Description of an attack by one of Denikin's regiments on a Makhno detachment in October 1919 near Katerynoslav and Oleksandrivs'k.

Kokovs'kyi, Frants. "Z rosiis'koi invasii" [From the Russian invasion]. IKCK 1931, pp. 35-36.

Kolomiets. "Vospominaniia o revoliutsionnoi bor'be v Elizavetgrade v 1917-1919 gg." [Memoirs about the revolutionary struggle in Yelysavethrad in 1917-1919]. LR, no. 1 (1922), pp. 194-201.

Komandarm lAkir: Vospominaniia druzei i soratnikov [Commander lAkir: recollections of friends and companions-in-arms]. Moscow: Voen. izd-vo, 1963. Komandarm Uborevich: Vospominaniia druzei i soratnikov [Commander Uborevich: recollections of friends and companions-inarms] . Compiled by P. N. Aleksandrov and edited by V. I. Sa-vost'ianova] . Moscow: Voen. izd-vo, 1964.

Komitety nezamozhnykh selian. [Committee of the poor peasants]. Odessa: Inform, instrukt. p/otd. Otd. upr. gubrevkoma, 1920. Laws, regulations, and supporting documents governing the peasant committees, and land and grain allotments.

Kononenko, Kharytia. "Dvi manifestatsii: Spohady z pershykh dniv revoliutsii 1917 r." [Two manifestations: memoirs from the first days of the Revolution, 1917]. LHKD 1936, pp. 80-85.

Konovalets', IEvhen. Prychynky do istorii ukrains'koi revoliutsii [Supplements to the history of the Ukrainian Revolution]. 2nd ed. N. p. Nakl. Provodu Ukrains'kykh Natsionalistiv, 1948. The Ukrainian Revolution, stressing the role of the Corps of the Sich Riflemen, by its commander.

Korduba, Myron. "V posol'stvi do Het'mana" [With a diplomatic mission to the hetman]. LCK, no. 10 (1930), pp. 12-14; no. 11, pp. 5-10;no. 12, pp. 11-15.

Koroliv, V. "Kinets' het'manatu: Fragment spohadiv" [The end of the hetman regime: fragments of memoirs]. KD 1927, pp. 79-95. The coup against the hetman regime, the negotiations that led to the capitulation of the hetman, and the arrival of the Directory in Kyiv.

Kosgov, I. Uchastie konnitsy v partizanskoi voine: Opyt issledovaniia [Cavalry participation in a partisan war: experience of research]. Edited by N. Kozmin. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo, otdel voen. lit-ry, 1928.

Kostomarov, G., ed. "Iz istorii organizatsii komitetov nezamozhnych selian Ukrainy" [From the organizational history of poor peasant committees in Ukraine]. IM 6 (58) (1936): 164-75. Report on the progress of the organization and work of Ukraine's poor peasant committees from July 1 to September 10, 1920.

Kovalevs'kyi, Mykola. Pry dzerelakh borot'by: Spomyny, vrazhennia, refleksii [At the source of struggle: memoirs]. Innsbruck, 1960. A former Ukrainian minister of agriculture deals with various aspects of Ukrainian national life from 1905 to 1939, particularly political parties, groups, and leaders in the period of the Revolution.

Koval'-Stepovyi, P. "Shliakhamy zrady: Spomyn pro Liubars'ku tragediiu 1919 roku" [On the roads of betrayal: memoirs about the Liubar tragedy, 1919]. KD 1933, pp. 45-49. Political and military conditions on the Right Bank in the fall of 1919, with emphasis on the betrayal of Otaman Volokh in November 1919.

Kovtiuk, E. Ot Kubani do Volgi i obratno: Iz vospominanii o pokho-dakh i boiakh krasnykh tamanskikh chastei [From the Kuban to the Volga and back: from memoirs about campaigns and battles of the Red Taman detachments]. Moscow, Gos. izd-vo, otdel voen. lit-ry, 1928(?).

Kozub, Iv. "Povstannia p'roty het'manshchyny ta petliurovshchyny: Notatky z istorii povstans'koho rukhu v Pereiaslavs'komu, Pyria-tyns'komu, ta Zolotonos'komu povitakh: Kinets' 1918-pochatok 1919 rr." [Uprisings against the hetman and Petliura: notes from the history of the partisan movement in Pereiaslav, Pyriatyn, and Zolo-tonosha districts: the end of 1918-beginning of 1919]. LR, no. 5 (44) (1930), pp. 274-88. Bolshevik partisan activities against the hetman regime and the Directory on the Left Bank at the turn of 1918-19.

Krat, Mykhailo. "Svitloi pam'iati polkovnyka Bohdanivtsiv" [To the glorious memory of the colonel of the Bohdan men]. SV, no. 149 (August 16, 1969), pp. 2-3.

Kravs, Antin. Za ukrains'ku spravu: Spomyny pro III. korpus U.H.A. pislia perekhodu za Zbruch [For the Ukrainian cause: recollections about the Third Corps of the U.H.A. after crossing the Zbruch].

Krest'ianskoe dvizhenia v Rossii v xix-nachale xx veka: Sbornik doku-mentov [The peasant movement in Russia in the 19th-beginning of the 20th century: collection of documents]. 9 vols. Moscow: Izd-vo sotsial'no-ekon. Lit-ry, 1961. Documents selected from the "Marxist-Leninist concept" on the peasants' struggle against feudalists, capitalists, and the regime, ranging from requests to armed uprisings, from 1796 to 1917. Consists of reports from local to central authorities, documents from peasants, and illegal publications; most published for the first time from the Central Historical Archives, State Archives, Military-Historical Archives, and archives of the republics and provinces.

Krezub, Antin [Dumin, Osyp]. "IAk zhynuv otaman Zelenyi" [How Otaman Zelenyi died]. LNV, no. 10 (1927), pp. 109-13. Otaman Zelenyi's relations with the Ukrainian Army and his subsequent assassination.

-----------. "Mizh Biloiu Tserkvoiu i Motovylivkoiu" [Between Bila Tserkva and Motovylivka]. LCK, no. 1 (2) (1930), pp. 5-8; no. 2 (3), pp. 9-13.

----------. Partyzany: Spomyny [Partisans: memoirs]. 2 vols. Lvov: Chervona Kalyna, 1930.

-----------. "Partyzany: Zbirka spomyniviz partyzanky na Naddniprianskii Ukraini" [Partisans: collection of memoirs from the partisan movement in Ukraine]. LNV 87 (1925): 246-61.

-----------. "Za khlibom" [After the bread]. Litopys (Berlin), nos. 19-20 (1924), pp. 292-98. Kritskii, M. "Istoki dobrovol'chestva i ego sushchnost' "[The sources of the Volunteer movement and its nature]. Vozrozhdenie (Paris), no. 193 (1968), pp. 33-52; no. 194, pp. 42-59; no. 195, pp. 53-66; no. 196, pp. 64-79; no. 197, pp. 56-68; no. 200, pp. 67-86; no. 201, pp. 79-89; no. 202, pp. 92-103; no. 203, pp. 74-89; no. 204, pp. 99-110; no. 206 (1969), pp. 57-68.

-----------. "Krasnaia armia na IUzhnom fronte v 1918-1920 gg.: Po dokumentam i sekretnym prikazom, zakhvachennym v boiakh 1-ym Korpusom Dobrovol'cheskoi armii" [The Red Army on the southern front in 1918-1920: according to documents and secret orders taken in the fighting by the 1st Corps of the Volunteer Army]. ARR 18 (1926): 254-300. Documents of the Red Army seized by the First Corps of the Volunteer Army about their struggle from May 1919 to early 1920.

"Krym v 1918-1919 gg." [The Crimea in 1918-1919]. KA 3 (28) (1928): 142-81; 4 (29): 55-85. Telegrams from Denikin's chief of staff in Symferopil to the representative of the Volunteer Army with the Entente Command in Crimea about the intervention and conditions in South Ukraine, the Bolshevik propaganda activities among the French troops, and the Tatar movement in Crimea.

Kurovs'kyi, Vol. "Na okupovanykh nimtsiamy zemliakh Kholm-shchyny, Pidliashshia i Polissia: Iz spomyniv Syn'ozhupannyka" [On the Kholmshchyna, Pidliashshia, and Polissia territories occupied by the Germans: from memoirs of Syn'ozhupannyka]. KD 1931, pp. 81-85.

Kushchyns'kyi, Ant. "Kil'ka dokumentiv pro 'ukrains'ke pytannia' u Vrangelia" [A few documents concerning the "Ukrainian question" with Wrangel]. TR, nos. 26-27 (1926), pp. 23-27.

Kustelian, M. "Denikinskoe podpol'e" [Denikin's underground activities]. LR, no. 2 (17) (1926), pp. 7-12. Bolshevik underground agents' activities in the area of Kyiv during the Denikin occupation in 1919.

Kuz'menko, G. "Vidpovid' na stattiu 'Pomer Makhno' v 'Novii pori' vid 9-ho serpnia 1934 roku, hor. Detroita, Mich." [Answer to the article "Makhno died" in Nova Pora, August 9, 1934, in Detroit, Mich.]. PR, nos. 50-51 (1934), pp. 17-18. An intimate biography of Makhno by his wife.

Lantukh, I. "Iz istorii grazhdanskoi voiny na Ekaterinoslavshchine, 1919 g." [From the history of the Civil War in Katerynoslav province]. LR, no. 2 (17) (1926), pp. 51-59. Organization and activities of the Bolshevik partisans; destruction of military stores and headquarters, communications, and propaganda, in the rear of the Volunteer Army in the Katerynoslav area.

Lazurenko, Stepan. "Povstannia proty het'mana i druha viina z bol'she-vykamy, 1918-1919 rr.: Spohad bohdanivtsia" [Uprising against the hetman and the second war against the Bolsheviks, 1918-1919: memoirs of a Bohdan man]. TR, no. 39 (1966), pp. 17-18; no. 40, pp. 3-5; no. 41 (1967), pp. 6-9;no. 42, pp. 13-15.

Leikhtenbergskii, G. "Kak nachalas 'lUzhnaia Armiia'" [How the South Army originated]. ARR 8 (1923): 166-82. The organization of the Volunteer Army as seen from Ukraine from July through December 1918.

-----------. Vospominaniia ob 'Ukraine' 1917-1918 gg. [Memoirs about Ukraine, 1917-1918]. Berlin: Izd. Dietinets, 1921. Experiences and anti-Ukrainian activities of a Russian nobleman in Ukraine from 1917 to the end of 1918.

Lenin, Stalin, Frunze, Voroshilov o razgrome Vrangelia: Stat'i, rechi, dokumenty [Lenin, Stalin, Frunze, Voroshilov on Wrangel's defeat: articles, speeches, documents]. Edited by R. M. VuP. Simferopol: Gos. izd-vo Krymskoi ASSR, 1940. Documents, articles, and speeches on Bolshevik military operations in Ukraine against the Polish-Ukrainian and Wrangel forces from June through November 1920.

Leninskii sbornik [Lenin's collection]. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo polit. lit-ry, 1959.

Leontovych, Volodymyr. "Uryvok spohadiv iz revoliutsiinykh chasiv" [Excerpt of memoirs from the revolutionary period]. KD 1935, pp. 67-76.

Levyts'kyi, Kost'. Velykyi zryv: Do istorii ukrains'koi derzhavnosty vid bereznia do lystopada 1918 r. na pidstavi spomyniv ta dokumentiv [A great upheaval: about the history of Ukrainian statehood from March to November 1918, based on memoirs and documents]. New York: Vyd-vo Chartoryis'kykh, 1968. The events of the first two years (1917-18) of the Ukrainian Revolution and establishment of the West Ukrainian Republic in November 1918.

Levyts'kyi, Osyp. Halyts'ka armiia na Velykii Ukraini: Spomyny z chasu vid lypnia do hrudnia 1919 [The Galician Army in eastern Ukraine: memoirs from July to December 1919]. Vienna, 1921. The campaign of the Ukrainian Galician Army in eastern Ukraine from July to December 1919.

Liutarevych, P. "Istoriia odnoho povstannia na Poltavshchyni ta ukrain-s'ke pidpillia v rokakh 1920-1926" [History of an uprising in Polta province and Ukrainian underground activity in 1920-1926]. Vkrains'kyi zbirnyk (Munich), no. 4 (1955), pp. 131-51.

-----------. "A Resistance Group of the Ukrainian Underground 1920-1926." Ukrainian Review (Munich), no. 2 (1956), pp. 84-91.

Lobanov-Rostovsky, A. The Grinding Mill: Reminiscences of War and Revolution in Russia, 1913-1920. New York: Macmillan Co., 1935. World War I, the Russian Revolution, and the Civil War, based on the diary of a Russian prince during service in the Russian Army, 1913-20.

L-oi, L. "Ocherki zhizni v Kievie v 1919-20 gg." [Sketches of life in Kiev in 1919-20]. ARR 3 (1921): 210-33.

Lotots'kyi, Oleksandr. Storinky mynuloho [Pages from the past]. 4 vols. Bound Brook, N.J.: Vyd-vo Ukr. pravoslavnoi tserkvy v SSh A, 1966. Prominent scholar and statesman on different aspects of national life, stressing the profiles of the Ukrainian contemporary leaders from the end of the nineteenth century to 1919.

Lukomskii, A. "Iz vospominanii" [From memoirs]. ARR 2 (1921): 14-44; 5:101-89; 6 (1922): 81-160. A leading Russian general, using some documents, deals with different aspects of the Russian Revolution and the Civil War, including organization of the Volunteer Army, its operations, policies, and relations with the British and French during the interventions in South Ukraine.

-----------. Memoirs of the Russian Revolution. London: T. F. Unwin, 1922.

-----------. "Protivosovetskie organizatssi na Ukraine" [Anti-Soviet organizations in Ukraine]. In Revoliutsiia na Ukraine po memuaram belykh, pp. 196-211. Compiled by S. A. Alekseev. Moscow, 1930. From memoirs, "Iz vospominanii." ARR, vol. 5, 1922.

-----------. Vospominaniia [Memoirs]. 2 vols. Berlin: O. Kirchner, 1922.

Lulu, L. "Desiatylittia perekhodu Zbrucha, 1919, 16, VII-1929: Spomyn" [Decade of crossing the Zbruch, July 16, 1919-1920: memoirs]. IKCK 1929, pp. 76-81. The joint campaign of the Galiciart Army and the Ukrainian Army of the Directory against the Bolsheviks in the summer of 1919.

Lymarenko, Danylo. "45 rokiv tomu" [45 years before]. TR, no. 28 (1964), pp. 18-21; no. 29, pp. 14-20; no. 30, pp. 14-17;no. 31, pp. 13-18.

M., V. "Dontsy na makhnovskom frontie" [The Don Cossacks on the Makhno front]. Kazach'i dumy (Sofia), no. 10 (1923), pp. 9-13; no. 13, pp. 9-16. The campaign of the Don Cossacks against Makhno in the fall of 1919 and the organization of Makhno's army.

-----------. Frunze na frontakh grazhdanskoi voiny: Sbornik dokumentov

[M. V. Frunze on the fronts of the Civil War: collection of documents] . Moscow: Voen. izd-vo, 1941. Frunze's activities on several fronts, including the Ukrainian against Makhno, from January 1919 to December 1920.

Maevskii, Vladimir A. Gvardeiskie sapery [Field engineer guards]. Novi Sad: S. F. Filonov, 1938(?). The Austro-German punitive expeditions in Ukraine in 1918 and Denikin's campaigns of 1919, mainly on the Left Bank, against the Bolsheviks, the Ukrainian forces, and the partisans.

-------. Povstantsy Ukrainy [Partisans of Ukraine]. Novi Sad, 192-. Sketchy memoirs by a Denikin officer about the Ukrainian partisan movement against the Austro-German troops, the Bolsheviks, and the Volunteer Army from 1918 through early 1920. Emphasizes the partisan leader Kotsur, who operated in the region of Kremen-chuk, Chyhryryn, Znamianka, and Oleksandriia.

Mahalevs'kyi, IUrii. "Bat'ko Makhno" [Father Makhno]. KD 1929, pp. 60-70. A sketchy account about Makhno and his movement from the spring of 1917 to the winter of 1919, stressing Makhno's terrorist activities and political conditions in Katerynoslav province.

-----------. "Oleksandrivs'k-Kyiv: Spomyn 1917-1918" [Oleksandrivs'k- Kyiv: memoirs, 1917-1918]. KD 1931, pp. 61-72. Political conditions in Ukraine and the fighting of the Ukrainian forces in Kyiv and Oleksandrivs'k against the Bolshevik invasion at the end of 1917.

-----------. "Uryvok iz spomyniv" [Fragments of memoirs]. IKCK 1929, pp. 155-61. Political conditions in Ukraine and the Ukrainian fighting against the Bolshevik uprising in Kyiv during the winter of 1918.

Maiborodov, Vladimir. "S frantsuzami" [With the Frenchmen]. ARR 16 (1925): 100-161. A Russian monarchist deals with the French intervention in South Ukraine and the relations between Denikin's representative and the French command in Odessa.

Maiorov, M. Z istorii revoliutsiinoi borot'by na Ukraini, 1914-1919 [From the history of revolutionary struggle in Ukraine, 1914- 1919]. Kharkov: Derzh. vyd-vo Ukrainy, 1928. A member of a Bolshevik underground organization recounts Bolshevik activities, mostly in Kyiv during the war, and the subsequent struggle for power in Ukraine in 1917-19; includes a survey of the activities of the Communist party (b) of Ukraine.

Makarov, P. V. Ad'iutant generala Mai-Maevskogo: Iz vospominanii nachal'nika otriada krasnykh partizan v Krymu [General Mai-Maevskii's aide: from memoirs of a Red partisan unit commander in the Crimea]. Leningrad: "Priboi," 1921. General Mai-Maevskii's aide, a Bolshevik agent, deals with the Volunteers' campaign, the internal conditions at headquarters, in 1919, emphasizing their negative aspects, and describing the author's subsequent arrest, escape, and partisan activities in the Crimea in 1920 against Wrangel.

Makarushka, Liubomyr. "Fragmenty z chortkivs'koi ofenzyvy" [Fragments from the Chortkiv offensive]. IKCK 1934, pp. 68-80. Personal account by an officer of the Polish invasion of West Ukraine and the "Chortkiv offensive" in June 1919.

Makhno, Nestor. Au Congrds des camarades francais. Paris(?), 1930.

-------. "Chego dobivaiutsia povstantsy-maknovtsy" [What the partisans-Makhnomen strive for]. PS, no. 1 (May 17, 1919), pp. 2-3; no. 2 (May 24,), pp. 2-3.

_______. "K 10-i godovshchine revoliuts. povstanchestva na Ukraine- makhnovshchiny" [On the tenth anniversary of the revolutionary partisan movement in Ukraine of the Makhno movement]. DT, nos. 44-45 (1929), pp. 3-7. The author's activities, mainly in 1918, including his trip to Soviet Russia.

-----------. Letter to Fuks. Paris (?), June 15,1926.

-----------. Letter to Fuks and Piza. Vincennes, October 21, 1926.

-----------. Letter to [Lev] Chykalenko. [Paris], May 20, 1927.

-----------. "Mon autobiographic" Le libertaire (Paris), nos. 50-75 (1926), with the exception of nos. 60, 63, 67, 69, 72.

-----------. "Otkrytoe pis'mo partii VKP i ee TsK" [Open letter to the party VKP and its TsK]. DT, nos. 37-38 (1928), pp. 10-12. Makhno's agreement with the Bolsheviks against Wrangel in September-October 1920 and Makhno's meeting with Bela Kun.

-----------. "Pechal'nye stranitsy russkoi revoliutsii: Vospominaniia" [Sad

pages of the Russian Revolution: memoirs]. Rassvet (Chicago), January 29.-February 18, 1932 (according to Hoover Institution). Largely first half of the author's second volume: Pod udarami kontr-revo liu tsii.

-----------. Pod udarami kontr-revoliutsii: Aprel'-iiun' 1918 g. [Under the blows of counterrevolution: April-June 1918]. Vol. 2. Edited by Volin. Paris: Izd-vo Komiteta N. Makhno, 1936.

-----------. La revolution russe en Ukraine: Mars 1917-avril 1918. Paris: La Brochure mensuelle, 1927. The first volume of the author's memoirs in French.

-----------. Russkaia revoliutsiia na Ukraine: Ot marta 1917 g. po aprel' 1918 g. [Russian Revolution in Ukraine: from March 1917 to April 1918]. Vol. 1. Paris: Izd-vo Biblioteka makhnovtsev, 1929. Three volumes of very useful memoirs dealing with the author's life and his partisan movement through the end of 1918. Its value is enhanced by the author's reliable memory and ability to recount his experiences.

----------. Ukrainskaia revoliutsiia: liul'-dekabr' 1918 g. [Ukrainian Revolution: July-December 1918]. Vol. 3. Edited by Volin. Paris: Izd-vo Komiteta N. Makhno, 1937.

----------. "Zapiski Nestora Makhno" [The writings of Nestor Makhno]. AV, no. 1 (1923), pp.16-29; no. 2, pp. 27-37; nos. 3-4, pp. 23- 29; nos. 5-6, pp. 17-25. A valuable account of the author's life and his movement through the second half of 1918, supplementing rather than duplicating his memoirs. The last article deals with the attitude of the Makhno movement toward Jews, including the assassination of Hryhor'iv.

"Makhnovskaia armiia" [The army of Makhno]. Manuscript. 16 pp. Copy in author's possession.

Makhnovskii, M. "Pravda o Makhno" [The truth about Makhno]. NRS 59, no. 20 (March 2, 1969), pp. 446-48.

Maksymenko, IA. "Do istorii borot'by z denikintsiamy i petliuriv-shchynoiu 1919 roku" [About the history of the struggle against Denikin and Petliura in 1919]. LR, no. 1 (40) (1930), pp. 161-73. The activities of both the Bolsheviks and the Makhno partisans behind the Denikin and Ukrainian armies in the summer of 1919.

Maliarevskii, A. [Sumskoi, A.]. "Na pereekzaminovkie: P. P. Skoropad-skii i ego vremia" [Verification: P. P. Skoropads'kyi and his time]. Arkhiv grazhdanskoi voiny (Berlin) 2 (1922): 105-42. An interesting, critical account by a Russian journalist about the administration of the hetman government, whose mission he saw was to reestablish the old regime in Russia with Ukraine as a base for the struggle against the Bolsheviks.

Manilov, V., ed. Iz istorii Oktiabr'skoi revoliutsii v Kieve: Vospomi-naniia uchastnilkov [From the history of the October Revolution in Kiev: memoirs of participants]. Kiev: Gos. izd-vo Ukrainy, 1927.

-----------. ed. Pid hnitom nimets'koho imperializmu, 1918 r. na Kyivshchyni: Statti, spohady, dokumenty, kronika [Under the oppression of German imperialism, 1918, in Kiev province: articles, memoirs, documents, chronicles]. Kiev: Derzh. vyd-vo Ukrainy, 1927. Partisan activities and Bolshevik tactics during the Austro-German occupation in 1918, in Kyiv province.

Margolin, Arnold D. From a Political Diary: Russia, the Ukraine, and America, 1905-1945. New York: Columbia University Press, 1946. A former deputy foreign minister in the Directory deals with his political activities in Russia and in the Ukrainian liberation movement and his observations of American life; includes a number of valuable documents pertaining to his activities.

-----------. Ukraina i politika Antanty: Zapiski evreia i grazhdanina [Ukraine and the Entente's policy: notes of a Jew and a citizen]. Berlin: S. Efron, 1922. Ukrainian relations with the Entente, 1918- 20, by a Ukrainian jurist, member of the Socialist-Federalist party and of the Directory mission in Paris, and an envoy to London.

Margulies, Manuil S. God interventsii [The year of intervention] . 3 vols. Berlin: Izd-vo Z. I. Grzhebina, 1923. A left-wing liberal criticizes the policy of the Entente in dealing with the anti-Bolshevik Russian groups' seeking the Entente's aid; also covers the Jassy conference, Russian organizations in Odessa, their relations with the French and the Volunteer Army, and the author's work in Paris and London. Vol. 1, September 1918-April 1919; vol. 2, April-September 1919; vol. 3, September 1919-December 1920. First published in LR, no. 11.

Margulies, Vladimir. Ognennye gody: Materialy i dokumenty po istorii voiny na iuge Rossii [Stormy years: materials and documents on the history of war in South Russia]. Berlin: "Manfred," 1923. Historically valuable, deals with the revolutionary events in South Ukraine, including the Hryhor'iv and Makhno movements, from mid-March 1917, to the author's departure from Odessa in mid-August 1919.

Markov, S., ed. "Iz istorii grazhdanskoi voiny na Ukraine v 1918 g." [From the history of the civil war in Ukraine in 1918]. KA 4 (95) (1939): 73-102. Uprisings against the German troops in the Zveny-horodka and Tarashcha districts, and the organization of Bolshevik partisans in the Neutral Zone, from March 1918 to March 1919.

Martynov, A. Moi ukrainskie vpechatleniia i razmyshleniia [My Ukrainian impressions and reflections] . Moscow: Gos. izd-vo, 1923.

"Materialy po izucheniiu revoliutsionnogo dvizheniia v Rossii" [Materials for the study of the revolutionary movement in Russia]. VO, no. 58 (1924), pp. 37-42.

Maximoff, G. P. The Guillotine at Work: Twenty Years of Terror in Russia: Data and Documents. Chicago: The Chicago Section of the Alexander Berkman Fund, 1940. An indictment of the Soviet regimes in Russia and Ukraine for their suppression of Anarchists: documents, chronicles of persecution and arrests, letters from concentration camps and prisons, from 1918 to 1939.

Mazepa, I. Ohneva proba: Ukrains'ka polityka i strategiia v dobi Zymo-voho pokhodu 1919-20 [Fire test: Ukrainian policy and strategy during the winter campaign, 1919-20]. Prague: "Proboiem," 1941.

-----------. Ukraina v ohni i buri revoliutsii, 1917-1921 [Ukraine in the fire and storm of the Revolution, 1917-1921]. 3 vols. Munich: Vyd-vo "Prometei," 1950-51. One of the best documented and most objective memoirs on the Ukrainian Revolution by a prime minister during the Directory; valuable especially for its wealth of information on all political parties.

Mazlakh, Serhii. "Oktiabr'skaia revoliutsiia na Poltavshchine" [October Revolution in Poltava province]. LR, no. 1 (1922), pp. 126-42. Bolshevik activities in Poltava province in the fall of 1917, and its occupation by Red troops in the winter of 1918.

Mechov, Leontii. "Zapiski dobrovol'tsa, 1919-1920 gg." [Notes of a volunteer, 1919-1920]. Bielo dielo (Berlin) 7 (1933): 7-198.

Meleshko, F. "Hlodosy v chasi natsional'noi revoliutsii" [Hlodosy during the national revolution]. LCK, nos. 7-8 (1934), pp. 20-24. A response to Mykhailyk's article, "Ukrains'ke selo v chasy natsion. revoliutsii," with his interpretation of the events at the town of Hlodosy.

-----------. "Nestor Makhno ta ioho anarkhia" [Nestor Makhno and his anarchy] LCK, no. 1 (1935), pp. 10-14; no. 2, pp. 12-14; no. 3, pp. 9-11; no. 4, pp. 14-17. Also in Novyi Shliakh (Winnipeg), January-February 1960. One of the best personal accounts about Makhno and his movement by a Ukrainian officer who, with his wife and two others, was invited by Makhno to do educational work with the partisans in the second half of 1919.

Mett, Ida. "Souvenirs sur Nestor Makhno." Paris, February 1948. Manuscript. Copy in author's possession.

Meyer, Henry Cord. "Germans in the Ukraine, 1918: Excerpts from Unpublished Letters." American Slavic and East European Review 9 (1950): 105-15. A record of German policy in Ukraine.

Miakotin, V. "Iz nedalekogo proshlogo: Otryvki vospominanii" [From the recent past: fragments of memoirs] . In Revoliutsiia na Ukraine po memuaram belykh, compiled by S. A. Alekseev, pp. 222-38. Moscow, 1930. Political and socioeconomic life in Kyiv and Odessa under the hetman government, with emphasis upon the activities of the organizations of refugees from Soviet Russia.

Miliukov, P. N. "Dnevnik" [Diary]. Novyi zhurnal (New York), no. 66 (1961), pp. 173-203; no. 67 (1962), pp. 180-218. Miliukov's negotiations with the Germans in Kyiv, his activities against the hetman state and his work in the Volunteer Army.

-----------. Rossiia na perelomi: Bol'shevistskii period russkoi revoliutsii [Russia at a turning point: the Bolshevik period of the Russian Revolution]. Paris, 1927.

Mints, I. I., and E.N. Gorodetski, eds. Dokumenty o razgrome german-skikh okkupantov na Ukraine v 1918 godu [Documents on the defeat of the German invaders in Ukraine in 1918]. Moscow: Goz. izd-vo polit. lit-ry, 1942.

-----------. "Vrangelevshchina: Iz materialov Parizhskogo 'posol'stva' Vremenogo pravitelstva [The Wrangel movement: from the materials of the Provisional Government's Paris embassy]. KA 2 (39) (1930): 3-46; 3 (40): 3-40. Correspondence of the embassy in Paris with other Volunteer Army representatives abroad, and the Wrangel government, revealing political conditions under its control in South Ukraine and foreign policy, from June to November 1920.

Miroshevskii, VI. "Vol'nyi Ekaterinoslav" [Free Katerynoslav]. PR, no. 9 (1922), pp. 197-208. A Communist's account of the Bolshe-vik-Makhno relations in Katerynoslav and Makhno's activities in Denikin's rear in the fall of 1919.

Mogilianskii, N. M. "Tragediia Ukrainy: Iz perezhitogo v Kievie v 1918 godu" [The tragedy of Ukraine: from experience in Kiev in 1918]. ARR 11 (1923): ?4-105. Primarily events in Kyiv in 1918, with emphasis on the sociopolitical conflict between the population and the Austro-German troops, including the upper class.

Monkevych, Borys. Chorni Zaporozhtsi: Zymovyi pokhid i ostannia kampaniia Chornykh Zaporozhtsiv [The Black Zaporozhians: the winter campaign and the last campaign of the Black Zaporozhians]. Lvov, 1929.

-----------. "Oborona Katerynoslava: Uryvok zi spomyniv" [Defense of Katerynoslav: excerpt from memoirs]. LCK, no. 9 (1935), pp. 5- 8. One officer's version of the defense of Katerynoslav against both the Bolshevik and Makhno troops in January 1919.

-----------. Slidamy novitnikh zaporozhtsiv [In the footsteps of the modern Zaporozhian]. Lvov: "Dobra knyzhka," 1928.

-----------: Spomyny z 1918 r. [Memoirs from 1918]. Lvov: "Dobra knyzhka," 1928.

Mstislavskii, S. D. "Medovyi mesiats: Iz vospominanii o denikinshchine na Ukraine" [Honeymoon: from memoirs about the Denikin regime in Ukraine]. BY, no. 25 (1924), pp. 221-46; no. 26, pp. 159-76; nos. 27-28, pp. 301-33; no. 1 (29) (1925), pp. 180-98; no. 2 (30), pp. 176-94. Detailed account of Denikin's rule in Kyiv in 1919, including documentary material, by a member of the Central Committee of the Socialist party who carried on illegal activities in Kyiv province.

Mustafin. "Proryv Makhno" [Makhno's breakthrough]. PER, no. 121 (1961), pp. 10-14. An eyewitness account of the campaign of the Simferopil' Officers' Regiment against Makhno in September 1919.

Mykhailyk, Mykh. "Den'16 sichnia 1918 r. (st. St.)" [The days ofJanuary 16, 1918 (old st.)]. LCK, no. 2(1932), pp. 11-13.

-----------. "Ukrains'ke selo v chasy natsion. revoliutsii: Spomyn z chasiv borot'by za vyzvolennia odnoho sela" [Ukrainian village during the national revolution: memoirs of the struggle for the liberation of a village]. LCK, no. 1 (1934), pp. 10-14; no. 2, pp. 5-9. The populace of the town of Hlodosy, Kherson province, resist deserters from the Russian Army, the Bolsheviks, the Austro-German troops, and Denikin during the Revolution.

-----------. "Ukrains'kyi natsional'nyi rukh v Krymu v 1917 r." [Ukrainian national movement in the Crimea in 1917]. LCK, nos. 7-8 (1932), pp. 22-26. Vicissitudes of the Revolution in the Crimea in 1917 and the organization of Ukrainian national life there.

-----------. "Vystup Pershoi ukrains'koi viis'kovoi shkoly" [Stepping forward by the first Ukrainian military school]. LCK, no. 3 (1932), pp. 18-22.

-----------. Za strilets'ku slavu: spomyny z rr. 1919-20 [For the riflemen's glory: memoirs from 1919-20]. Lvov: I. Tyktor, 1936.

Myronov, IE. "Z pidpillia za Tsentral'noi Rady i het'manshchyny: Spo-hady pro pidpil'nu robotu na Katerynoslavshchyni 1918 r." [From the underground during the Central Rada and the hetman state: memoirs about the underground activities in Katerynoslav province, 1918]. LR, nos. 3-4 (42-43) (1930), pp. 138-47. Memoirs of a Communist agent and underground activities in Katerynoslav province in 1918.

Myshuha, Luka. Pokhid ukrains'kykh viis'k na Kyiv, serpen', 1919 [March of the Ukrainian troops on Kiev, August 1919]. Vienna: Vyd. Ukrains'kyi praporu, 1920. The struggle of the Galician Army against the Bolshevik and Denikin forces in the second half of 1919, with emphasis on the circumstances of the liberation of Kyiv.

Mytsiuk, O. Doba Dyrektorii UNR: Spomyny i rozdumy [The period of the Directory UNR: memoirs and reflectionsj . Lvov: Vyd-vo "Hromads'koho Holosu," 1939.

Naumenko, IUrii. "Moia sluzhba v 5 Khersons'kii Strilets'kii Divizii" [My service in the Fifth Kherson Riflemen Division]. Za derzhav-nist'(Kalisz) 7 (1937): 165-80.

Nazaruk, Osyp. Rik na Velykii Ukraini; Konspekt spomyniv z ukrains'koi revoliutsii: Ukrains'ki memuary [One year in East Ukraine; abridged memoirs from the Ukrainian Revolution: Ukrainian memoirs]. Vienna: Vyd. Ukrains'kyi prapor, 1920. Political events in Ukraine from November 1918 to November 1919, as seen from the decision-making centers.

-----------. "Ukrains'ka armiia v chasi katastrofy" [Ukrainian Army during the catastrophe]. Ukrains'kyi prapor (Vienna), no.3, January 13, 1920. The struggle of the Galician Army against the Bolshevik and Denikin forces and its physical condition in the fall of 1919.

Nefterev, ed. "Iz boevoi deiatel'nosti tov. Timoshenko v gody grazhdan-skoi voiny v SSSR" [From military activities of comrade Timoshenko during the civil war in SSSR]. KA 1 (104) (1941): 54-102. Orders of Marshal Timoshenko to the Sixth and Fourth divisions of the First Cavalry Army fighting Makhno, partisans, Denikin, and Wrangel armies, as well as reports to his superiors from April 1919 to December 1920.

Nemirovich-Danchenko, V. VKrymupri Vrangele: Fakty iitogi [In the Crimea with Wrangel: facts and results]. Berlin, 1922. The author's recollections of General Wrangel's campaign in 1920, stressing his socioeconomic policy in the Crimea and conditions there.

Notes presentees par la delegation de la Republique Ukrainienna a la Conference de la Paix a Paris. 2 vols. Paris: Robinet-Houtain, 1919. Official communications of the Ukrainian delegation to the Peace Conference in Paris, arranged chronologically from February to July 15, 1919.

Oberuchev, K. M. Vospominaniia [Memoirs]. New York: Izd. Gruppy pochitatelei pamiati K. M. Oberucheva, 1930. From the last quarter of the nineteenth century through November 1917, with the emphasis on his service as Military Commissar of the Kyiv region, 1917. "

Obolenskii, V. "Krym pri Vrangele" [The Crimea under Wrangel]. In Denikin-IUdenich-Vrangel', edited by S. A. Alekseev, pp. 385- 417. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo, 1927. General Wrangel's plan of land reform, domestic policy in the Crimea, and his attempt to reach agreement with Makhno against the Bolsheviks.

"Ocherk vzaimootnoshenii vooruzhennykh sil IUga Rossii i predstavi-telei frantsuzskago komandovaniia" [Essay on the relations between the forces of South Russia and the representatives of French Command]. ARR 16 (1925): 232-62. The main source of information on the Entente's intervention in South Ukraine, its strength, and the relations between the representatives of the Entente and the Volunteer Army, from November 1918 to April 1919. Prepared by General Denikin's staff as a top secret document, and published in Katerynodar in 1919, in a limited number.

Oktiabr'skaia revoliutsiia: Pervoe piatiletie 1917-1922 [The October Revolution: the first five years 1917-1922]. Kharkov: Gos. izd-vo Ukrainy, 1922. A valuable collection of articles by participants about different aspects of the Ukrainian Revolution, including military campaigns, the economy, and foreign trade.

Okunevs'kyi, lAroslav. "Rozmova z arkhykniazem Vil'helmom dnia 4, serpnia 1918 roku" [Conversation with Archduke Wilhelm on August 4, 1918]. Dilo (Lvov), no. 102 (May 10, 1931), p. 2. A conversation between the author, an admiral of the Austrian Navy, and Archduke Wilhelm F. Habsburg, on August 4, 1918, concerning the Ukrainian question and the archduke's ties with Ukrainian circles.

Omelianovych-Pavlenko, Mykhailo. "Na choli Zaporozhtsiv v 1919 r. u borot'bi z denikintsiamy" [At the head of the Zaporozhians in 1919 in the struggle against the Denikin men]. KD 1929, pp. 46- 60. Valuable reminiscences by the commander of the Zaporozhian corps on its campaigns against Denikin on the Right Bank in the fall of 1919.

-----------. Na Ukraini 1919; perehovory i viina z rossis'koiu Dobrovol'- choiu armiieiu: Spomyny holovy delegatsii ta komandyra Zaporiz'-koi hrupy [In Ukraine 1919; negotiations and war against the Russian Volunteer Army: memoirs of the head of the delegation and commanders of the Zaporozhian group]. Prague: Stilus, 1940.

-----------. Na Ukraini 1917-1918 [In Ukraine 1917-1918]. Prague: Stilus, 1935. A high-ranking Ukrainian officer on the revolution in Ukraine, with emphasis on Katerynoslav province.

-----------. Perehovory z Dobrarmiieiu [Negotiations with the Volunteer Army]. Lvov: Nakl. T-va dopomohy emihrantam z Velykoi Ukrainy, 1930. Ukrainian preparations for negotiations with Denikin and the negotiations themselves in mid-September 1919, for a joint operation against the Bolsheviks, set against a background of partisan fighting by Makhno, especially in the rear of the Bolsheviks and of Denikin.

-----------. " Perehovory z Dobrarmiieiu" [Negotiations with the Volunteer Army]. KD 1931, pp. 47-60.

-----------. "Spomyny" [Memoirs]. LNV, no. 10 (1929), pp. 888-97; no. 11, pp. 963-74; no. 12, pp. 1068-77; no. 1 (1930), pp. 26-35; no. 2, pp. 128-34;no. 4, pp. 321-31.

-----------. Spomyny [Memoirs]. Lvov: Nakl. Ukrains'koi vydavnychoi spilky, 1930. The Ukrainian campaigns against Poland, the Bolsheviks, and the Volunteer Army, set against the political and military background of the Revolution, 1917-21.

-----------. Ukrains'ko-pol's'ka viina 1918-1919 [Ukrainian-Polish war in 1918-1919]. Prague: Nakl. Merkur-fil'mu, 1929.

-----------. Zymovyipokhid: 6, XII, 1919-6, V, 1920 [Winter Campaign: December 6, 1919-May 6, 1920] . Kalisz: Ukr. voenno-istorychne t-vo, 1929-34. Authoritative and objective memoirs concerning guerrilla warfare in the rear of the Denikin and Bolshevik forces from December 1919 to May 1920; based on the author's diaries and experience as well as on diaries of other eyewitnesses.

"Organitzatsiia vlasti na iuge Rossi v period Grazhdanskoi voiny, 1918- 1920 gg." [Organization of authority in South Russia during the period of the civil war, 1918-1920]. ARR 4 (1922): 241-51. Relating to the territory controlled by the Volunteer Army from September 1918 to November 1920.

Osipov, I. Na prolomie: Ocherki 1914-1920 gg. [At the turning point: sketches of 1914-1920]. Przemysl: Sovremennaia biblioteka, 1922. Memoirs of a Ukrainian Russophile in the Russian service, describing Russian policy in Galicia and Denikin's attitude toward Ukrainian refugees from Galicia in the Don Basin.

Otechestvennaia voina protiv germanskikh okkupantov v 1918 g.: Dokumenty [Patriotic war against German invaders in 1918: documents] . Moscow: Gos. polit. izd-vo, 1941. Documents, including appeals, orders, letters, telegrams, and reports, on the struggle of the people against the German troops in Ukraine and Belorussia from February 1918 to March 1919.

Otmarshtein, IUrii Vas. "Do istorii povstanchoho reidu gen. khor. IU. Tiutiunyka v lystopadi 1921 r.: Doklad" [About the history of the partisan raid of General IU. Tiutiunyk in November 1921: report]. LCK, no. 6 (1930), pp. 12-13; nos. 7-8, pp. 17-20.

Paladiichuk, S. "Spohady pro' Hrebenkivshchynu' " [Memoirs about the Hrebenko movement]. VK, no. 1 (27) (1967), pp. 35-36. A personal account of the uprising against the Germans and the het-man administration in the summer of 1918 in Kyiv province.

Palii-Sydorians'kyi. " 'Na reidi': Zi spohadiv" [On the raid: from memoirs] . Tabor (Warsaw), no. 5 (1930), pp. 9-13.

Paliiv, Dmytro. "Zhmut spomyniv: Za generalamy" [Handful of memoirs: with generals]. KCK 1935, pp. 40-46.

Pasmanik, D. S. Revoliutsionnye gody v Krymu [Revolutionary years in the Crimea]. Paris: Impr. de Navarre, 1926. Personal account, by a member of the Constitutional Democratic party, of the Revolution in the Crimea from February 1917 to April 1919, set in the sociopolitical and military scene.

Pavlovich, V. "Novorossiiskaia tragediia: 1920 god" [The Novorossisk tragedy: the year 1920]. PER, no. 59 (1956), pp. 9-11.

Pekarchuk, Stepan. "Povstannia na Bratislavshchyni" [Uprisings in Bratslav province]. LCK, no. 4 (1930), pp. 9-10. A personal account of an uprising against the Bolsheviks in the Bratslav district in April 1919.

Pervaia konferentsiia anarkhistskikh organizatsii Ukrainy "Nabat": Dekliaratsiia i rezoliutsii [First conference of the Anarchist organizations in Ukraine "Nabat": declarations and resolutions]. Buenos Aires: Izd-vo Rab. gruppa Resp. Argentine, 1922.

Petliura, Symon. Statti, lysty, dokumenty [Articles, letters, documents] . New York: Vyd. Ukr. vilnoi akademmi u SSHA, 1956. Selections from the writings and official transactions of the onetime head of the government of the Ukrainian People's Republic and commander in chief of the armed forces.

Petriv, Vsevolod. "Do istorii formuvannia viis'ka na Ukraini pidchas revoliutsii" [About the formation of the army in Ukraine during the Revolution]. LNV 104, no. 11 (1930): 981-87.

-----------. Spomyny z chasiv ukrains'koi revoliutsii, 1917-1921 [Memoirs from the period of the Ukrainian Revolution, 1917-1921]. 4 vols. Lvov: Vyd. Chervona Kalyna, 1927-31. Valuable memoirs of a high-ranking officer; special references to the formation of the armed forces and description of some of its leaders, including Petliura, Bolbachan, and the Archduke Wilhelm F. Habsburg.

Piontkovskii, S. A., ed. Grazhdanskaia voina v Rossii, 1918-1921 gg.: Khrestomatiia [The civil war in Russia, 1918-1921: a reader]. Moscow: Izd-vo Kommunisticheskogo universiteta, 1925. Documents, correspondence, excerpts from memoirs, and other materials dealing with the Russian Civil War and intervention in South Ukraine.

Poliakov, I. A. Donskie kazaki v bor'be s bol'shevikami: Vospominiia [Don Cossacks in the struggle with the Bolsheviks: memoirs]. Munich, 1962.

Polovoi-Polianskii, K. "Vooruzhennaia bor'ba s denikintsami na Verkh-nedneprovshchine i Kremenchugshchine: Iz vospominanii" [Armed struggle against Denikin men in Verkhniedniprovsk and Kremen-chuk regions: from memoirs]. LR, no. 6 (21) (1926), pp. 86-97. A personal account of partisan activities in the rear of the Denikin forces in Ukraine in 1919.

Polska Akademia Nauk. Instytut Historii. Materialy archiwalne do his-torii stosunkow polsko-rad-zieckich [Archival materials about the history of Polish-Soviet relations]. Edited by Natalia G^siorowska. Warsaw: Ksiazka i Wiedza, 1957-.

-----------. Pracownia Historii Stosunkow Polsko-Radzieckich. Dokumenty i materialy do historii stosunkow polsko-radzieckich [Documents and materials about the history of Polish-Soviet relations]. Edited by Natalia Gasiorowska-Grabowska et al. Vol. 1. Warsaw: Ksiazka i Wiedza, 1961-.

Popov, P. "Doklad v Zafrontbiuro TSK KP(b)U o poezdke v Ukrains-kuiu narodnuiu respubliku" [Report to the bureau of the rear TSK KP(b)U about the mission to the Ukrainian People's Republic]. LR, no. 2 (17) (1926), pp. 43-50. October 1919 report concerning conditions in Ukraine, and the attitudes of the workers, peasants, educated class, and political groups.

Porokhivs'kyi, Hnat. "Persha ukrains'ka dyviziia: Spomyn" [The First Ukrainian division: memoirs]. KD 1935, pp. 50-67.

P-pa, N., ed. "Protybol'shevyts'ki povstannia na Ukraini v 1921 r.: Na osnovi offitsiial'nykh bol'shevyts'kykh zvidomlen' i inshykh nepub-likovanykh materiialiv" [Anti-Bolshevik uprisings in Ukraine in 1921: based on official Bolshevik reports and other unpublished materials]. LCK, no. 6 (1932), pp. 19-22; no. 9, pp. 6-7. Ukrainian partisan activities in 1921, largely from Bolshevik reports.

Prikaz Glavnokomanduiushchago Vooruzhennymi silami na iuge Rossi o zemlie ot 20 maia, 1920 goda: So vsieme dopolneniiami [Order of the commander in chief of the armed forces of South Russia about the land [question] of May 20, 1920: with all supplements]. Istanbul: Izd. Biuro russkoi pechati, 1920(?).

Pro ukrains'ki. povstannia: Sokolovs'kyi i susidni hrupy [About the Ukrainian uprisings: the Sokolovs'kyi and neighboring groups]. Kamenets-Podolski: Vydannia "Striltsia," 1919.

Proekt-deklaratsiia na revoliutsionno-vzhztanicheskata armiia v Ukraina (Makhnovtsi) [Project-declaration of the revolutionary-partisan army in Ukraine (Makhnovites)] . Sofia: Edison, 1921.

Prokhoda, VasyP. "Siri abo sirozhupannyky" [The Grays or Gray-coats]. VK, no. 4 (28) (1967), pp. 35-42; no. 2 (33) (1968), pp. 40-44; no 3 (34), pp. 37-41. Memoirs about the campaigns of the Ukrainian division, composed of Ukrainian prisoners of war in Austria against the Bolshevik invasion in 1919.

-----------. Zapysky nepokirlyvoho: Istoriia natsional'noho usvidomlennia, zhyttia i diial'nosty zvychainoho ukraintsia [Notes of an indocile: a history of national consciousness, the life and activities of a simple Ukrainian] . Toronto: "Proboiem," 1967.

Ptashynskyi, P., ed. "Dokumenty do istorii borot'by KP(b)U proty het'mana ta interventiv, 1918r." [Documents about the history of the struggle of the KP(b)U against the hetman and invaders, 1918] . LR, nos. 1-2 (56-57) (1933), pp. 225-81. Forty-eight hitherto unpublished documents, some in full text, dealing with the partisan movement in Ukraine during the hetman period. Chronologically arranged, with an editor's introduction sympathetic to the Bolsheviks.

-----------. "Do istorii nimetskoi-avstriis'koi interventsii na Ukraini" [About the history of the German-Austrian intervention in Ukraine]. Arkhiv Radians'koi Ukrainy (Kiev), nos. 1-2, pp. 64- 106. A selection of twenty-four formerly unpublished documents on the policy of the Austro-German troops in Ukraine.

Puzyts'kyi, A. "Borot'ba za dostupy do Kyiva" [Struggle for the approach to Kiev]. Za derzhavnist' (Kalisz) 5 (1935): 9-61; 6(1936): 13-64; 7 (1937): 9-56.

Quaroni, Pietro. Diplomatic Bags: An Ambassador's Memoirs. Translated and edited by Anthony Rhodes. New York: D. White Co., 1966.

Rafes, Moissey G. "Moi vospominaniia" [My memoirs]. Byloe, no. 19 (1922), pp. 177-97.

"Raport gen. sht. podpolkovnika N. predstaviteliu Dobrovol'cheskoi armii v. g. Kievie" [Report of the General Staff Lt. Colonel N. to a representative of the Volunteer Army in Kiev]. BA, nos. 2-3 (1928), pp. 138-44. A secret report of a high-ranking officer about his activities in the Red Army in Ukraine from July 10 to August 15,1919.

"Raport sostoiashchago v shtabie predstavitelia verkhovnago komando-vaniia Dobrarmii gen. sht. podpolkovnika S-go predstaviteliu Verkhovnago komandovaniia v Kievie" [Report made at headquarters by a representative of the high command of the Volunteer Army, General Staff Lt. Colonel S., to the representative of the high command in Kiev]. BA, nos. 2-3 (1928), pp. 145-50. A secret report of a high-ranking officer regarding his activities in the Red Army in Ukraine; prepared for the Volunteer Army during the summer of 1919.

Ravich-Cherkas'kyi, M. [Rabinovich] , ed. Revoliutsiia i KP(b)U v materialakh i dokumentakh: Khrestomatiia [Revolution and the KP(b)U in materials and documents: a reader]. Kharkov: "Pro-letarii," 1926.

Reiks, O. "Z bil'shovyts'koho pidpilla v Odesi, 1918-1919 rr." [From the Bolshevik underground in Odessa, 1918-1919]. LR, nos. 1-2 (46-47) (1931), pp. 169-86.

Rezoliutsii pervogo s'ezda Konfederatsii anarkhistskikh organizatsii Ukrainy "Nabat" no. 7 sostoiavshegosia v g. Elisavetgrade 2-7 aprelia 1919 g. [Resolutions of the First Conference of the Confederation of Anarchist Organizations in Ukraine "Nabat" no. 7, which took place in IElysavethrad April 2-7, 1919]. Buenos Aires(?): Izd. Rabochei izd. gruppy v Resp. Argentine, 1923.

Riappo, IA. "Revoliutsionnaia bor'ba v Nikolaeve: Vospominaniia" [Revolutionary struggle in Mykolaiv: memoirs]. LR, no. 4 (9) (1924), pp. 5-43. A Bolshevik agent deals with the relations between the authorities in Mykolaiv and the German and Entente troops during the first half of 1919, and with the Hryhor'iv and Makhno uprisings against the Red troops.

-----------. "Vosstanie nikolaevskogo proletariata protiv nemtsev" [The uprising of Mykolaiv proletarians against the Germans]. LR, no. 1 (1922), pp. 107-23. Further memoirs of a Bolshevik agent about Mykolaiv.

Rohatyns'kyi, I. "Viina mizh dvoma selamy: Epizod z revohutsiinykh dniv na Velykii Ukraini" [War between two villages: episode from revolutionary days in Great Ukraine]. IKCK 1933, pp. 25-30.

Romanchenko, IU. "Epizody z borot'by proty makhnovshchyny, cher-ven'-hruden' 1920 r." [Episodes from the struggle against the Makhno movement, June-December 1920]. LR, no. 4 (49) (1931), pp. 124-32. A personal narrative dealing with the campaign of the Internal Security Troops of the Republic (VOKhR) against Makhno during the second half of 1920.

Romanov, A. A. "V Tavriu za volei: Vospominaniia ochevydtsa," [To Tavriia for freedom: memoirs of an eyewitness]. Istoricheskii viest-nik (St. Petersburg) 84 (1901): 264-73. Recollections of the peasants' escape from their landlords in Katerynoslav and Kherson provinces to Tavriia province on the eve of the emancipation of 1861.

Rossum, I. J. Van, ed., "Proclamations of the Makhno Movement, 1920: Documents." International Review of Social History (Amsterdam) 13 (1968), pt. 2: 246-68. Eleven documents issued by the Makhno-ists in the first half of 1920 with valuable information on some aspects of the movement.

Rostov, B. Pochemu i kak sozdalas' Dobrovol'cheskaia armiia i za chto ona boretsia [Why and how the Volunteer Army was established and what it fights for] . Rostov-on-Don: Osvag, 1919.

Rubach, M. "K istorii grazhdanskoi bor'by na Ukraine: K voprosu ob organizatsii Vremennogo Raboche-Krest'ianskogo Pravite'stva Ukrainy" [About the history of civil struggle in Ukraine: to the question about organization of Provisional Workers-Peasants Government of Ukraine] . LR, no. 4 (9) (1924), pp. 151-65. A valuable account of political conditions in Ukraine, including a number of documents.

-----------. "K istorii grazhdanskoi voiny na Ukraine: Perekhod Grigor'eva k Sovetskoi vlasti" [About the history of the civil war in Ukraine: Hryhor'iv joins the Soviets]. LR, no. 3 (8) (1924), pp. 175-88; no. 4, pp. 151-65. Telegrams and conversations between Hryhor'iv and the Soviet military command in early 1919.

-----------, ed. "Do istorii ukrains'koi revoliutsii: Zamitky i dokumenty, hruden' 1917-sichen' 1918 r." [About the history of the Ukrianian Revolution: notes and documents, December 1917-January 1918]. LR, no. 1 (16) (January-February 1926), pp. 41-84.

Russia (1932-USSR) Glavnoe arkhivnoe upravlenie. Direktivy glav-nogo komandovaniia Krasnoi armii, 1917-1920: Sbornik doku-mentov [Directions from the general headquarters of the Red Army, 1917-1920: collection of documents]. Moscow: Voennoe izd-vo, 1969.

Ryndyk, S. "Otaman Hryhor'iv: Spohad" [Otaman Hryhor'iv: memoirs] . Prometei (New York), March 24, 1960. A schoolmate's valuable and objective biographical account of Otaman Hryhor'iv's youth.

S., M. "Makhno ta ioho viis'ko: Materialy to istorii ukrains'koi vyz-vol'noi borot'by" [Makhno and his troops: materials about the history of the Ukrainian liberation struggle]. LCK, no. 6 (June 1935), pp. 16-17. Contemporary but largely inaccurate reports about Makhno and his movement collected by the Ukrainian military command.

S., R. "Osin' 1918 r. na Kharkivshchyni" [Autumn 1918 in Kharkiv province]. LCK, no. 3 (1930), pp. 7-9. Also in IKCK 1934, pp. 136-41. An account of political and military conditions in Kharkiv and its province during the second half of 1918, and the coup against the hetman regime and the Germans.

-----------. "Platone Makhno, il liberatore dell' Ukrainia, assassinato?" L'Avvenire Anarchicio (Pisa), September 23, 1921.

S., V. "Ekspeditsiia L. B. Kameneva dlia prodvizheniia prodgruzov k Moskve v 1919 godu" [Expedition of L. B. Kamenev for good transportation to Moscow in 1919]. PR, no. 6 (41) (1925), pp-116-54. Description of Kamenev's trip to the Volga Valley and to Ukraine to solve a conflict about food transportation to Russia and Hryhor'iv's anti-Bolshevik uprising.

Sadovs'kyi, Mykhailo. Letter to author. Toronto, January 1, 1961.

Sakovich, G. "Proryv Makhno" [Makhno's break-through]. PER, no. 116 (1961), pp. 11-14. A description by a Russian officer of the campaign of the Simferopol Officers' Regiment against Makhno in September 1919.

Sal's'kyi, Volodymyr and Pavlo Shandruk, eds. Ukrains'ko-Moskovs'ka viina 1920 roku v dokumentakh [The Ukrainian-Moscowian war of 1920 in documents]. Warsaw, 1933. Nearly 800 documents of the general staff of the Ukrainian Army covering May to November 1920.

Samiilenko, Stepan. Dni slavy: Spohady polkovnyka ukrains'koi armii [Days of glory: memoirs of a colonel of the Ukrainian Army]. New York: Ukr. vil'na akademiia nauk u SShA, 1958.

Savchenko, V. "Narys borot'by viiska U. N. R. na Livoberezhzhi napry-kintsi 1918 ta pochatku 1919 rr." [A sketch of the struggle of the U. N. R. troops on the Left Bank at the end of 1918 and the beginning of 1919]. Za derzhavnist' (Kalisz) 5 (1935): 158-85; 6(1936): 119-54.

-----------. "Spomyny viis'kovyka z 1918 r." [Memoirs of a military man from 1918]. KD 1937, pp. 60-74.

Savinkov, B. "General Kornilov: Iz vospominanii" [General Kornilov: from memoirs]. BY, no. 3 (31) (1925), pp. 182-97.

Serge, Victor. Memoirs of a Revolutionary, 1901-1941. London: Oxford University Press, 1963. Memoirs of a Russian Communist born in Belgium describing Russian revolutionary leaders, including Makhno, most of whom were later liquidated by Stalin, set against the political conditions current in Russia.

Sergeev, A. Denikinskaia armiia sama o sebe: Po dokumentam sobran-nym na boyevykh liniiakh voennym korrespondentom "Rosta" [The Denikin army (speaks) about itself: according to documents collected on the front lines by a military correspondent of Rosta]. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo, 1920.

Shandruk, Pavlo. Arms of Valor. New York: R. Speller, 1959. Memoirs dealing with the political and military aspects of the Ukrainian Revolution.

-----------. "Ukrains'ka armiia v borot'bi z Moskovshchynoiu" [The Ukrainian Army in struggle against Muscovy]. Za Derzhavnist' (Kalisz) 4 (1934): 201-36.

Shatilov, General P. N. "Ostavlenie Kryma" [Evacuation of Crimea]. Chasovoi (Brussels), no. 44 (1930), pp. 14-15.

--------. "Pamiatnaia zapiska o Krymoskoi evakuatsii: Dokumenty; iz arkhiva Russkoi armii" [Memorable notes about the Crimean evacuation: documents; from the archives of the Russian Army]. Bieloe dielo (Paris) 4 (1928): 93-107. Problems of the evacuation of the Volunteer Army under General Wrangel from Crimea in the fall of 1920, prefaced by General Shatilov.

-----------. "Petr Nikolaevich Vrangel." Obshchestvo gallipoliitsev (Sofia), October 1935.

Shchegolev, P. E., ed. Frantsuzy v Odesse: Iz belykh memuarov gen. A. I. Denikin, M. S. Margulies, M. V. Braikevich [Frenchmen in Odessa: from the White Guard memoirs of Gen. A. I. Denikin, M. S. Margulies, M. V. Braikevich]. Leningrad: Izd. "Krasnaia gazeta," 1928.

Shchekun, O., ed. Perekop: Sbornik vospominanii [Perekop: collection of memoirs] .Moscow: Gos. sotsial'no-ekon. izd-vo, 1941.

-----------. "Razgrom Vrangelia" [Defeat of Wrangel]. KR 5 (72) (1935): 3-44; 6 (73): 9-73. Frunze's orders, telegrams, and wires to and from headquarters of the Fourth, Sixth, Thirteenth, First Cavalry, and Second Cavalry armies, from September through November 1920.

Shemet, Serhii. "Do istorii Ukrains'koi Demokratychno-khliborobskoi partii" [About the history of the Ukrainian Democratic-Agrarian party]. Khliborobs'ka Ukrainia (Vienna) 1 (1920): 63-79.

-----------. "Mykola Mikhnovs'kyi: Posmertna z hadka" [Mykola Mikh- novs'kyi: posthumous recollection]. Khliborobs'ka Ukraina 5 (1924-25): 3-30.

Shepel, Zynaida. "Bat'ko povstantsia: Spohad" [Father of a partisan: recollection]. LCK, no. 2 (1932), p. 5. An account of the partisan leader IAkiv Shepel and the execution of his father by the Bolsheviks, written by Shepel's sister.

Shkuro, A. G. Zapiski belogo partizana [Notes of a White partisan]. Buenos Aires: Seiatel', 1961. Memoirs of one of Denikin's generals, written in 1920-21, about his campaigns during World War I and against the Bolsheviks and Makhno during the civil war.

Shlikhter, A. G. "Bor'ba za khleb na Ukraine, v 1919 godu" [The struggle for bread in Ukraine in 1919]. LR, no. 2 (29) (1928), pp. 96-135.

-----------, ed. Chernaia kniga: Sbornik statei i materialov ob interventsu Antanty na Ukraine v 1918-1919 gg. [Black book: collection of articles and materials about Allied intervention in Ukraine in 1918-1919]. Kharkov: Derzh. vyd-vo Ukrainy, 1925. A valuable collection, including captured material, of documents and articles by Soviet Russian and Ukrainian eyewitnesses, including F. Anulov, S. Ostapenko, and IU. Tiutiunyk, dealing with the Allied intervention and its economic background in South Ukraine.

Shteinman, F. "Otstuplenie ot Odessy: IAnvar 1920 g." [Retreat from Odessa: January 1920]. ARR 2 (1921): 87-97. A participant's account of German colonists in the Volunteer Army's campaigns against the Bolsheviks and Hryhor'iv and their subsequent retreat to Romania.

Shtern, Sergei. V ognie grazhdanskoi voiny: Vospomtnaniia, vpechat-lieniia, mysli [In the fire of the civil war: recollections, impressions, reflections]. Paris, 1922.

Shukhevych, Stepan. Spomyny z Ukrains'koi Halytskoi Armii, 1918- 1920 [Memoirs from the Ukrainian Galician Army, 1918-1920]. 5 vols. Lvov: "Chervona Kalyna," 1929. A high-ranking officer in the Galician Army describes the war against Poland, the Bolsheviks, and Denikin, severe physical conditions and epidemics, and the disagreements with the Directory over the policy of agreements with Denikin and Poland.

-----------. "Za hetmans'kykh chasiv v Odessi" [During the hetman period in Odessa]. IKCK 1930, pp. 47-52. An eyewitness account of the formation of Ukrainian units from Galician soldiers in the Austrian army in Odessa at the end of 1918.

Shulgin, V. V. "1920g.": Ocherki ["1920": sketches]. Sofia: Rossisko-bolgarskoe knigoizd-vo, 1921. The Russian Civil War, from the author's first-hand observations.

Shul'hyn, Oleksander. L'Ukraine contre Moscow 1917. Paris: F. Alcan, 1935. Memoirs of the revolutionary events of 1917, with emphasis on the diplomatic relations of Ukraine with the Entente and Soviet Russia.

Sidorov, A. H. "Z istorii borot'by proty vrangelivshchyny i bandytyzmu na Mykolaivshchyni 1920 r." [About the history of the struggle against the Wrangel movement and banditry in the Mykolaiv region in 1920]. LR, no. 1 (46) (1931), pp. 187-202. The struggle between Ukrainian partisans, including IU. Tiutiunyk and Red troops in Mykolaiv province in 1920.

Sikar, Stepan Matviienko. "Try spomyny: Delegaty Sovnarkomu do Uriadu UNR v 1919 r.; 'Bat'ko Makhno'; Basarabs'ka Dyviziia 1919 r." [Three memoirs: delegates of the Sovnarkom to the Government of UNR in 1919; "Father Makhno"; Bessarabian Division in 1919]. In Nashe slovo, zbirnyk no. 3. Isaakovi Mazepi na vichnu pamiat', pp. 89-108. Munich, 1973.

Skoropads'kyi, Pavlo. "Uryvok zi 'Spomyniv'" [Fragments from "Memoirs"]. Khliborobs'ka Ukraina 4 (1924): 3-40; 5 (1924-25): 31-92. Valuable and informative reminiscences by the hetman about his military and political activities, including the Ukrainization of his Thirty-Fourth Corps, from March 1917 to April 1918.

Slashchov, IA. A. Krym v 1920 g: Otryvki iz vospominanii [Crimea in 1920: fragments from memoirs]. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo, 1924.

-----------. "Materialy do istorii grazhdanskoi voiny v Rossii: Operatsii belykh, Petliury i Makhno na Ukraine" [Materials for the civil war in Russia: operations of the Whites, Petliura, and Makhno in Ukraine]. An authoritative personal account about the campaign of the Third Corps of the Volunteer Army against Makhno and the Ukrainian troops on the Right Bank in the second half of 1919.

Sokil, Ivan. "Vid Zbrucha do Kyiva: Slidamy III. kurenia 5-oi so-kal's'koi brygady: Spomyn uchasnyka pokhodu" [From Zbruch to Kyiv: in the footsteps of the Third Company of the Fifth Sokal' Brigade: memoirs of a participant in the campaign]. LCK, no. 5 (1938), pp. 3-5.

Sokolov, K. N. Pravlenie generala Denikina: Iz vospominanii [The government of General Denikin: from memoirs]. Sofia: Rossiisko-Bolgarskoe knigoizd-vo, 1921. Memoirs of a legal advisor to De-nikin's Special Council: internal history of the Volunteer Army, with emphasis upon the political and administrative regime in the occupied territories during the civil war.

Sokolovs 'kyi i susidni hrupy [Sokolovs'kyi and the neighboring groups]. Kaminets Podolski: Vyd. Stril'tsia, 1919. A description of four partisan groups, including the group led by brothers Oleh and Dmytro Sokolovskyi, against the Bolshevik and anti-Bolshevik Russian forces in Kiev province, mainly in 1919.

Stanomir, Osyp. Moia uchast' u vyzvol'nykh zmahaniakh, 1917-1920 [My participation in the liberation struggle, 1917-1920]. Toronto, 1966. A personal narrative about the Ukrainian Galician Army in the revolution in eastern Ukraine.

Stechyshyn, Stepan. "Zi spomyniv polonenoho" [From the memoirs of a prisoner]. LCK, nos. 7-8 (1938), pp. 17-21. Memoirs of a Ukrainian Galician prisoner of war in eastern Ukraine about the disintegration of the tsarist regime and Bolshevik propaganda from 1916 to 1918.

Stefaniv, Zenon. "Dva roky v Ukrains'kii Armii: Spomyny 17-litnoho pidkhorunzhoho" [Two years in the Ukrainian Army: memoirs of a 17-year-old subensign]. LCK, no. 9 (1932), pp. 8-10; no. 10, pp. 9-13; no. 11, pp. 13-16; no. 12, pp. 6-8. A young officer describes the uprising against Hetman Skoropads'kyi and the campaigns against the Bolsheviks, Poles, and Denikin during the Ukrainian Revolution.

Steifon, M. B. Krizis dobrovol'chestva [Crisis of the Volunteer movement] . Belgrade: Russkaia tip., 1928. A survey by a regimental commander about Denikin's campaigns against the Bolsheviks in Ukraine from April to October 1919, praising the Volunteers and criticizing the behavior of General Mai-Maevskii and his aide Maka-rov. The author deals at some length with the life of the troops in Kharkiv.

Struts', Volodymyr. "Try misiatsi u povstantsiv" [Three months with the partisans]. IKCK 1933.

Struve, Petr, ed. "Istoricheskie materialy i dokumenty: Ideologiia makhnovshchiny" [Historic materials and documents: ideology of the Makhno movement]. Russkaia my si' (Sofia), nos. 1-2 (1921), pp. 226-31. Minutes of the second Huliai-Pole area conference of the Makhno movement, held on February 12, 1920.

Sukhogorskaia, Natal'ia. "Vospominanie o makhnovshchine" [Memoirs about the Makhno movement]. Kandal'nyi zvon (Odessa), no. 6 (1927), pp. 37-63. An eyewitness acount, partially unreliable hearsay, of the Revolution at Huliai-Pole from 1918 to 1920, stressing the terror and suffering of the populace under the occupation forces: Austro-Hungarians, Bolsheviks, Denikin, and Makhno.

Sumskii, S. "Odinnadtstat' perevorotov: Grazhdanskaia voina v Kievie" [Eleven coups: the civil war in Kyiv]. In Revoliutsiia na Ukraine po memuaram belykh, pp. 99-114. Edited by S. A. Alekseev. Moscow, 1930. Memoirs of a Bolshevik journalist about conditions in Kyiv during the Bolshevik invasion in January 1918 and German policies in Ukraine through April 1918.

Suslyk, R. L. Kryvavi storinky z nepysanyk litopysiv: Kozats'ko-khutorians'ka Poltavshchyna v borot'bi proty moskovs'koho kommunizmu [Bloody pages of unpublished chronicles: a cossack-farmstead, Poltava province, in the struggle against Muscovite communism]. Derby, Conn., 1956. Memoirs dealing with the partisan movement in Poltava province during the Revolution and the author's experiences in Russian concentration camps thereafter.

Suvorin, Bor. Za rodinoi: Geroicheskaia epokha Dobrovol'cheskoi Armii, 1917-1918 gg.: Vpechatleniia zhurnalista [For the motherland: heroic epoch of the Volunteer Army, 1917-1918: impressions of a journalist]. Paris, 1922. A survey, based on the author's diaries and other eyewitness accounts, of the formation of the Volunteer Army and its campaigns against the Red forces in the Don and Kuban basins from November 1917 to November 1918.

T. V. "Iz dalekogo proshlogo: Vospominaniia o N. I. Makhno" [From the distant past: memoirs about N. I. Makhno]. DT-P, no. 41 (1925), pp. 25-27.

Tintrup, Hans. Kreig in der Ukraine: Aufzeichnungen eines deutschen Offiziers. Essen: Essener Verlagsanstalt, 1938. Memoirs of a German infantry officer about his experiences and observations during the campaigns in Ukraine from Kovel to Rostov from the beginning of 1918 to January 1919.

Trotskii, Lev. Materialy i dokumenty po istorii Krasnoi Armii: Kak vooruzhalas' revoliutsiia; na voennoi robote [Materials and documents about the history of the Red Army: how the Revolution was armed; on the military work]. 3 vols, in 5. Moscow: Vysshyi voen. red. sovet, 1923-25. The formation of the Red Army and its struggle against its adversaries, including the Makhno partisan army.

-----------. The Trotsky Papers, 1917-1922. Vol. 1. Edited and annotated by Jan Meyer. The Hague: Mouton, 1964. Correspondence, primarily with Lenin, in Russian with English translations. Contains, in chronological order, 435 documents from 1917 to 1919, including several photocopies.

Trubetskoi, E. N. "Iz putevykh zamietok biezhentsa" [From itinerary notes of an escapee]. ARR 18 (1928): 137-207. The author's experiences in Ukraine and in the Kuban , the French intervention in South Ukraine, and Denikin's policies in Ukraine. It covers the period from September 1918 to June 1919.

Tsebrii, Osyp. "Vospominaniia partizana" [Memoirs of a partisan]. DT-P, no. 31 (1949), pp. 17-19; no. 32 (1950), pp. 13-14; no. 33, pp. 41-42; no. 34, pp. 20-22. How a peasant partisan detachment was organized against the Austro-German punitive expeditions in 1918 on the Right Bank, its efforts to coordinate its activities with the Makhno Army, and the leader's subsequent escape to Yugoslavia and his experiences there.

Tsehel'skyi, Lonlyn. Vid legend do pravdy: Spomyny pro podn v Ukraini zviazani z Pershym Lystopadom 1918 r. [From legends to the truth: memoirs about the events in Ukraine associated with the First November of 1918]. New York: Bulava, 1960. Authoritative but controversial memoirs by a former deputy minister of foreign affairs of the Directory; deals with the struggle for preservation of political independence from November 1918 to February 1919.

Ts'okan, II. Vid Denikina do bil'shevykiv: Fragment spomyniv z Radians'koi Ukrainy [From Denikin to the Bolsheviks: fragment of memoirs from Soviet Ukraine]. Vienna: Vyd-vo Ukrains'koho praporu, 1921. A description of the campaign of the Ukrainian Galician Army against the Denikin and Bolshevik forces at the turn of 1920.

U. S. Dept. of State. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, 1918-1919. Russia. 3 vols. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1931-37.

Ukraine, Arkhivne upravlinnia. Grazhdanskaia voina na Ukraine, 1918- 1920: Sbornik dokumentov i materialov [The civil war in Ukraine, 1918-1920: collection of documents and materials]. 3 vols, in 4. Edited by S. M. Korolivskii. Kiev: Naukova dumka, 1967. A collection of 2,682 documents and articles from Russian and Ukrainian archives concerning events from 1918 to 1920.

L'Ukraine sovietiste: Quatre annees de guerre et blocus. Berlin, 1922. Acrimonious exchanges between the Soviet Russian and Soviet Ukrainian governments on the one hand and the Romanian government on the other concerning Makhno's extradition from Romania.

Ukraine. Tsentral'nyi derzhavnyi arkhiv Zhovtenvoi revoliutsii i sotsia-listychnoho budivnytstva. Vseukrains'kyi tsentral'nyi komitet nezamozhnykh selian: Opys dokumental'nykh materialiv fondu P-257 [The All-Ukrainian Central Committee of Poor Peasants: description of documental materials in the fund P-257]. Sklarenko O. I. E. Kryvosheievoiu. Edited by I. K. Rybalka. Kharkov: Khar-kivske obi. vyd-vo, 1957.

Ukrains'ka Halyts'ka Armiia u 40-richchia ii uchasty u vyzvol'nykh zmahanniakh: Materiialy do istorii [The Ukrainian Galician Army on the 40th anniversary of its participation in the struggle for liberation (of Ukraine): materials on the history]. Edited by Myron Dol'nyts'kyi. Winnipeg: D. Mykytiuk, 1958-. The Ukrainian Galician Army and its struggle against Poles and the Bolshevik and anti-Bolshevik Russian forces from 1917 to 1923. 'Ukraintsi u rossiis'koho voiennoho gubernatora L'vova-Sheremetieva: Iz zapysok ochevydtsia" [Ukrainians at the Russian military governor of L'viv-Sheremetiev: notes of an eyewitness].

V., A. "Dnevnik obyvatelia" [A diary of a citizen]. ARR 4 (1922): 252-88. A Soviet Russian escapee's diary of the Revolution in Crimea (mainly Yalta) from July 26, 1918, to April 4, 1919.

V., Dmytro. "Lystopad v 1918 r. na Ukraini: Vyrvanyi lystok iz voi-ennykh spomyniv" [November 1918 in Ukraine: a leaf torn from war memoirs] . Ukrains'kyi skytalets', no. 9 (1921), pp. 5-13; no. 10, pp. 2-3; no. 11 (1922), pp. 11-12; no. 12, pp. 4-6; no. 13, pp. 13-14.

-----------. "Osin' 1918 roku na Ukraini: Vyrvanyi lystok iz voiennykh spomyniv" [The fall of 1918 in Ukraine: a leaf torn from war memoirs]. IKCK 1925, pp. 62-82.

V., S. "Povstanchi otamany i otamanshchyna" [The partisan otamans and the otaman movement] . Kaliendar-al'manakh Ukrains'koho holosu na rik 1968, pp. 105-6. Winnipeg, Man., Canada,1968.

Valentinov, A. A. "Krymskaia epokeia: Po dnevnikam uchastnikov i po dokumentam" [The Crimean epic: according to diaries of participants and documents]. ARR 5 (1922): 5-100. A lengthy account about the struggle of the Volunteer Army in South Ukraine from May to November 1920, based upon the author's diary and documents.

Varetskii, Dm. "Marshall V. K. Bliukher." Novyi zhurnal (New York), no. 27 (1951), pp. 250-65. Memoirs of a Bolshevik officer describing the conditions and struggle of V. K. Bliukher against Makhno's partisans in the summer of 1921.

Velikaia Oktiabr'skaia sotsialisticheskaia revoliutsiia na Ukraine, fevral' 1917-April 1918: Sbornik dokumentov i materialov [The Great October Socialist Revolution in Ukraine, February 1917-April 1918: a collection of documents and materials]. 3 vols. Edited by S. M. Korolivskii. Kiev: Gos., izd-vo polit. lit-ry USSR. 1957. More than two thousand documents issued by the Soviet organizations and trade unions on the Ukrainian Revolution from February 1917 to April 1918.

Venhrynovych, Stepan. "Vesna 1920 r. na Ukraini" [Spring of 1920 in Ukraine]. LCK, no. 5 (1932), pp. 6-8.

Vinaver, M. Nashe pravitel'stvo: Krymskiia vospominaniia 1918-1919 gg. [Our government: Crimean memoirs, 1918-1919]. Paris, 1928.

Vinogradov, M. "Chemu ia byl svidietelem" [To that which I have witnessed]. Manuscript. November 25, 1954. 24 pp. Copy in author's possession. An authoritative unpublished personal account by a Denikin officer about the campaigns against Makhno and the Bolsheviks on the Left Bank in 1919 and at the beginning of 1920.

Volin, S. [Eichenbaum]. "V dopolnenie k 'Otkrytom pis'mu t-shchu Maksymovu' t-shcha N. Makhno" [Supplement to an open letter to Comrade Maksimov by Comrade N. Makhno]. DT, no. 16 (1926), pp. 15-16.

Volyts'kyi, Vasyl. Na L'viv i Kyiv: Voenni spohady, 1918-1920 [On to L'viv and Kyiv: recollection of the war, 1918-1920]. Toronto: Homin Ukrainy, 1963. Memoirs of a military man of his combat experiences during the Ukrainian Revolution from the end of 1918 through the spring of 1920.

"Vosstanovlenie Sovvlasti na Ukraine: Materialy k piatiletiiu vziatiia Kharkova 12 dekabria 1919 g." [Establishment of Soviet authority in Ukraine: materials about the fifth anniversary of the occupation of Kharkiv, December 12, 1919]. LR, no. 1 (10) (1925), pp. 56-58. Order of the Kharkiv Military-Revolutionary Committee, appeals of the All-Ukrainian Revolutionary Committee to all the party organizations of the KP(b)U, and other documents of December 1919.

Vygran, VI. "Vospominaniia o bor'bie s makhnovtsami" [Memoirs about the struggle against the Makhno men]. Manuscript. San Francisco, March 15, 1954. Copy in author's possession. Unpublished memoirs of a Denikin officer, based on his diaries and recollections, dealing with military operations against Makhno on the Left Bank from the fall of 1918 to the end of 1919.

Vynnychenko, V. Vidrodzennia natsii [The rebirth of the nation]. 3 vols. Kiev-Vienna: Vyd. Dzvin, 1920. Biased but valuable memoirs of the former prime minister of the Central Rada, president of the Directory, and leftist Social Democrat, dealing with the Revolution; contains authentic records of the period.

Wedziagolski, Karol. Pamietniki: Wojna i rewolucja, Kontrrewolucja, Bolszewicki przewrot, Warszawski epilog [Memoirs: war and revolution, counterrevolution, Bolshevik coup, Warsaw epilogue]. London: Nakl. Polskiej Fundacji Kulturalnej, 1972.

Wertheimer, Fritz. Durch Ukraine und Krim. Stuttgart: Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung, 1918. A personal account of a German military man traveling through Ukraine and Crimea from March to May 1918.

Wrangel, Peter N. Always with Honour. New York: R. Speller, 1957.

-----------. The Memoirs of General Wrangel, the Last Commander-in-Chief of the Russian National Army. London: Williams & Norgate, 1929. Translation of the author's Zapiski: Noiabr' 1916-1920, originally published as vols. 5 and 6 of Bieloe dielo. Berlin, 1928. The first chapter deals with the events of 1917; the others are devoted to the struggle of Denikin and Wrangel against the Bolsheviks and other adversaries through 1920. It contains documents on the Allied policy and aid.

-----------. Vospominaniia: Materialy sobrannye i razrabotannye P. N. Vrangelem, G. N. Leikhtenbergskim i A. P. Livenom [Memoirs: materials collected and arranged by P. N. Wrangel, G. N. Leikhten-bergskii, and A. P. Liven]. Edited by A. A. von-Lampe. Frankurt a.

M.: "Posev," 1969. Memoirs dealing with World War I and the Russian Civil War from November 1916 to November 1920. The author criticized Volunteer Army operations under Denikin and Allied policy and aid.

-----------. "The White Armies: In Russia and Later." The English Review 47 (October 1927): 375-94. A sketchy personal account of British and French attitudes toward Wrangel, his defeat, and the escape of his forces from the Crimea in the fall of 1920.

Xydias, Jean. L 'intervention francaise en Russie, 1918-1919: Souvenirs d'un, temoin. Paris: Les Editions de France, 1927. Memoirs of a Russified Greek financier in Odessa about the Allied intervention in South Ukraine, and French policies and French relations with the Ukrainian government and the Volunteer Army, stressing the leading personalities in its ranks.

Za derzhavnist': Materiialy do istorii viis'ka ukrains'koho [For independence: historical materials of the Ukrainian Army]. 11 vols. Kalisz: Vyd-vo Ukrains'ke voiennoistorychne to-vo, 1926-66. The organization and operations of the Ukrainian forces during World War I and the Revolution.

Zadoianyi, Vasyl'. "General IUrko Tiutiunyk: U 50-tu richnytsiu Per-shoho zymovoho pokhodu armii UNR v zapillia voroha" [General IUrko Tiutiunyk: to the 50th anniversary of the first winter campaign of the UNR army at the enemy's rear]. TR, no. 59 (1970), pp. 13-18; no. 60, pp. 10-16; no. 61, pp. 11-19; no. 62 (1971), pp. 6-16; no. 63, pp. 10-20; no. 64, pp. 9-16; no. 65, pp. 11-17; no. 66 (1972), pp. 9-15; no. 67, pp. 15-21. Memoirs about Tiutiunyk during the Revolution, and the policy of the Volunteer Army in Ukraine.

-----------. "Khronika ukrains'koi vyzvol'noi borot'by doby 1917-21 rokiv" [Chronicle of the Ukrainian liberation struggle during the period of 1917-21]. TR, no. 33 (1965), pp. 10-13; no. 34, pp. 20-22; no. 35, pp. 13-16.

-----------. "Povstanska stykhiia" [Partisan spontaneity]. TR, no. 46 (1967), pp. 11-15; no. 47 (1968), pp. 8-14; no. 48, pp. 14-18; no. 49, pp. 4-8. Memoirs about partisan uprisings against landlord and German punitive expeditions in the Tarashcha and Zveny-horodka districts in the summer of 1918, their suppression, and the partisans' retreat to the Neutral Zone.

Zaklyns'kyi, Myron. "Kami ekspedytsii U. S. S.-iv u Kherzonshchyni [Punitive expeditions of U. S. S. in Kherson province]. KCK 1932, pp. 67-77. A valuable account of the Sich Riflemen's activities and the Austrian troops' policy in Kherson province from June to October 1918.

________"Nastup USS-iv na Oleksandrivs'k 1918 r." [Attack of USS on Oleksandrivs'k in 1918]. KCK 1931, pp. 46-51. A personal account of the struggle of the Sich Riflemen against the Bolsheviks to relieve the city of Oleksandrivs'k in the spring of 1918.

-----------. "Pershyi raz na Velykii Ukraini" [The first time in Great Ukraine]. KCK 1930, pp. 19-29. Personal experiences of a Ukrainian Galician officer in eastern Ukraine in the spring of 1918.

----------. "Sichovi Stril'tsi na Kherzonshchyni" [Sich Riflemen in Kherson province]. KCK 1932, pp. 54-67. A valuable narrative about the hetman and Austrian troops' policies and about the cooperation between the Sich Riflemen and the local populace in Kherson province in the summer of 1918.

-----------. "Tyf u Halyts'kii Armii: Spohad" [Typhus in the Galician Army: memoirs]. Vistnyk (Lvov) 4, no. 12 (1935): 873-83.

"Zamietki k knigi Arshinova" [Notes about Arshinov's book]. Manuscript. 1953. Copy in author's possession. A critical review of Arshinov's work about the Makhno movement, stressing the lack of Anarchist ideology in the movement.

Zarits'kyi, Vas. "Vypad povstanchoho zahonu: Vid Husiatyna pid Kyiv, 1921 r." [Attack of a partisan detachment: from Husiatyn to Kiev, 1921]. IKCK 1931, pp. 87-97.

Zatonskii, V. "K voprosu ob organizatsii Vremennogo Raboche-Krestianskogo Pravitel'stva Ukrainy noiabr' 1918 g." [About the question of the organization of the Provisional Workers'-Peasants' Government of Ukraine, November 1918]. LR, no. 1 (10) (1925), pp. 139-49.

Zbirnyk pamiaty Symona Petliury, 1879-1926 [Collection in the memory of Symon Petliura, 1879-1926]. Prague: Nakl. Mizhorhaniza-tsiinoho komitetu dlia vshanuvannia pamiaty Symona Petliury v Prazi, 1930.

Zelins'kyi, Viktor. Syn'ozhupannyky [Gray coats]. Berlin: Nakl. "Ukrains'koho natsional'noho obiednannia," 1938. Memoirs about the organization and activities of two Ukrainian divisions in 1917- 18, by a general and commander of these units.

Zhuk, Andrii. "Verbna nedilia u Kyivi 1918 roku: Uryvok iz spomyniv" [Palm Sunday in Kiev 1918: fragment from memoirs]. KD 1937, Pp. 22-40.

Secondary Sources

Adams, Arthur E. "Bolshevik Administration in the Ukraine, 1918," The Review of Politics 20 (1958): 289-306.

-----------. "The Bolsheviks and the Ukrainian Front in 1918-1919," Slavonic and East European Review 36 (1958): 396-417.

_________, Bolsheviks in the Ukraine: The Second Campaign, 1918-1919. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963. A well-documented study of the Bolsheviks' effort to occupy Ukraine following the fall of the hetman regime, with emphasis upon the Otaman Hryhor'iv.

Agureev, K. V. Razgrom belogvardeiskikh voisk Denikina: Oktiabr', 1919-mart, 1920 [Defeat of White troops of Denikin: October 1919-March 1920]. Moscow: Voen. izd-vo, 1961. A survey of the struggle of the Red Army against the Denikin forces, stressing the role of the Communist party.

Aleksashenko, A. P. Krakh denikinshchiny [Failure of the Denikin movement]. Moscow: Izd-vo moskovskogo universiteta, 1966. Survey of the Red troops' campaigns against Denikin, set against the sociopolitical background and stressing the role of Ukrainian partisans.

-----------, comp. Protiv Denikina: Sbornik vospominanii [Against Denikin: collection of memoirs]. Moscow: Voen. izd-vo, 1969. The Bolsheviks and partisans against the Denikin forces in South Russia and in Ukraine.

Alekseev, V. N., ed. Boguchartsy: K istorii 40-i Bogucharskoi divizii v obrabotke M. Borisova [Boguchartsy: about the history of the 40th Boguchar Division prepared by M. Borisov] . Voronezh: Istpartotdel Voronezhskogo Obkoma VKP (b), 1935.

Al'mendingen, G. "K pis'mu v redaktsiiu rotmistra Labinskago" [About a letter to the editor captain Labinskii]. PER, no. 106 (1960), pp. 13-15.

Al'mendinger, V. Simferopol'skii Ofitserskii polk, 1918-1920: Stra-nitsa k istorii Belogo Dvizheniia na luge Rossii [Simferopol Officers Regiment, 1918-1920: a page about the history of the White movement in South Russia]. Los Angeles, California, 1962. A valuable survey of the history of the Simferopol Officers' Regiment, its campaigns against the Ukrainian troops and Makhno in the second half of 1919, and its vicissitudes until August 1920; based on K. A. Stol'nikov's and the author's work.

Alsberg, Henry G. "The Situation in the Ukraine." The Nation 109 (1919): 569-70.

Anan'ev, Konstantin. V boiakh za Perekop [In the fight for Perekop]. Moscow: Gos. voen. izd-vo, 1938.

Antanta i Vrangel: Sbornik statei [Entente and Wrangel: collection of articles]. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo, 1923. Relations between Wrangel and the Entente, Wrangel's economic policies, the underground movement and the Tatar question in 1920, from the Bolshevik point of view.

"Armiia Zelenoho i Sichovi Stril'tsi" [The army of Zelenyi and the Sich Riflemen]. Strilets'ka dumka, no. 54 (Staronkonstantyniv, October 1919).

Arshinov, P. "Anarkhizm i makhnovshchina: Otvet na voprosy i vozra-zheniia" [Anarchism and the Makhno movement: answer to questions and objections]. AV, no. 2 (1923), pp. 27-37. An Anarchist leader associated with Makhno describes the Makhno movement and its relation to the Anarchists. Also in VO, nos. 28-34 (192-).

-----------. "Anarkhizm i sindikalizm" [Anarchism and syndicalism]. DT, no. 9 (1926), pp. 6-9.

-----------. "Chego dobivaiutsia povstantsy-Makhnovtsy" [What the partisans-Makhnomen want to achieve]. PS, no. 1 (May 17, 1919), pp. 1-2; no. 2 (May 24, 1919), pp. 2-4. A response to the Bolshevik denunciation of the Makhno movement.

-----------. Dva pobega: Iz vospominanii anarkhista 1906-9 gg. [Two escapes: from memoirs of an anarchist 1906-9]. DT, 1929. Reminiscences of a Russian Anarchist's early years in the movement. '

-----------. Geschichte der Machno-Bewegung, 1918-1921. Berlin: "Der freie Arbeiter" (R. Oestreich), 1923.

-----------. Geschiedenis der Machno-beweging, 1918-1921. Amsterdam: De Boemerang, 1935.

-----------. History of the Makhnovist Movement, 1918-1921. Detroit: Black & Red, 1974.

----------. Istoriia makhnovskogo dvizheniia, 1918-1921 gg. [A history of the Makhno movement, 1918-1921]. Berlin: Izd. "Gruppy russkikh anarkhistov v Germanii," 1923. A noncomprehensive, semiofficial history of the Makhno movement, with emphasis on the military aspect, by a Russian Anarchist who was in charge of propaganda and editor of publications for Makhno. It provides a counterbalance to the Bolshevik author M. Kubanin (Makhnovshchina. Leningrad, 1927).

---------. "Makhnovshchina i ee vchorashnie soiuzniki-Bol'sheviki: N. Makhno Otvet na knigu M. Kubanina 'Makhnovshchina'" [The Makhno movement and its previous allies-the Bolsheviks: Makh-no's answer to the book of M. Kubanin Makhnovshchina]. DT, nos. 41-42 (1928), pp. 20-22. Author's criticism of Kubanin's work and Makhno's booklet Makhnovshchina i ee vchorashnie soiuzniki. It supplements Makhno's booklet by stressing the role of foreign anarchists in the Makhno movement.

-----------. "Na zlobu dnia: Eshche o Grigor'eve, Bolshevizm, Anarchizm, Pis'mo Shkuro" [On the evil of the day: more about Hryhor'iv, bolshevism, anarchism, a letter from Shkuro]. PS, no. 3 (May 31, 1919), pp. 2-3. A response to Bolshevik speculations about Makhno-Hryhor'iiv relations and a letter of appeal from General Shkuro to Makhno to join the Volunteer Army.

-----------. "Opravdanie Nestora Makhno" [Acquittal of Nestor Makhno]. AV, nos. 5-6 (November-December, 1923), p. 25. Makhno's release from the prison in Warsaw.

-----------. "Povstanchestvo i Krasnaia armii" [The partisan movement and the Red Army]. Ekaterinoslavskii Nabat, no. 1 (January 7, 1920), pp. 1-2.

-----------. "Spory vogrug krest'ianstva" [Disputes about the peasantry]. DT, no. 17 (October 1926), pp. 1-3.

-----------. Storia del movimento machnovista, 1918-1921. Naples, 1954.

Avenarius, M. "Povorot v obshchestvennom mnenii k Makhno" [Change of society's opinion about Makhno]. VO, no. - (19-), pp. 19-20.

Averin. "Do borot'by proty hryhor'ievshchyny ta denikinshchyny za Dnipropetrovs'ke" [About the struggle against the Hryhor'iv and Denikin movements for Dnipropetrovs'ke]. LR, no. 3 (48) (1931), pp. 115-29. Political conditions in Katerynoslav and the Bolshevik struggle against Hryhor'iv, Makhno, and Denikin during May-June, 1919.

Avrich, Paul. "The Anarchists in the Russian Revolution." The Russian Review 26, no. 4 (October 1967): 341-60.

-----------. The Russian Anarchists. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1967. A well-documented, sympathetic survey of the Russian Anarchist movement from its origins through the Revolution including a survey of Makhno movement (pp. 209-22).

Bachyns'kyi, IUUian. Bol'shevyts'ka revoliutsiia i Ukraintsi: Krytychm zamitky [The Bolshevik Revolution and Ukrainians: critical works] Berlin, 1928.

Baier, Mykola. Prychyny agrarnoi revoliutsii na Ukraini i shliakhy do rozviazky agrarnoi spravy [The causes of agrarian revolution in Ukraine and the ways to the solution of the agrarian problem]. Kiev: Vyd-vo UNR Svoboda i pravo, 1920.

Baron, A. "Pravda o Makhno" [The truth about Makhno]. Odesskii Nabat, no. 7 (June 16, 1919). A general account of the Makhno movement by an Anarchist.

Baumgart, Winfried. "Ludendorff and das Auswartige Amt zum Bezetzung der Krim 1918." Jahrbiicher fiir Geschichte Osteuropas (Munich) 14, no. 4 (1966): 429-538.

Belash, V. "Makhnovets o rabochem stroitel'stve" [Makhnoman about the workers' construction]. PS, no. 43 (June 5, 1920), pp. 2-3. An account claiming that the peasants were supporting Makhno's partisans.

Belopolski, IU. "Epizod iz epokhi Grigor'evshchiny" [An episode from the Hryhor'iv movement]. Kandal-nyi zvon (Odessa), no. 8 (1927), pp. 84-91.

Berland, Pierre [Luciani, Georges]. "Makhno." Le Temps, Paris, August 28, 1934. An objective account about Makhno movement by the Moscow correspondent of Le Temps who maintains that it was Makhno who defeated Denikin.

Bezruchko. "Grupa S. S. v boiakh na pidstupakh do Kamiantsia- Podil'skoho: Bii pid Smotrychem 22 lypnia 1919 roku" [A group of S. S. in battles on the approach to Kamianets'-Podil'skyi: fighting at Smotrych on July 22, 1919]. KCK 1927, pp. 114-24.

Bilan, IU. IA. Heroichna borot'ba trudiashchykh Ukrainy proty vnutrishn'ioi kontrrevoliutsii ta inozemnykh interventiv u 1918-1920 robakh [Heroic struggle of the workers of Ukraine against domestic counterrevolution and foreign intervention in 1918- 1920]. Kiev, 1957.

Bitenbinder, A. "Ekivoki voennoi strategii" [Equivoque about military strategy]. NRS, December 18, 1968, pp. 2-3.

Bjorkman, Edwin, ed. Ukraine's Claim to Freedom: An Appeal for Justice on Behalf of Thirty-five Millions. New York: The Ukrainian National Association and the Ruthenian National Union, 1915. Twelve articles by prominent historians and politicians, including Hrushevs'kyi, on the Ukrainian question in the Austria-Hungarian and Russian Empires.

Boi. "Ukrains'ki Sichovi Stril'tsi (U.S.S.) i Sichovi Stril'tsi (S.S.)" [Ukrainian Sich Riflemen (U.S.S.) and Sich Riflemen (S.S.)]. KCK 1923, pp. 68-78.

Boldyr, A. V. "V Krymu vo vremia gen. Slashcheva i Vrangelia 1920 g.: Zapiski" [In the Crimea during the period of General Slashchev and General Wrangel: memoirs]. BY, no. 2 (30) (1925), pp. 195-229.

Bol'shaia sovetskaia entsiklopediia. 1st ed. 65 vols. Moscow, 1926-49.

Bondar, A. "Kto takoi Grigor'ev?" [Who is Hryhor'iv?]. PS, no. 3 (1919), pp. 3-4. A biographical account of Hryhor'iv, his role during the Revolution, and of his assassination.

Borisenko, I. Sovetskie respubliki na Severnom Kavkaze v 1918 godu: Kratkaia istoriia respublik [Soviet republics in the North Caucasus in 1918: a short history of the republic]. Edited by N. Likhnitskii. Rostov: Severnyi Kavkaz, 1930. An informative study of the Bolshevik struggle for power in the North Caucasus, set against the socioeconomic, political, and military background.

Borman, Arkadii. "Moi otvet A. Karmazinu" [My answer to A. Karma-zin]. NRS, February 22, 1969.

-----------. "Strannaia sud'ba Makhno" [The strange fate of Makhno]. NRS, February 2, 1969, p. 4.

Borowsky, Peter. Deutsche Ukrainepolitik 1918: Unter besonderer Beriicks. d. Wirtschaftsfragen. Liibeck: Matthiesen, 1970.

Borys, Jurij. The Russian Communist Party and the Sovietization of Ukraine: A Study of the Communist Doctrine of the Self-Deter-mination of Nations. Stockholm, 1960. A competent, well-documented analysis of Bolshevik policies in Ukraine, with emphasis on the doctrine of self-determination of nations as applied in Ukraine up to its Russification.

Bosh, Evgeniia. God bor'by: Bor'ba za vlast na Ukraine s aprelia 1917 g. do nemetskoi okkupatsii [The year of struggle: the struggle for power in Ukraine from April 1917 to German occupation]. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo, 1925. A detailed account of Bolshevik activities in Ukraine prior to German occupation, including the struggle of the Ukrainian elements within the RSDRP(b) for an independent Ukraine.

----------. National'noe pravitel'stvo i sovetskaia vlast' na Ukraine [National government and Soviet power in Ukraine]. Moscow: Izd-vo Kommunist, 1919. An account by a Russian Communist of the Bolshevik invasion and underground activities in Ukraine during the Ukrainian Revolution from 1917 to the first half of 1918.

Bradley, John. Allied Intervention in Russia. New York: Basic Books, 1968.

Brazhnev, E. "Partizanshchina" [The partisan movement]. Novyi mtr (Moscow), no. 7 (1925), pp. 61-84.

Bredis, IE. "Partiine pidpillia v Odesi za denikinshchyny: Narys" [Party underground in Odessa during the Denikin movement: a sketch] LR, nos. 3-4 (42-43) (1930), pp. 110-37.

Brinkley, George A. The Volunteer Army and the Allied Intervention in South Russia, 1917-1921: A Study in the Politics and Diplomacy of the Russian Civil War. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1966. A well-documented analysis of the Volunteer Army, the Allied intervention in South Ukraine, and their interrelations.

Bronshtein, V. "Komitety bednoty v RSFS" [The Committee of the Poor in RSFS]. IM 5 (69) (1938): 71-96.

Buguraev, Maksim. "Denikin o Makhno" [Denikin on Makhno]. NRS, February 21, 1969. Excerpts from Denikin's Ocherki russkoi smuty.

Buiski, A. Bor'ba za Krym i rargrom Vrangelia [The struggle for Crimea and defeat of Wrangel]. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo, 1928.

----------. Krasnaia Armiia na vnutrennem fronte: Bor'ba s belogvar-

deiskimi vostanniami, povstanchestvom i banditizmom [The Red Army in the domestic front: the struggle against the White insurrections, partisans, and banditry]. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo, 1929.

Bulavenko. "Borot'ba na Kubani v druhii polovyni 1918 r." [Struggle in the Kuban during the second half of 1918]. RN, nos. 1-2 (72- 73) (1934).

-----------. "Kuban' i 'moskovs'kyi shliakh'" [The Kuban and the Moscow road]. RN, nos. 7-8 (78-79) (1934), pp. 187-97.

-----------. "Kuban' na perelomi" [The Kuban at the turning point]. RN, nos. 3-4 (74-75) (1934), pp. 86-95.

-----------. "Kuban' u pershii polovyni 1919 r." [The Kuban during the first half of 1919]. RN, nos. 5-6 (76-77) (1934), pp. 133-42.

-----------. "Vyzvolennia Kubani z pid bol'shevyts'koi vlady v 1918 r." [Liberation of the Kuban from Bolshevik authority in 1918]. RN, nos. 11-12 (70-71) (1933), pp. 265-75.

Burdzhalov, E. N. Vtoraia russkaia revoliutsiia: Moskva, front, periferiia [The second Russian Revolution: Moscow, front, periphery]. Moscow: "Nauka," 1971.

Butyrets. "Makhno i bol'sheviki" [Makhno and the Bolsheviks] . Nabat (Kharkov), no. 21 (June 30, 1919), pp. 2-3.

Bzhes'kyi, Roman. Narysy z istorii ukrains'kykh vyzvol' nykh zmahan', 1917-1922 rr.: "Pro shcho istoriia movchyt" [Sketches from the history of Ukrainian liberation struggle, 1917-1922]. 2 vols. Detroit, 1961. A detailed survey dealing with the Ukrainian Revolution.

Chabanivs'kyi, V. "Vstup ukrains'kykh viis'k do Kyiva 31 serpnia 1919 roku" [Entry of the Ukrainian troops to Kiev on August 31, 1919]. Za Derzhavnist' (Warsaw) 8 (1938): 152-54.

Chamberlin, William Henry. The Russian Revolution, 1917-1921. 2 vols. New York: The Universal Library, 1965. A well-documented, useful study of the Russian Civil War with emphasis upon the political and military aspects, by an American correspondent who visited Russia and Ukraine in the 1920s and 1930s.

Chaplenko, Vasyl'. "Ukraintsi": Povist' [Ukrainians: a novel]. A novel on the Makhno movement based on documentary material.

Chernomordik, S. [Larionov, P.]. Makhno i makhnovshchina: Anar-khisty za "rabotoi" [Makhno and the Makhno movement: the anarchists at work]. Moscow: Izd-vo Politkat., 1933. A survey of the Makhno movement, seen as counterrevolutionary.

Chernov, Victor. The Great Russian Revolution. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1936. An authoritative history of the Russian Revolution by a Socialist Revolutionary and the minister of agriculture in the Kerensky government; the English version of the first part of a projected four-volume work.

Chernova, R. [Roza Shcherbataia] . "Podgotovka vooruzhennogo vostaniia na Ukraine v 1918-1919 godu" [Preparation of armed uprising in Ukraine in 1918-1919]. Voennyi vestnik (Moscow), no. 7 (1928), pp. 40-43.

Chetyrkin, A. "Krest'ianstvo IUga Rossii pod vlastiiu Denikina: Agrar-naia politika denikinshchyny" [Peasantry of South Russia under the Denikin regime: agrarian policy of the Denikin movement]. IM5 (93) (1941): 61-73.

Chornohor, Bohdan. "Dukh stepiv-chy otamanshchyna" [The spirit of the steppes-or 'otamanshchyna']. LCK, no. 1 (1937), pp. 16-18.

Chornota. "Ostanni zakhidn'o-ukrains'kyi chastyny na Velykii Ukraini" [The last West Ukrainian units in Great Ukraine]. LCK, no. 9 (1932), pp. 14-16.

-----------. "Reid otamana Zalizniaka: Khyriv, Horodyshche, Svynarka, Zhashkiv, Volodarka-z tsykliu: Chotyry povstans'ki reidy i ikh likvidatsiia" [The raid of Otaman Zalizniak: Khyriv, Horodyshche, Svynarka, Zhashkiv, Volodarka-from the series: four partisan raids and their liquidation]. LCK, no. 12 (1932), pp. 2-3. An account of the partisans' campaign against the Red troops in 1919, stressing their tactics and contemporary political conditions.

Chykalenko, Levko. "Pomylka Tsentral'noi Rady" [A mistake of the Central Rada]. LHKD 1936, pp. 96-100.

Chyz, Yaroslav J. "The Ukrainian Peasant in Revolt." Ukrainian Life (Scranton, Pa.) 2, no. 10 (October 1941): 8-10, 15.

Crisp, Olga. "Some Problems of French Investment in Russian Joint-Stock Companies, 1894-1914." Slavonic and East European Review 35 (1956-57): 223-40.

Czubatyi, Nicholas. "The Modern Ukrainian Nationalist Movement." Journal of Central European Affairs 4 (1944): 281-305.

-----------. "The national revolution in Ukraine, 1917-1919." The Ukrainian Quarterly, vol. 1 (October 1944).

Dashkevych, Roman. Artyleriia Sichovykh Stril'tsiv u borot'bi za zoloti kyivs'ki vorota [Artillery of the Sich Riflemen in the struggle for the golden gate of Kyiv]. New York: "Chervona Kalyna," 1965.

Degot', V. "Menshevizm i belogvardeish china vo vremia grazhdanskoi voiny v Odesse" [Menshevism and the White Guard movement during the period of the Civil War in Odessa]. Katorga i ssyslka (Moscow), no. 7 (80) (1931), pp. 26-39. Attempt by Denikin troops jointly with the German colonists to control Odessa in the summer of 1918.

Denikin, A. I. "Okrainnyi vopros" [The Ukrainian question]. Pos-liedniia novosti. Paris, n.d.

Diakiv, IAromir. "Strategichne polozhennia UHA po perekhodi cherez Zbruch litom 1919 r." [Strategic conditions of the UHA after crossing the Zbruch in the summer of 1919]. Skytalets', no. 6 (18) (October 15, 1923), pp. 13-16. A valuable description of the Ukrainian Galician Army in the summer of 1919.

Dobrotvors'kyi, Osyp. "Lystopad 1921 roku na Velykii Ukraini: Korotkyi narys pov.-partizans'koho rukhu pid komandoiu hen. IUrka Tiutiunyka" [November 1921 in Great Ukraine: a brief sketch of partisan movement under the command of General IUrii Tiutiunyk]. KCK 1923, pp. 142-50.

Dobrynin, V. Bor'ba s bol'shevizmom na iugie Rossii: Uchastie v bor'bie donskogo kazadhestva, fevral' 1917-mar't 1920: Ocherk [The struggle against bolshevism in South Russia: participation in the struggle of the Don Cossacks, February 1917-March 1920: essay]. Prague: Slavianskoe izd-vo, 1921. A survey of the campaign of the Don Cossacks against the Red forces, by the chief of the intelligence service and operational department of the Don Army.

Dolenga, Sviatoslav. Skoropadshchyna [The Skoropads'kyi movement]. Warsaw: M. Kunyts'kyi, 1934. An indictment of Hetman Skoro-pads'kyi's regime consisting largely of quotations from other sources to prove the author's point.

Dolin, E. Z. [Moravskii]. V vikhri revoliutsii [In the vortex of the Revolution]. Detroit: "Drug," 1954.

Doroshenko, Dmytro. "Mykhailo Dragomanov and the Ukrainian National Movement." The Slavonic and East European Review 16, no. 48 (1938): 654-66. A valuable account of Drahomanov's scholarly and political activities, set against the background of the contemporary sociopolitical conditions.

-----------. Z istorii ukrains'koi politychnoi dumky za chasiv svitovoi

viiny [From the history of Ukrainian political thought during the World War]. Prague, 1936.

Doroshenko, Volodymyr. "Politychnyi rozvytok Naddniprians'koi Ukrainy" [Political development in the Dnieper Ukraine]. KD 1935, pp. 50-66.

Dotsenko, Oleksander. "Reid otamana Sahaidachnoho: Kholodyni IAr-Kherson-z tsykliu: Chotyry povstanski reidy i ikh likvidatsiia" [The raid of Otaman Sahaidachnyi: Kholodnyi IAr-Kherson-from the series: four partisan raids and their liquidation]. LCK, no. 11 (1932), pp. 4-5. Valuable account of the partisans' struggle against the Bolsheviks in 1919, stressing their tactics and contemporary political conditions.

Dubinin. "Meshchanskaia trusost'" [Petty bourgeois cowardice]. DT, no. 28 (1927), pp. 19-20. The author's defense of Makhno against Bolshevik criticism.

Dubrovskii, S. "Grigor'evshchina" [The Hryhor'iv movement]. VR 4 (1928): 86-98; 5:90-100.

-----------. "Likvidatsiia grigor'evshchiny, 1919 g." [The liquidation of

the Hryhor'iv movement in 1919]. VIZ, no. 2 (1941), pp. 28-41. A regimental political commissar's account of the Red Army's struggle against Hryhor'iv's uprising in May 1919 from the Bolsheviks' point of view.

Dubrovs'kyi, Vasyl'. Bat'ko Nestor Makhno-ukrains'kyi natsional'nyi heroi [Father Nestor Makhno-Ukrainian national hero]. A well-documented account, mainly from Soviet sources, of the Makhno movement, praising the partisans for their excellent tactics and bravery in fighting Russian Bolshevik and anti-Bolshevik forces. It is part of the author's unpublished work "Peoples of the URSR written in 1943.

Dumin, Osyp. Istoriia Liegionu Ukrains'kykh Sichovykh Striltsiv, 1914-1918 [History of the Legion of Sich Riflemen, 1914-1918]. Lvov: "Chervona kalyna," 1936. An authoritative history of the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen, 1914-18, by one of its officers.

-----------. Narys istorii ukrains'ko-pols'koi viiny, 1918-1919 [Sketch of the history of the Ukrainian-Polish war, 1918-1919]. New York: Oko, 1966. A survey, covering as well the Entente policy in the conflict.

Dushnyk, Walter. "The Kerensky Provisional Government and the Ukrainian Central Rada." The Ukrainian Quarterly 23, no. 2 (1967): 109-29.

-----------. "Russia and the Ukrainian National Revolution." The Ukrainian Quarterly 2 (1946): 363-75.

Dziabenko. "Pershyi ukrains'kyi viis'kovyi z'izd" [The First Ukrainian Military Congress]. Ukrains'kyi kombatant (Munich), no. 2 (1954), pp. 9-13.

E., M. "Nestor Makhno, 1889-1934." Kaliendar-al'manakh Ukrain-s'koho holosu na rik 1968, p. 107.

Efimov, N. A. "Deistviia protiv Makhno s ianvaria 1920 g. po ianvar' 1921 g." [Activities against Makhno from January 1920 to January 1921]. Sbornik trudov Voenno-nauchnogo obshchestva (Moscow) 1 (192-): 192-222. A detailed account of the Bolshevik campaign against Makhno from early 1920 to early 1921, stressing the attempt of the Red troops to destroy the Makhno detachments in the Crimea and the Huliai-Pole region in late 1920.

----------. Deistviia 2-oi Konnoi armii v 1920 godu [Activities of the 2nd

Cavalry Army in 1920]. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo, otdel voen. lit-ry, 1928(?).

Egorov, A. I. Razgrom Denikina 1919 [Defeat of Denikin, 1919]. Moscow: Gos. voen. izd-vo, 1931. A valuable detailed study, based on the author's personal accounts, archival material, and secondary sources, by the commander of the Red forces of the Southern Front; the strategic plans and the Bolshevik campaign of 1919 against Denikin are set against the socioeconomic, political, and military background of the two adversaries.

Eideman, R. Borba s kulatskim povstanchestvom i banditizmom [The struggle against the kulak partisans and banditry]. Kharkov, 1921.

---------. Ochagi atamanshchiny i banditizma [Center of the otaman movement and banditry]. Kharkov, 1921.

Eideman, R., and N. Kakurin. Hromadians'ka viina na Ukraini [The Civil War in Ukraine]. Kharkov: Derzh. Vyd-vo Ukrainy, 1928. A general survey, from the Bolshevik point of view, of the Soviet Russian struggle for power in Ukraine, emphasizing the campaigns against Makhno and other partisan groups.

Erde, D. [Raikhshtein]. "Politychna prohrama anarkho-makhnovshchiny" [Political program of the Anarchist-Makhno movement]. LR.no. 1 (40) (1930), pp. 41-63; no. 2 (41), pp. 28-49. A Soviet view of the political program of the Makhno movement and Makhno's relations with the Russian Anarchists, the Bolsheviks, and other partisan groups.

-----------. Revoliutsiia na Ukraine: Ot Kerenshchiny do nemetskoi okkupatsii [The Revolution in Ukraine: from the Kerensky movement to the German occupation]. Kharkov: Izd. Proletarii, 1927. A Bolshevik writer's account of the Ukrainian Revolution from February 1917 to April 1918, stressing the growth of the Bolshevik influence in Ukraine.

Esaulov. "Nalet Makhno na Berdiansk" [Makhno's raid on Berdiansk]. LR, no. 3 (1924), pp. 82-86.

Esbakh, E. "Poslednie dni makhnovshchiny na Ukraine" [The last days of the Makhno movement in Ukraine]. VR 12 (1926): 40-50. A detailed account based on documentary material about the Bolsheviks' struggle against Makhno from January to August, 1921.

Eudin, Xenia Joukoff. "The German Occupation of the Ukraine in 1918: A Documentary Account." Russian Review 1 (1941): 90-105. German policy in Ukraine during the summer of 1918, consisting largely of documentary quotations.

-----------. "Soviet National Minority Policies, 1918-1921." The Slavonic and East European Review 21, no. 2 (1943): 31-55.

Fedenko, Panas. "1917 rik v istorii Ukrainy" [The year 1917 in Ukrainian history]. LHKD 1937, pp. 52-62.

Filonenko, IE. "Volyns'ki povstantsi v krivavykh dniakh 1920-24 rokiv" [Volynian partisans in the bloody days of 1920-1924]. Za Derzhavnist' (Warsaw) 8 (1938): 215-35.

Fischer, Louis. The Life of Lenin. New York: Harper & Row, 1964.

-----------. The Soviets in the World Affairs: A History of the Relations between the Soviet Union and the Rest of the World, 1917-1929. 2 vols. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1951. A survey of Soviet foreign policy by an American journalist who gained access to confidential information and private official documents owing to his friendly relations with Soviet officials.

Footman, David. Civil War in Russia. London: Faber and Faber, 1961. A brief essay by a former British diplomat on the six most important developments of the Civil War, including the Makhno movement.

-----------. "Nestor Makhno." St. Antony's Papers, no. 6; Soviet Affairs, no. 2, pp. 77-127. A valuable and objective survey of the Makhno movement based on limited sources. It also appears in the author's Civil War in Russia (pp. 245-302).

-----------. "Nestor Makhno and the Russian Civil War." History Today 6 (1956): 811-20.

Frants, G. "Evakuatsiia germanskimi voiskami Ukrainy: Zima 1918- 1919 gg." [Evacuation of the German troops from Ukraine: winter 1918-1919]. Istorik i sovremennik (Berlin) 2 (1922): 262-69. German-Ukrainian negotiations concerning the German evacuation, including Hryhor'iv's ultimatum to the German garrison in Mykolaiv.

Furer, Veniamin. Borot'ba za zhovten'na seli [The struggle in October for the village]. Kharkov, 1928.

G., D. "Dve knigi o Makhno" [Two books about Makhno]. PRO, nos. 76-77 (1936), p. 28.

-----------. "Novaia kniga N. Makhno" [A new book about N. Makhno]. PRO, nos. 76-77 (1936), pp. 28-29.

Gibbons, Herbert Adams. "The Ukraine and the Balance of Power." The Century Magazine 102, no. 3 (1921): 463-71.

Goldelman, Saloman. Jewish National Autonomy in Ukraine, 1917- 1920. Chicago: Ukrainian Research and Information Institute, 1968. An.objective study based on the author's personal accounts, documents, and secondary sources by a prominent scholar and Ukrainian Jewish politician.

Gol'del'man, Solomon I. Zhydivs'ka natsional'na avtonomiia v Ukraini, 1917-1920 [Jewish national autonomy in Ukraine, 1917-1920]. Munich: "Dniprova khvylia," 1967.

Golovin, Nikolai Nikolaevich. Rossiskaia kontr'-revoliutsiia v 1917- 1918 gg. [Russian counterrevolution of 1917-1918]. 5 vols. Tallin: "Libris," 1937.

Golubev, A. Grazhdanskaia voina, 1918-1920 gg. [The Civil War, 1918-1920]. Moscow: Molodaia gvardiia, 1932. Survey of the Russian Civil War, including the Bolshevik-Ukrainian and Bolshevik-Polish wars, emphasizing the military aspect.

-----------, ed. Perekop i Chongar: Sbornik statei i materialov [Perekop and Chongar: collection of articles and materials]. Moscow: Gos. voen. izd-vo, 1933.

"Goneniia na anarkhizm" [Persecutions of anarchism]. AV, no. 1 (July 1923).

Gonta, Dmytro. "Na pantsyrnyku 'Khortytsia'" [On the armored train 'Khortytisa']. IKCK 1932, pp. 71-86.

-----------. "Otamanshchyna." Kyiv (Philadelphia), no. 1 (1957), pp. 107-15; no. 3, pp. 159-62; no. 4, pp. 197-200; no. 5, pp. 262-67.

Gorelik, Anatolii. Anarkhisty v rossiiskoi reoliutsii. [The anarchists in the Russian Revolution]. Buenos Aires: Rabochaia izd-ia gruppa v Resp. Argentine, 1922.

------------. Goneniia na anarkhizm v Sovetskoi Rossii [Persecution of anarchism in Soviet Russia]. Berlin: Izd-vo Gruppy russkikh anar-khistov v Germanii, 1922. Brief accounts by various authors of Anarchist groups in Russia and Ukraine, their persecution by the Bolshevik regime in 1918-22, and biographical sketches of leading Anarchists and Makhno followers.

Gorev, B. I. [Goldman, B. I.]. " 'Anarkhizm podpol'ia' i makhnov-shchina" [The "anarchism of the underground" and the Makhno movement] . In Anarkhizm v Rossii: Ot Bakunina do Makhno, pp. 126-39. Moscow: Molodaia gvardiia, 1930. A one-sided survey of the Makhno movement, stressing its relations with the Bolsheviks and Anarchists; includes numerous quotations to prove the author's point. The work is based largely on Kubanin's Makhnov-shchina.

Gorlov, V. P. Geroicheskii pokhod: Voenno-istoricheskii ocherk o geroicheskom boevom puti Tamanskoi armii [Heroic march: military-historical description about the heroic military way of the Taman army]. Moscow: Voen. izd-vo, 1967. The Red troops' campaign against Denikin in the Kuban and Caucasus from August 1918 to February 1919.

Gorodestkii, E. Otechestvennaia voina protiv germanskikh okkupantov na Ukraine v 1918 g. [Patriotic war against the German invaders in Ukraine in 1918]. Moscow, 1941.

Gospodyn, Andrii. "Z povstanchoi borot'by" [From the partisans' struggle]. Ukrains'ka strilets'ka hromada v Kanadi 1928-1938, pp. 146-47. Saskatoon: Nakl. Ukrains'koi strilets'koi hromady v Kanadi, 1938.

Grazhdanskaia voina, 1918-1921 [The Civil War, 1918-1921]. Edited by A. S. Bubnov, S. S. Kamenev, and R. P. Eideman. 3 vols. Moscow: "Voennyi vestnik," 1928-30. A valuable work by prominent Bolshevik military leaders, later purged; includes Bolshevik and German interventions in Ukraine and the Polish-Soviet war in 1920. Much space is devoted to organizational, strategic, political, and economic aspects of the Red Army, presenting views and data omitted from later Soviet accounts.

Guerin, Daniel. Anarchism: From Theory to Practice. Introduction by Noam Chomsky. Translated by Mary Klopper. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1970. A summary of basic anarchist beliefs, taken mainly from Proudhon and Bakunin, and a survey of anarchist participation in the workers' movement from the First International to the Spanish Civil War, with some discussion of the Makhno movement.

Gukovskii, A. I. Frantsuskaia interventsiia na iuge Rossii, 1918-1919 gg. [The French intervention in the south of Russia, 1918-1919]. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo, 1928. A well-documented Soviet study of the French intervention in South Ukraine, the interrelation of French and anti-Bolshevik groups and Bolshevik underground activities in Odessa.

-------. "Innostrannaia interventsiia na Ukraine v 1917-1919 godakh" [The foreign intervention in Ukraine]. IM 1 (71) (1939): 76-100.

Gusev, S. I. Grazhdanskaia voina i Krasnaia Armiia: Sbornik statci [The Civil War and the Red Army: collection of articles]. Moscow: Voen. izd-vo, 1958. A collection of articles written between 1918 and 1925 about the Civil War, with emphasis upon the organization and development of the Red Army and army politics.

Gutman, M. "Pod vlast'iu anarkhistov: Ekaterinoslav v 1919 godu" [Under the regime of the anarchists: Katerynoslav in 1919]. Russkoe proshloe (Petrograd), no. 5 (1923), pp. 61-68. The struggle between the Ukrainian troops, the Bolsheviks, Makhno, and Denikin for the control of Katerynoslav in 1919.

Halahan, Mykola. "Bohdanivs'kyi polk" [The Bohdan regiment]. LCK, no. 6 (1937), pp. 3-5.

Hermaize, O. Narysy z istorii revoliutsiinoho rukhu na Ukraini [Sketches from the history of the revolutionary movement in Ukraine]. 2 vols. Kiev, 1926. A well-documented, scholarly work, written from the Marxist point of view, dealing with the revolutionary movement in Ukraine at the turn of the twentieth century, stressing the socioeconomic aspects.

Hirniak, Nykofor. Polk. VasyV Vyshyvanyi [Colonel Vasyl' Vyshy-vanyi]. Winnipeg: M. Mykytiuk, 1956. Biographical survey of Archduke W. F. Hapsburg-Lotharingen and his relations with Ukraine during World War I.

Hnoiovyi, Ivan. "Chy 'Bat'ko' Nestor Makhno-ukr. natsional'nyi heroi?" [Was "Father" Nestor Makhno a Ukrainian national hero?]. TR, no. 38 (1966), pp. 9-14. A sketchy, critical account about the Makhno movement based partly on the author's experience.

Holubnychyi, V. "Makhno i makhnivshchyna" [Makhno and the Makhno movement]. Entsyklopediia ukrainoznavstva: Slovnykova chastyna, 4: 1493-94. Munich: "Molode zhyttia," 1962.

Hrushevs'kyi, Mykhailo. "V ohni i buri" [ In the fire and storm]. LHKD 1936, pp. 78-80.

-----------. Vybrani pratsi: Vydano z nahody 25-richchia z dnia ioho smerty 1934-1959 [Selected works: published on the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of his death, 1934-1959]. New York: Nakl. Holovnoi upravy OURDP v SSh A, 1960. A selection of the author's political writings, mainly from the years 1917-1924, reflecting basic ideas and principles of Ukrainian internal and foreign policies.

Hurwicz, Elias. Staatsmanner und Abenteurer: Russische Portraits von Witte bis Trotzki, 1891-1925. Leipzig: C. L. Hirschfeld, 1925.

IAkovlev, E. Kak i dlia chego organizuiutsia komitety nezamozhnikh selian, ikh prava i obiazannosti [How and why the Committee of Peasants is organized, their rights and obligations]. Kharkov: IUridichesk. izd-vo Narkom'iusta USSR, 1925.

IAkovlev, IA. [Epstein]. "Makhnovshchina i anarkhizm: K itogam makhnovshchiny" [The Makhno movement and anarchism: about the results of the Makhno movement]. Krasnaia nov (Moscow), no. 2 (1921), pp. 243-57. A Communist's account of the collaboration between the "Nabat" Anarchists and Makhno and their struggle against the Bolsheviks and Denikin.

-----------. "Nasha politika na Ukraine i ukrainskii seredniak" [Our policy in Ukraine and the Ukrainian middle (peasant)]. Ezhenedel'nik pravdy, no. 12 (1919), pp. 13-19. The Bolshevik agricultural policy in Ukraine in 1920.

-----------. "Perspektivy krestian'skogo dvizheniia na denikinskoi Ukraine" [Perspectives of the peasant movement in Ukraine under the Denikin occupation]. Ezhenedel'nik pravdy, no. 11 (1919), pp. 16-18.

-----------. Russkii anarkhizm v velikoi russkoi revoliutsii [Russian anarchism in the great Russian Revolution] . Moscow: Gos. izd-vo, 1921. One-sided survey of Russian anarchism, including the Makhno movement, from spring 1918 through 1921.

IAkovliv, Andrii. "Beresteis'kii dohovir i sprava avtonomii Skhidnoi Halychyny: Uryvok spomyniv z r. 1918" [The Brest-Litovsk Treaty and the question of autonomy in East Galicia: excerpt from memoirs of 1918]. KD 1937, pp. 14-21.

lAkushkin, E. E. Angliiskaia interventsiia v 1918-1920 gg. [English intervention in 1918-1920] . Moscow: Gos. izd-vo, 1928.

-----------. Frantsuzsakaia interventsiia na iuge, 1918-1919 gg. [French intervention in the South, 1918-1919]. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo, 1929. A one-sided survey of the French intervention in South Ukraine.

IAroslavskii, Emelian. History of Anarchism in Russia. New York: International Publishers, 1937. A survey of anarchism in Russia, including the Makhno movement, written from the Bolshevik point of view.

IAvors'kyi, M. Narysy z istorii revoliutsiinoi borot'by na Ukraini [Sketches from the history of revolutionary struggle in Ukraine]. Kharkov: Derzh. Vyd-vo Ukrainy, 1927.

Ignat, S. Pod prikrytiem "klassovosti"-Anarkho-sindikalistskii uklon v ukrains'kom komsomole, 1920-1921: Istoriia iunosheskogo dvi-zheniia [Under the cover of "class character"-Anarcho-Syndicalist deviation in Ukrainian Komsomol, 1920-1921: a history of the youth movement]. Moscow: Izd-vo Molodaia gvardiia, 1931.

Ihnatov, N. "Chervonoarmiis'kyi zahin u borot'bi za khlib" [A Red Guard unit in the struggle for bread]. LR, nos. 1-2 (1933), pp. 175-87.

Istoriia grazhdanskoi voiny v SSSR [The history of the Civil War in SSSR]. 5 vols. Edited by M. Gorkii. Moscow, 1935-60. Official Bolshevik history of the Civil War.

Istoriia ukrains'koho viis'ka [The history of Ukrainian forces]. 2nd ed. Winnipeg: Kliub pryiateliv ukr. knyzkhy, 1953. A comprehensive collective history of the Ukrainian armed forces from their origins through 1952.

Ivanys, Vasyl'. Symon Petliura-Prezydent Ukrainy, 1879-1926. Toronto: Nakl. 5. stanytsi Suiuzu buvshykh ukr. voiakiv, 1952. A valuable biography of the president of the Ukrainian National Republic, set against the background of East European history from 1905 to 1925.

Jablonski, Henryk. "Ministerium Spraw Polskich Ukrainskiej Repub-liki Ludowej, 1917-1918" [The Ministry of Polish Affairs in the Ukrainian People's Republic]. Niepodleglosc (Warsaw) 20, no. 1 (1939): 65-88.

-----------. Polska autonomia narodowa na Ukrainie, 1917-1918 [Polish national autonomy in Ukraine, 1917-1918]. Warsaw: Nakf. Towarzystwa Milosnikow Historii, 1948.

Joll, James. The Anarchists. Boston: Little, Brown, 1965. A survey of Anarchists and the development of anarchism's doctrine.

Jurylko, Stefan. "Niemcy na Ukraine" [The Germans in Ukraine]. Problemy Europy Wschodniej (Warsaw), no. 4 (1939).

Juzwenko, Adolf. Polska a "Biala"Rosja od listopada 1918 do kwietnia 1920 r. [Poland and "White" Russia from November 1918 to April 1920]. Wroclaw: Zakt Narodowy im. Ossolinskich, 1973.

"K istorii makhnovskogo dvizheniia v Rossii" [About the history of the Makhno movement in Russia]. VO, no. - (192-), pp. 15-17.

K., V. "Ukrains'ki povstans'ki otamany" [Ukrainian partisan otamans]. SV, October 2,1934. A valuable characterization of a number of partisan leaders and their negative role during the Ukrainian Revolution.

"K voprosu ob anarkho-boPshevizme i ego roli v revoliutsii" [The question about anarchism-bolshevism and its role in the Revolution]. AV, no. 1 (July 1923).

Kachyns'kyi, B. "Ahrarnyi rukh za chasiv het'manshchyny" [Agrarian movement during the hetman regime]. LR, no. 1 (28) (1928), pp. 52-64; no. 2 (29), pp. 76-95.

Kachyns'kyi, V. Selianskii rukh na Ukraini v roky 1905-1907 [Peasant movement in Ukraine 1905-1907]. 2 vols. Kharkov, 1927. A well-documented work about the peasant uprisings and their socioeconomic and political causes.

Kagan, S. Agrarnaia revoliutsiia na Kievshchine: K voprosu o sotsial'-nykh i politicheskikh protsesakh na sele: Iz materialov obrannykh i izuchennykh gubernskim Komitetom KP(b)U na Kievshchine [Agrarian revolution in Kiev province: on the question of social and political processes in the village: from materials collected and studied by the province committee of KP(b)U in Kiev province]. Kiev: Goz. izd-vo Ukrainy, 1923.

Kakurin, Nikolai. Kak srazhalas revoliutsiia [How the Revolution was fought]. 2 vols. Moscow, 1925-26. An account of the fighting during the Civil War and the Allies intervention, by a Bolshevik military expert.

Kamenets'kyi, Ihor. "Nimetska polityka suproty Ukrainy v 1918- mu rotsi ta ii istorychna geneza" [The German policy toward Ukraine in 1918 and the history of its genesis]. UI, nos. 1-4 (17-20) (1968), pp. 5-18; nos. 1-3 (21-23) (1969), pp. 74-85.

Kamins'kyi, "Borot'ba z kontrrevoliutsieiu v 1920 i 1921 rotsi Hub. Ch. K. na Chernyhivshchyni" [The struggle against counterrevolution in 1920-1921 Provincial Ch. K. in the Chernihiv province]. Visty (Kharkov), no. 298 (1927).

Kapustians'kyi, M. Pokhid ukrains'kykh armii na Kyiv-Odesu v 1919 rotsi: Korotkyi voienno-istorychnyi ohliad [The march of the Ukrainian armies on Kyiv and Odessa in 1919: a short military- historical survey]. 2 vols. Munich, 1946. The military campaign in Ukraine in 1919, including partisan activities and the mood of the populace, by a member of the General Staff of the Ukrainian Army.

-----------. "Slavetna diia pid Chornym Ostrovom: Spomyn." [Famous action at Chornyi Ostriv: memoirs]. In Ukrains'ka strilets'ka hromada v Kanadi 1928-1938, pp. 107-10. Saskatoon: Nakl. Ukrains'koi strilets'koi hromady v Kanadi, 1938.

Kapustians'kyi, Mykola. Ukrains'ka zbroina syla i ukrains'ka natsion-al'na revoliutsiia [Ukrainian armed forces and the Ukrainian national revolution]. Saskatoon: Novyi shliakh, 1936.

Kapustyns'kyi [sic], Mykola. "Makhno i makhnovshchyna" [Makhno and the Makhno movement]. SV, no. 243 (November 17, 1934). A critical description of the Makhno movement and a characterization of Makhno's personality.

Karelin, A. Gosudarstvo i anarkhisty [The state and the Anarchists]. Moscow: Izd-vo L. Fedorova, 1918.

-----------. Vol'naia zhizn' [Free life]. Detroit: Profsoiuz g. Detroita, 1955.

Karmazin, A. "Makhno i ego strategiia" [Makhno and his strategy]. NRS, January 23,1969.

-----------. "O Makhno" [About Makhno]. NRS, February 16, 1969.

Karpenko, H. "Selians'ki rukhy na Kyivshchyni za chasiv het'man-shchyny" [The peasant movement in Kyiv province during the hetman regime]. LR, no. 3 (30) (1928), pp. 55-73.

-----------. "Selians'kyi rukh na Kyivshchyni za chasiv austro-hermans'koi okupatsii ta het'manshchyny" [The peasant movement in Kyiv province during the Austro-German occupation and the hetman regime]. LR, nos. 1-2 (46-47) (1931), pp. 67-91. The Central Rada's agricultural policy in 1918, and the beginning of peasant uprisings against the Germans and the hetman regime.

Karpenko, O. IU. Imperialistychna interventsiia na Ukraini, 1918-1920 [Imperialistic intervention in Ukraine, 1918-1920]. Lvov: Vyd-vp L'vivs'koho univ-tu, 1964. A one-sided, well-documented analysis dealing with the intervention of the Central Powers, the Entente, and Poland in Ukraine.

Kartashev, Ivan. "Pesnia makhnovtsev" [A song of Makhnomen]. PRO, nos. 56-57 (1935), p. 32.

Kenz, Peter. "A. I. Denikin." The Russian Review 3, no. 2 (1973): 139-52.

Kessel, J. "Buccaneers of the Steppes." The Living Age, vol. 315 (December 9, 1922).

-----------. "Deux grands aventuriers russes: L'Ataman Semenof, 'Batka' Makhno." La Revue de France 5 (1922): 340-56.

Khrystiuk, Pavlo. 1905 rik na Ukraini [Ukraine in 1905]. Kharkov, 1925.

-----------. "Provyna pered ukrains'koiu revoliutsiieiu" [The issue of guilt and the Ukrainian Revolution]. Boritesia-Poborete (Vienna), no. 5 (1920), pp. 36-66.

-----------. Zamitky i materiialy do istorii ukrains'koi revoliutsii, 1917- 1920 rr. [Notes and materials for the history of the Ukrainian Revolution, 1917-1920]. 4 vols, in 1. New York: Vyd-vo Char-toryis'kykh, 1969. An authoritative history of the Ukrainian Revolution based on documents and the author's experiences as state secretary and secretary of internal affairs. It contains numerous documentary materials integrated into the text.

Khudolei, V. " 'Istoriia makhnovskogo dvizheniia' P. Arshinova" ["The history of the Makhno movement" by P. Arshinov]. VO, no. 51 (1924), pp. 15-20.

Kin, D. [Plotkin, David]. Denikinshchina [The Denikin movement]. Leningrad: Izd-vo "Priboi," 1927. A well-documented work that includes the Allied intervention in South Ukraine, and the Makhno movement, from spring 1918 to April 1920.

-----------. "Povstancheskoe dvizhenie protiv denikinshchiny na Ukraine: Prichiny i tipy dvizheniia" [The partisan movement against the Denikin movement in Ukraine: causes and types]. LR, nos. 3-4 (18-19) (1926), pp. 70-90.

Klassen, N. "Makhno und Lenin." Der Bote (Saskatoon, Canada), March 1, 1966.

Klepikov, S. "Neurozhai 1921 g." [Bad harvest in 1921]. Krasnaia nov' (Moscow), no. 2 (1921), pp. 223-36.

Kohan, S., and N. Mezhberh. "Druhyi period Radvlady na Odeshchyni" [The second period of the Soviet regime in the Odessa region]. LR, no. 1 (40) (1930), pp. 5-40.

Kokh, H. Dohovir z Denikinom vid 1 do 17 lystopada, 1919 r. [Agree ment with Denikin from November 1 to 17, 1919]. Lvov: "Cher-vona Kalyna," 1930. A justification of the Galician Army's agreement with Denikin in November 1919, employing the military and political conditions in Ukraine during the second half of 1919 and the physical condition of the Army.

Komin, V. V. Anarkhizm v Rossii: Spets. kurs lektsii, prochit. na tst. fak. ped. in-ta. [Anarchism in Russia: special course of lectures read in the Department of History of the Pedagogical Institute]. Kalinin, 1969. A well-documented, one-sided survey of Russian anarchism, including the Makhno movement.

Kononenko, Konstantyn. Ukraine and Russia: A History of the Economic Relations between Ukraine and Russia, 1654-1917. Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 1958. The development of commerce, agriculture, and industry in Ukraine and Russian economic policies toward Ukraine; emphasis is on the nineteenth century.

-----------. Ukraina iRosiia: Sotsiial'no-ekonomichnipidstavy ukrains'koi natsional'noi idei, 1917-1960 [Ukraine and Russia: socioeconomic bases of the Ukrainian national idea]. Munich, 1965.

Korn, M. [Goldschmidt, M.]. Revoliutsionnyi sindikalizm: Bor'ba s kapitalizmom i vlastiu [Revolutionary syndicalism: the struggle against capitalism and authority]. Petrograd: "Golos truda," 1920.

Kornilovskii udarnyi polk [Kornilov's assault regiment]. Paris, 1936. Articles based on documents and material from the archives of the General Kornilov Regiment as well as memoirs and diaries of its officers, describing the activities and campaigns of the General Kornilov Regiment from the middle of 1917 to November 1920, mostly against the Bolsheviks.

Korolivs'kyi, S. M., and M. A. Rubach. Peremola Velykoi Zhovtnevoi sotsialistychnoi revoliutsii na Ukraini [The victory of the great October socialist revolution in Ukraine]. 2 vols. Kiev: "Naukova dumka," 1967.

Korotkov, I. S. Razgrom Vrangelia [Wrangel's defeat]. Moscow: Voen. izd-vo, 1955. A study based largely on archival material dealing with the Bolshevik campaigns against Wrangel during the second half of 1920.

Korsak, V. "U bielykh" [With the Whites]. Golos minuvshago na chuzhoistoronie (Berlin) 15, no. 2 (1926): 195-243.

Kovalenko, A. "Grigor'evshchina" [The Hryhor'iv movement]. Odesskii Nabat, no. 4 (May 26, 1919), pp. 1-2. A denunciation of Hry-hor'iv's activities.

-----------. "Povest s pechal'nym kontsom: Eshcho o Makhno" [A story

about a sad end: more about Makhno]. Odesskii Nabat, no. 7 (June 16, 1919), pp. 2-3.

Kovalevs'kyi, Mykola. Opozytsiini rukhy v Ukraini i natsional'na polityka SSSR, 1920-1954 [Oppositional movements in Ukraine and the national policy of SSSR]. Munich, 1955. Bolshevik oppression in Ukraine and resultant insurrections.

Koval'-Medzviedska, K. "Kyivs'ki perezhyvannia v 1919 r." [The Kyivan experience in 1919]. Za Derzhavnist' (Warsaw) 8 (1938): 142-51.

Kozel'skyi, V. V. "Hryhor'ievshchyna: Z nahody shostykh rokovyn likvidatsii Hryhor'ievshchyny" [The Hryhor'iv movement: on the occasion of the sixth anniversary of the liquidation of the Hryhor'iv movement]. Chervonyi shliakh (Kharkov), no. 5 (1925), pp. 67- 71. A subjective account of the uprising of Otaman Hryhor'iv against the Bolsheviks in May 1919, which is shown as thwarting Bolshevik plans for sending military aid to Soviet Hungary.

Kozlov, E. "Krovavoe podpol'e: K 5-i godovshchine osvobozhdeniia Khar'kova ot belykh" [A bloody underground: on the 5th anniversary of Kharkiv liberation from the Whites]. LR, no. 4 (9) (1924), pp. 44-52.

Kratkaia zapiska istorii vzaimootnoshenii Dobrovol'cheskoi Armii s Ukrainoi [A short note on the history of relations between the Volunteer Army and Ukraine]. Rostov-on-Don: Tip. Donskogo akts. o-va pech. i Izd-vo Diela, 1919. A survey of the Volunteer Army's relations with the hetman government.

Krezub, Antin. "Partyzans'kyi zahin imeny otamana Zelenoho" [A partisan detachment in the name of Otaman Zelenyi]. KCK 1924, pp. 110-16.

-----------. "Persha umova Dyrektorii UNR z Nimtsiamy z dnia 17. XI. 1918 r." [The first agreement of the Directory of UNR with the Germans on November 17, 1918]. LNV 99, no. 5 (1929): 458-64.

-----------. "Povstannia proty het'mana Skoropads'koho i Sichovi Stril'tsi:

Kil'ka zawah do ioho istorii" [Uprising against Hetman Skoro-pads'kyi and the Sich Riflemen: a few observations on its history]. LNV 11 (1928): 219-25; 12:309-18.

-----------. "Povstannia Zelenoho proty Dyrektorii v sichni 1919 r." [Uprising of Zelenyi against the Directory in January 1919]. LNV 5 (1927): 26-41.

-----------. "Tsily nimets'koi viis'kovoi polityky na Ukraini 1918 r." [The

aims of the German military policy in Ukraine in 1918]. LCK, no. 1 (1929), pp. 14-17; no. 2, pp. 4-8.

Krut', V. T. "Do istorii borot'by proty hryhor'ivshchyny na Ukraini" [The history of the struggle against the Hryhor'iv movement in Ukraine]. LR, nos. 5-6 (54-55) (1932), pp. 119-47. A subjective account of Hryhor'iv uprising against the Bolsheviks in May 1919, set against the background of the contemporary conditions in Ukraine.

Kubanin, M. "K istorii kulatskoi kontr-revoliutsii" [History of the "kulak" counterrevolution]. Na agrarnom fronte (Moscow), nos. 7-8 (1925), pp. 98-129; no. 9, pp. 83-96.

-----------. Makhnovshchina: Krest'ianskoe dvizhenie v stepnoi Ukraine v gode grazhdanskoi voiny [The Makhno movement: the peasant movement in the steppes of Ukraine during the civil war]. Leningrad: Izd-vo "Priboi," 1927. A well-documented, subjective work on the Makhno movement and Soviet Russian agrarian and national policy in Ukraine during the Revolution. The work was written upon the recommendation of the Party to elicit an anti-Makhno reaction.

Kucher, Mykhailo. "Manifest Otamana Hryhor'iva" [Manifesto of Otaman Hryhor'iv]. TR, no. 27 (1964), pp. 10-13. An account of the Hryhor'iv manifesto that initiated the uprisings against the Bolsheviks in May 1919 and the conditions that brought about the uprising.

Kukiel, Marjan. Zarys historii wojskowosci w Polsce [Outline of the military history of Poland]. 5th ed. London: Naki. Orbisu, 1949.

Kulish, G. Bor'ba Kommunisticheskoi partii za reshenie natsional'nogo voprosa v 1918-1920 godakh [The struggle of the Communist Party for determination of the national question in 1918-1920]. Kharkov: Izd-vo Khar'kovskogo un-ta, 1963. A one-sided analysis of the role of the Bolsheviks-and their subversive activities-in establishing Russian regimes in Ukraine and Belorussia.

-----------. "Pervyi dessant na beregakh Kryma, 1920" [The first disembarkation on the shores of Crimea, 1920]. LR, no. 4 (1923), pp. 131-52.

Kulychenko, M. I. Bolsheviki khar'kivshchiny v bor'be za vlast' sovetov, 1918-1920 gg. [The Bolsheviks of Kharkiv province in struggle for power of the Soviets]. Kharkov: Izd-vo Kharkovskogo un-ta, 1966. A survey of the development and struggle for power of Bolshevik organizations in Kharkiv province.

Kulyk, I. "Ekonomichni chynnyky frantsuzs'koi interventsii" [Economic factors of the French intervention]. Chervonyi shliakh (Kharkov), no. 3 (1923), pp. 122-28.

Kupchyns'kyi, Roman. Persha ukrains'ka selians'ka armiia im. Bat'ka Makhna [The first Ukrainian partisan army of Father Makhno]. N.p., n.d.

Kurash, P. S. "Povstannia sela Parafiievky na Chernyhivshchyni" [Uprising of the village Parafiivka in the Chernihiv region]. LR, no. 3 (30) (1928), pp. 174-90.

Kurgan, R. Stranitsa grazhdanskoi voiny [A page from the Civil War]. Kharkov: Gos. izd-vo Ukrainy, 1959.

Kurmanovych, Viktor. "Do spravy vidvorotu U.H.A. za Zbruch" [Concerning the retreat of U.H.A. across the Zbruch]. RN, nos. 3-4 (74-75) (1934), pp. 82-86. The Ukrainian-Polish campaign in East Galicia in the summer of 1919 and plans for the defensive retreat of the Ukrainian Galician Army either southward beyond the Dniester into the Carpathian Mountains or eastward beyond the River Zbruch.

Kuryllo, Stefan. "Niemcy na Ukrainie" [The Germans in Ukraine]. Problemy Europy Wschodniej (Warsaw) 1, no. 4 (1939): 224-34.

Kushchyns'kyi, Ant. "Korotka geneza istorii Serdiuts'kykh formatsii" [A brief historical genesis of the Serdiuk formations]. Visti (Munich), no. 106 (1961), pp. 69-70.

Kushnir, M. Zemel'na sprava na Ukraini [The land question in Ukraine]. Kiev: Vyd-vo Ts. K. U. P. S. F., 1917. A valuable brief account of the land question in Ukraine on the eve of the Revolution.

Kutrzeba, Tadeusz. Wyprawa kijowska 1920 roku [Kyiv campaign in 1920]. Warsaw: Nakl. Gebethnera i Wolffa, 1937. An objective, scholarly work by a Polish general and historian on the Polish-Ukrainian alliance of 1920 and their common struggle against the Bolsheviks.

Kuzelia, Zenon. Rik 1918 na Ukraini [The year 1918 in Ukraine]. Salzwedel: Souiz vyzvolennia Ukrainy, 1918.

Kuz'min, G. V. Grazhdanskaia voina i voennaia interventsiia v SSSR: Voenno-politicheskii ocherk [The Civil War and the military intervention in SSSR: military-political sketch]. Moscow: Voen. izd-vo, 1958.

Kuz'min, N. F. "K istorii razgroma belogvardeiskikh voisk Denikina" [History of the defeat of the White Guard forces of Denikin]. VI, no. 7 (1956), pp. 18-32.

-----------. Kommunisticheskaia partiia-organizator razgroma belogvardeiskikh voisk Denikina [The Communist Party-organizer of the defeat of the White forces of Denikin]. Moscow: Znanie, 1956.

-----------. Krushenie poslednego pokhoda Antanty [The defeat of the last expedition of the Entente]. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo polit. lit-ry, 1958.

Kuznetsov, IA. "Rabota Ekaterinoslavskogo gubkoma v 1918 g.' [Activity of the Katerynoslav gubkom in 1918]. In Bor'ba za Sovety na Ekaterinoslavshchine. Dnepropetrovsk, 1927.

Kuznetsova, N. V. "Bor'ba frantsuzskogo naroda protiv otkrytoi antisovetskoi interventsii antanty vesnoi 1919 goda" [The struggle of the French people against an open anti-Soviet intervention of the Entente in spring 1919]. VI, no. 11 (1957), pp. 109-26.

Kviring, E. "Ekaterinoslav, dekabr' 14 g.-iiun' 15 g." [Katerynoslav, December 1914-June 1915]. LR, no. 2 (1923), pp. 125-35.

-----------. "Nekotoree popravki k vospominaniiam o Ekaterinoslave"

[Some corrections concerning recollections about Katerynoslav]. LR,no. 2 (1928), pp. 136-43.

Lampe, A. A. Puti vernykh: Sbornik statei [The ways of the faithful: a collection of articles]. Paris, 1960. A Russian general discusses his anti-Bolshevik activities during the Civil War and later abroad.

Lazors'kyi, V. "Z povstants'koho rukhu na Poltavshchyni 1918 roku" [From the partisan movement in the Poltava region in 1918]. LR, no. 2 (1930), pp. 211-25.

Lebed', D. Itogi i uroki trekh let anarkho-makhnovshchiny [Results and lessons of three years of the Anarcho-Makhno movement]. Kharkov: Vseukr. gos. izd-vo, 1921. A survey of the Makhno movement, viewing it as peasant banditry brought about by socioeconomic circumstances, and the struggle of the Russian Communists against it. Numerous quotations included to prove the author's point.

Legler. "Bela Kun-Makhno." Vechornaia Moskva, June 1928.

-----------. "Makhno i Bela Kun." Posliedniia novosti (Paris), July 1928.

Lehovich, Dymitry V. "Denikin's Offensive." The Russian Review 32, no. 2 (1973): 173-86.

-----------. White against Red: The Life of General Anton Denikin. New York: Norton, 1974. Biography of Denikin and his associates, based mainly on the Denikin family's documents and the author's reminiscences.

Lenin, V. I. Lenin i natsional'nii vopros [Lenin and the national question] . Kharkov: Izd-vo "Put' prosveshchennia," 1924.

-----------. Sochineniia [Works]. 2nd ed. 30 vols. Moscow, 1926-32. 3rd ed. Moscow: Partizdat, 1935-37. 4th ed. 35 vols. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo polit. lit-ry, 1941-52. (Preference given to second edition when available.)

-----------. Stat'i i rechi ob Ukraine: Sbornik [Articles and speeches about Ukraine: collection]. Edited by N. N. Popov. Kiev: Partizdat TSK KP(b)N, 1936. Selections from Lenin's articles and speeches dealing with the Ukrainian problem.

Lepeshkin, A. I. Sovety-vlast' trudiashchykhsia, 1917-1936 [So-viets^authority of workers]. Moscow, 1966.

Levyns'kyi, V. Sotsialistychna revoliutsiia i Ukraina [Socialist revolution in Ukraine]. Edited by Orhan Zakordon. Vienna: Komitetu Ukr. kom. partii, 1920.

Ligocki, Edward. Dialog z przeszloscia [Dialogue with the past]. Warsaw: Czytelnik, 1970.

Likharevskii. "Andreevski konfuz: Boi s Makhno 14, XII, 1920, v Andreevke" [Embarrassment at Andriivka: fighting against Makhno, December 14, 1920, in Andriivka]. AR, nos. 4-5 (1921), pp. 114-20. Defeat of the Red troops by Makhno at Andriivka, near MariupiP in mid-December, 1920.

Linster, B. "Iz istorii revoliutsionnogo dvizhenniia v Elisavetgrade" [From the history of the revolutionary movement in IElesave-thrad]. LR, no. 5 (1928), pp. 100-115.

Lipatov, N. P. "Nekotorie voprosy istorii razgroma vrangelevshchiny" [Some questions of the history of defeat of the Wrangel movement] . VI, no. 12 (1957), pp. 35-48.

-----------. 1920 god na Chernom more: Voenno-morskie sily v razgrome Vrangelia [The year 1920 at the Black Sea: military-naval power in defeating Wrangel]. Moscow: Voen. izd-vo, 1958.

Lipotkin, L. "Nestor Makhno." PRO, nos. 50-51 (1934), pp. 15-16. A general account of Makhno's life and activities.

-----------. "Nestor Makhno i evreiskii vopros" [Nestor Makhno and the Jewish question]. DT-P, no. 58 (1959), pp. 17-19.

-----------. "Vsevelod Eikhenbaum (Volin)." DT-P, no. 17 (1946), pp. 18-19.

Lohrenz, Gerhard. "Nonresistance Tested." Mennonite Life (Newton, Kansas) 17, no. 2 (1962): 66-68.

Lozyns'kyi, Mykhalio. Halychyna v rr. 1918-1920 [Galicia in the years 1918-1920]. New York: "Chervona Kalyna," 1970. An authoritative political history based on documents and reminiscences; contains numerous documents integrated into the text.

Lukomskaia, I. "Proletariat Donbasa i realizatsiia stalinskogo plana razgroma Denikina" [Proletarians of the Donbas and the realization of Stalin's plan for Denikin's defeat]. IM 1 (77) (1940): 98-119.

L'vov, N. "Bieloe dvizhenie: K 20-tilietiiu ego zarozhdeniia" [The White movement: 20th anniversary of its origin]. FA, no. 37 (1937), pp. 5-11. A general survey of the fall of the Russian monarchy and the establishment of the "White" movement in the Don and in Siberia in the fall of 1917.

Lykholat, A. V. Razgrom natsionalisticheskoi kontrrevoliutsii na Ukraine, 1917-1922 gg. [The destruction of the nationalistic counterrevolution in Ukraine, 1917-1922]. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo polit. lit-ry, 1954. An official Stalinist interpretation of the Ukrainian Revolution in which Stalin is credited with various accomplishments.

-----------. Zdiisnennia lenins'koi natsional'noi polityky na Ukraini, 1917-1920 [Realization of Lenin's national policy in Ukraine, 1917-1920]. Kiev: Naukova dumka, 1967. A one-sided survey dealing with Lenin's nationality policy and its application in Ukraine by the Russian Communist party.

M., I. "Godovshchina Delo truda" [Anniversary of Delo Truda]. DT, nos. 13-14 (1926), pp. 23-24.

M., S. "Makhnovshchina" [The Makhno movement]. Revoliutsionnaia Rossiia (Dorpat), no. 7 (192-), pp. 23-25.

Maistrenko, I. "Ukrains'ka chervona armiia: Sproby ukrains'kykh komunistiv tvoryty vlasnu armii" [The Ukrainian Red Army: attempts of the Ukrainian Communists to create their own army]. Visti (New York) 4, nos. 1-2 (27-28) (1953): 10-11. Attempt by the Borot'bists to organize a Ukrainian Red Army using the partisans of Otaman Hryhor'iv as the nucleus.

Majstrenko, Iwan. Borot'bism: A Chapter in the History of Ukrainian Communism. New York: Research Program on the U.S.S.R., 1954. A well-documented, objective study dealing with the activities of the Borot'bists, a Ukrainian leftist group, during the Revolution, stressing biographical sketches of the members.

Makeev, P. V. Na Denikina: Rol latyshskikh strelkov v razgrome denikinskikh polchishch [On Denikin: the role of the Latvian riflemen in the defeat of Denikin's hordes]. Riga: Latviiskse gos. izd-vo, 1960. Bolshevik campaign against Denikin, with the emphasis on the Latvian units in the Red Army.

"Makhno i Bol'sheviki" [Makhno and the Bolsheviks]. Nabat (Huliai-Pole), no. 21 (1919).

"Makhno i tekushchie sobytiia" [Makhno and current events]. Nabat (Huliai-Pole), June 2, 1919. The Makhno-Hryhor'iv relationship.

Makhno, Nestor. "Anarkhisty i zashchita revoliutsii: Nasha pozitsiia" [Anarchists and the defense of the Revolution: our position]. Nabat (Kharkov), no. 21 (June 30, 1919), pp. 1-2.

-----------. "Anarkhizm i nashe vremia" [Anarchism and our time]. DT, no. 4 (1925), pp. 7-8.

-----------. "Ideia ravenstva i bol'sheviki" [The idea of equality and the Bolsheviks]. DT, no. 9 (1926), pp. 9-10.

-----------. "K evreiam vsekh stran" [To the Jews in all countries]. DT, nos. 23-24 (1927), pp. 8-10. The author's rebuttal of his enemies' accusation of anti-Jewish pogroms during the Revolution.

-----------."K voprosu o zashchite revoliutsii" [The question of defense of the Revolution]. DT, no. 25 (1927), pp. 13-14. An account of organization of the partisan army and its struggle against its enemies in defense of the social achievements of the Revolution.

-----------. "Kak Igut' bol'sheviki: Pravada ob anarkhiste Zhelezniakove" [How the Bolsheviks are lying: the truth about the anarchist Zhelezniak]. DT, no. 22 (1927), p. 12.

-----------. "Krest'ianstvo i bolsheviki" [The peasantry and the Bolsheviks] . DT, nos. 33-34 (1928), pp. 7-9.

-----------. "Makhnovshchina i antisemitizm" [The Makhno movement and anti-Semitism]. DT, nos. 30-31 (1927), pp. 15-18. The attitude of the Makhno movement toward Jews, stressing the large number of Jews participating in the movement.

-----------. Makhnovshchina i ee vchorashnie soiuzniki-bol'sheviki: Otvet na knigu M. Kubanina "Makhnovshchina" [The Makhno movement and its yesterday's allies-Bolsheviks: answer to Kubanin's book "Makhno movement"]. Paris: Izd-vo "Biblioteki makhnovtsev," 1928.

-----------. "Mirovaia politika Anglii i mirovye zadachi revoliutsionnego truda" [England's world policy and the world aims of the revolutionary workers]. DT, nos. 26-27 (1927), pp. 10-12. Britain's conflict with Germany, her colonial policy, and the opposition of the working classes to that policy.

-----------. "Na putiakh proletarskoi vlasti: Ocherk" [On the road to proletarian power: a sketch]. PRO, no. - (19-), pp. 45-48.

-----------. "Nad svezhoi mogiloi T. N. Rogdaeva" [At the fresh grave of T. N. Rogdaev]. PRO, nos. 52-53 (1934), pp. 21-31.

-----------. "Neskol'ko slov o natsional'nom voprose na Ukraine" [A few words about the national question in Ukraine]. DT, no. 19 (1926), pp. 4-7.

-----------. "O revoliutsionnoi distsipline" [About the revolutionary discipline]. DT, nos. 7-8 (1925-26), p. 6. Criticism of the Russian anarchists for lack of organization, resulting in their defeat by the Bolsheviks during the Revolution.

-----------. "O XIII-m s'ezde Federatsii argentinskogo 'Golosa truda'" [About the 13th congress of the Argentinian "Voice of Labor"] DT, nos. 48-49 (1929), pp. 7-8.

-----------. "1-oe maia-symvol novoi ery v zhizni i bor'by trudia- shchikhsia" [May 1-a symbol of a new era in the life and struggle of toilers]. DT, no. 36 (1928), pp. 2-3.

-----------. "Otkrytoe pis'mo t-shchu Maksymovu" [An open letter to friend Maksymov]. DT, no. 15 (1926), pp. 10-12. The author's negotiations and agreement with the Bolsheviks in October 1920 to fight General Wrangel.

-----------. "Otvet na otkrytoe pis'mo t. Angartsa" [An open letter to friend Angarts]. Guliaipol'skii Nabat, no. 5 (February 22, 1919), p. 4. Makhno's assurance to Angarts that in the region of the movement there is no manifestation of anti-Semitism.

-----------. "Pamiati kronshtadskogo vosstanniia" [In commemoration of the Kronstadt uprising]. DT, no. 10 (1926), pp. 3-4. Glorification of the Kronstadt uprising against the Bolshevik regime in March 1921.

-----------. Po povodu "raz'iasneniia" Volina [In connection with Volin's "explanations"]. Paris, 1929.

-----------. "Po povodu sobytii v muzee imeni P. A. Kropotkina" [On the occasion of events at the museum in the name of A. Kropotkin]. DT, nos. 46-47 (1929), pp. 20-21.

-----------. "Polozhenie revoliutsionnoi Rossii" [The position of revolutionary Russia]. PS, no. 1 (1919), pp. 1-2.

-----------. "Put' bor'by protiv gosudarstva" [A road of struggle against the state]. DT, no. 17 (1926), pp. 5-6.

-----------. "Rossiia." DT, no. 12 (1926), pp. 14-15. Description of the persecution of anarchists in the Soviet Union by the Bolshevik regime.

-----------. "Sovetskaia vlast', ee nastoiashchee i budushchee" [The Soviet regime, its present and future]. Bor'ba, nos. 19-20 (19-), pp. 2-3.

-----------. "Velikii Oktiabr' na Ukraine" [The great October in Ukraine]. DT, no. 29 (1927), pp. 9-11. An account describing the socioeconomic changes in the Makhno movement area prior to the October Revolution of 1917.

Maksimov, G. "Nestor Makhno i pogromy" [Nestor Makhno and the pogroms]. DT, no. 84 (1935), pp. 13-14.

-----------. "Otvet Klevetnikam: O N. Makhno i makhnovshchine" [An answer to the cheaters: about N. Makhno and the Makhno movement] . DT-P, no. 51 (1946), pp. 23-28.

-----------. "Vsevolod Mikhailovich Eikhenbaum (Volin)." DT-P, no. 16 (1946), pp. 13-19.

-----------. Za chto i kak bol'sheviki izgnali anarkhistov iz Rossi?: K osveshcheniiu polozheniia anarkhistov v Rossii [Why and how did the Bolsheviks banish the Anarchists from Russia?: towards an interpretation of the anarchists' position in Russia]. Berlin(?): Izd. Anarkho-kommun. gruppy, 1922.

Makushenko, N. "Operatsii protiv band Makhno s 9 po 16 iiunia 1921 g." [Operations against the bands of Makhno June 9-16, 1921]. AR, nos. 3-4(1922).

Malinovskii, P. "I Konnaia v Severnoi Tavrii" [1st Cavalry in North Tavriia]. Voennyi vestnik (Moscow), no. 44 (1924), pp. 15-19.

Malishev, V. I. "Pro dopomohu RRFSR u stvoreni zbroinykh syl Radians'koi Ukrainy v 1918 r." [Concerning the assistance of RRFSR in the organization of the armed forces of Soviet Ukraine in 1918]. Ukrains'kyi istorychnyi zhurnal (Kiev), no. 5 (1964), pp. 105-7.

Mal't, M. "Denikinshchina i krest'ianstvo" [The Denikin movement and the peasantry]. PR, no. 1 (24) (1924): 140-57. Denikin's agricultural policy and the resulting peasant uprisings against the Volunteer Army.

Manilov, V., ed. 1917 god na Kievshchine [The year 1917 in Kiev province] . Kiev: Gos. izd-vo Ukrainy, 1928. Revolutionary developments in Kyiv province in 1917, based on archival materials.

Manuilsky, A. "The Agrarian Policy in Ukraine." Soviet Russia 3, no. 16 (1920), pp. 369-71.

Margushin, P. "Bat'ko Makhno" [Father Makhno]. NRS, October 13, 1964, p. 2. A survey of the Makhno movement from summer 1918 to the end of the movement.

Markow, Sergey. Armee ohne Heimat. Leipzig: R. A. Hoger, 1935.

Martenko, Ihor R. "Denikin and Ukraine." Ukrains'ka tribuna (Munich), August 24, 1947, p. 3.

Martos, Borys. "Zavoiuvannia Ukrainy bol'shevykamy" [Conquest of Ukraine by the Bolsheviks]. Ukrains'kyi zbirnyk (Munich) l(De-cember 1954): 3-38.

Marushchenko-Bohdanivs'kyi, A. "Ukrainizatsiia chastyn v rosiis'kii armii" [Ukrainization of detachments in the Russian Army]. IKCK 1934, pp. 1930-34.

Mazepa, I. Bol'shevyzm i okupatsiia Ukrainy: Sotsiial'no-ekonomichni prychyny nedozrilosty syl ukrains'koi revoliutsii [Bolshevism and the occupation of Ukraine: socioeconomic reasons for immature strength of the Ukrainian Revolution]. Lvov: M. Hankevych, 1922.

-----------. "Ukrainia under Bolshevist Rule." Slavonic and East European Review 12 (1934): 323-46.

-----------. "Zymovyi pokhid i partyzans'kyi rukh na Ukraini v 1919 r.' [The winter campaign and the partisan movement in Ukraine m 1919]. KD 1935, pp. 89-96. An authoritative account of the winter campaign, 1919-20, of the Ukrainian Army and the activities of the partisans, including those led by Makhno and Hryhor'iv, against the Bolshevik and anti-Bolshevik Russian forces, set against the background of sociopolitical and military conditions in Ukraine.

Mazlakh, Serhii, and Vasyl' Shakhrai. Do khvyli: Shcho diietsia na Ukraini i z Ukrainoiu [To the moment: what is happening in Ukraine and with Ukraine]. New York: Proloh, 1967.

Men'chukov, E. A. Istoricheskii ocherk boev v usloviiakh okruzhenii [Historical sketch of battles while surrounded]. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo, 1930. A well-documented work about twenty selected military operations involving encirclement, mostly battles of World War I and the Civil War; it includes accounts of the fighting against Makhno.

The Mennonite Encyclopedia: A Comprehensive Reference Work on the Anabaptist-Mennonite Movement. 4 vols. Hillsboro, Kansas: Mennonite Brethren Publishing House, 1955-59.

Meyer, Henry Cord. "Rohrbach and His Osteuropa." The Russian Review 2 (1942): 60-69.

"Miatezh Griogor'ieva" [The revolt of Hryhor'iv]. In Piataia godovsh-china Oktiabr'skoi revoliutsii, pp. 199-206. Ekaterinoslav, 1922.

Mirchuk, Petro. Mykola Mikhovs'kyi: Apostol ukrains'koi derzhavnosty [Mykola Mikhnovs'kyi: apostle of Ukrainian statehood]. Philadelphia: T-vo ukr. studiiuiuchoi molodi im. M. Mikhovs'koho, 1960. A biography of a proponent of Ukrainian statehood, set against the background of political conditions in Ukraine prior to and during the Revolution.

Morei de Moran, I. L. "Partyzans'kyi otriad 30 kvitnia" [Partisan detachment of April 30]. In Ukrains'ka strilets'ka hromada v Kanadi 1928-1938, pp. 117-20. Saskatoon: Nakl. Ukrains'koi strilets'koi hromady v Kanadi, 1938.

Moskalenko, Andrew. "The Hetmanate in 1918 and Bolshevik Aggression in Ukraine." Ukrainian Review (London) 11, no. 2 (195?): 81-84.

Mrachnyi, M. "Makhnovshchina: V poiskakh 'bat'kivshchiny' " [The Makhno movement: in search of the fatherland]. Rabochii put' (Berlin), no. 5 (1923), pp. 1-3.

M-t, P. "Ukrains'ka viis'kova deliegatsiia u Vrangelia, 10, 9, 1920" [Ukrainian military delegation with Wrangel on September 10, 1920]. LCK, nos. 7-8 (1933), pp. 5-7.

Muromets, "Nestor Makhno," PRO, nos. 52-53 (1934), pp. 16-19. Makhno's anarchism and his struggle against both Denikin and the Bolsheviks.

Myhal', B. K. "Konfiskatsiia zemel'nykh lyshkiv u kurkuPs'kykh hos-podarstvakh na Ukraini v 1920-1923 rr." [Confiscation of land remnants of the 'kurkuls' farms in Ukraine, 1920-1923] .Pytannia istoriinarodiv SRSR (Kharkov) 6 (1969): 109-19.

"N. I. Makhno: Nekrolog" [N. I. Makhno: necrology]. Seiatel' (Buenos Aires), no. 6 (August 1934), p. 20.

"Na Ukraine: I-yi S'ezd Konfederatsii anarkhicheskikh organizatsii Ukrainy 'Nabat' (Rezoliutsiia)" [In Ukraine: the first congress of the confederations of Anarchist organizations of Ukraine 'Nabat' (resolution)]. Trud ivolia (Moscow), no. 6 (May 20, 1919), p. 3.

Nahornyi, I. "Do desiatyrichchia zvil'nennia Donbasu vid denikin-shchyny" [To the 10th anniversary of the liberation of the Donbas from the Denikin movement]. LR, no. 1 (40) (1930), pp. 194-97.

Naida, S. F., and D. A. Kovalenko, eds. Reshaiushchie pobedy sovet-skago naroda nad interventamy i belogvardeitsiami v 1919g.: Sbor-nik statei [Decisive victories of the Soviet people over the invaders and the Red Guards in 1919: collections of articles]. Moscow: Gos izd-vo polit lit-ry, 1960.

Nettlan, Max. Ocherki po istorii anarkhicheskikh idei: Stat'ipo raznym sotsial'nym voprosam. [Sketches on the history of anarchist ideas: articles on different social questions]. Detroit: Profsouiz, 1951.

Nikolaenko, I. "Grazhdanskaia voina v Luganske: BorTaa s belogvardiit-sami" [Civil war in Luhans'k: struggle against the White Guards]. LR, no. 1 (28) (1928), pp. 202-12.

Nikolaev, Aleksei. Bat'ko Makhno: Rasskazy [Father Makhno: stories]. Riga: Laikmets, 193-. Stories about Makhno and his movement.

-----------. "Kratkaia pamiatka o Nestore Makhno" [A brief recollection about Nestor Makhno]. PRO, nos. 76-77 (1936), p. 31. Glorification of Makhno and his achievement.

-----------. Pervyi sredi ravnykh: Roman [First among equals: a novel]. Detroit: Profsoiuz, 1947. A novel about the Makhno movement.

-----------. Zhizn' Nestora Makhno [The life of Nestor Makhno]. Riga: "Obshchedostupnia biblioteka," 1936.

V. Nikolskii, "Novye rukovoditeli Kr. Armii" [The new leaders of the Red Army]. Chasovoi, no. 206 (February 15, 1938), p. 5.

Nikulin, L. "GibeP makhnovshchiny" [The downfall of the Makhno movement]. Znamia (Moscow), no. 3 (1941), pp. 169-97. A survey of the Makhno movement by a Bolshevik intelligence agent who acted mainly in France.

"1919 god v Ekaterinoslave i Aleksandrovske" [The year of 1919 in Katerynoslav and Oleksandrivs'k]. LR, no. 4 (13) (1925), pp. 74-103. A report of the provincial committee of the Katerynoslav Zafront biuro TSK KP(b) about conditions in Makhno's army, relations between the Bolsheviks and Makhno, and Bolshevik underground work.

Nomad, Max. Apostles of Revolution. Boston: Little, Brown, 1939. Brief biographies of seven radical leaders, including Makhno.

-----------. "The Epic of Nestor Makhno: The 'Bandit' Who Saved Red Moscow." Modern Monthly 9, no. 6 (1935): 334-46; no. 7 (1936): 409-16; no. 8 (1936): 490-92.

Novak, D. "The Place of Anarchism in the History of Political Thought." The Review of Politics (Notre Dame, Ind.) 20 (1958): 307-29.

Novikov, S. Ekonomicheskoe znachenie iuzhnogo fronta [Economic importance of the southern front]. Moscow: Izd-vo Politotdela X armii, 192-.

Novopolin, G. "Makhno i guliai-pol'skaia gruppa anarkhistov: Po ofit-sial'nym dannym" [Makhno and the Huliai-Pole group of anarchists: according to the official data]. Katorga i ssylka (Moscow), no. 34 (1927), pp. 70-77. A valuable account about the activities of the Huliai-Pole Anarchist group from 1906 to 1910, and the trial of some," based upon official records.

"O dobrovol'noi mobilizatsii" [About the voluntary mobilization]. PS, no. 2 (May 24, 1919), p. 1.

Obertas, I. L. Komandarm Fed'ko [Commander Fed'ko]. Moscow: Voen. izd-vo, 1973.

Obolenskii, V. "Krym v 1917-1920 gg." [The Crimea in 1917-1920]. Na chuzhoistoronie (Berlin), nos. 5-6 (1923), pp. 5-40.

-----------. "V period Krymskago pravitel'stva" [During the Crimean government] . Na chuzhoi storonie, no. 7 (1924), pp. 81-110.

Obshchestvo sodeistviia zhertvam interventsii: K desiatiletiiu intervent-sii, sbornik statei [Society for assistance to the victims of the intervention: to the tenth anniversary of the intervention, a collection of articles]. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo, 1929. Articles sympathetic to the Bolsheviks dealing with the French intervention in South Ukraine and English support for the anti-Bolshevik elements in Transcaspia.

Ohnesseit, Wilhelm. "Die deutschen Bauemkolonien in Sudrussland von ihrer Grundung bis zur Gegenwart." Preussische Jahrbiicher, no. 206 (October-December 1926), pp. 169-79.

Oiticica, Jose. A doutrina anarquista ao alcance de todos. N.p., n.d.

OF, P. V. Inostrannye hapitaly v Rossi [Foreign capital in Russia] . Petrograd: 4-ia Gos. tip., 1922.

Onats'kyi, IEvehn. "Nestor Makhno." In Ukrains'ka mala entsyklopediia, pp. 937-38. Buenos Aires, 1960. A valuable critical survey of the Makhno movement. Ordon, W. "Polska ofenzywa na Ukrainie" [Polish offensive in Ukraine].

Rzad i Wojsko (Warsaw), no. 19 (May 9, 1920), pp. 7-8; no. 20 (May 16, 1920), pp. 6-8. Orlinski. "Banditizm i bor'ba s nim" [Banditry and the struggle against it]. AR, nos. 2-3 (1921), pp. 3-16. Orlov, L. G. "Osnovatel' Dobrovol'cheskoi armii" [Organizer of the

Volunteer Army]. Chasovoi (Brussels), no. 329 (1953). Ozerov, M. Po sledam geroev revoliutsii [In the footsteps of the heroes of the Revolution]. Simferopol: "Krym," 1967. An account of the participation of foreign Communists in the Bolshevik Revolution in the Crimea, 1917-20. P. "Sytuacja strategiczna na Ukrainie" [Strategic situation in Ukraine].

Rzad i Wojsko (Warsaw), no. 2 (1920), pp. 9-10. Paliiv, Dmytro. "Na chystu vodu" [On the clear water]. LCK, no. 6 (1930); nos. 7-8, pp. 12-13.

-----------. "Zymovyi pokhid" [Winter campaign]. LCK, no. 6 (1935), pp. 8-9; nos. 7-8, pp. 7-10.

Panchenko, Petro. Ukrains'ki partyzany u vitchyznianii viini 1918 roku [The Ukrainian partisans in the patriotic war 1918]. Saratov, 1942.

Pavlov, P. A. "Voennye khitrosti" [Military ruses]. Voennyi vestnik (Moscow), no. 4 (1921), pp. 12-14. A brief account of Makhno's military tactics.

-----------. "Vyvody iz opyta bor'by s Makhno svodnoi divizhii kursantov 6 noiabria i dekabre 1920 g. i ianvare 1921 g." [Conclusions from the experiences of struggle against Makhno by the elite troops, November 6 and December 1920 and January 1921]. AR, nos. 2-3 (1921), pp. 97-111.

Pavlov, V. E. Markovtsy v boiakh i pokhodakh za Rossiiu v osvoboditel'noi voine, 1917-1920 godov [Markov's men in the campaigns and marches for Russia in the liberation war]. 2 vols. Paris, 1962.

Pavlovich, Michael. "Ukraine." Soviet Russia 3, no. 23 (December 4, 1920): 545-48.

Peake, Thomas R. "Jacques Sadoul and the Russian intervention, 1919." The Russian Review 32, no. 1 (1973): 54-63.

Pelletier, Lucile. "Nestor Makhno est mort.".ft. P., no. 181 (August 25, 1934), pp. 11-12.

Perfets'kyi, A. "Smert' chety kinnykh Chornomortsiv: Pamiaty poliahlykh" [The death of a cavalry unit of the 'Chornomortsi': in memory of the fallen]. KCK 1924, pp. 116-19.

Peters, Victor. Nestor Makhno: The Life of an Anarchist. Winnipeg: Echo Books, 1970. An objective and well-documented study of the Makhno movement and of Makhno's exile in Paris.

Petrovs'kyi, H. I. Rady za periodu hromadians'koi viiny i za myrnoho budivnytstva [The councils during the civil war and peaceful construction] . Kharkov: Derzh. vyd-vo Ukrainy, 1927.

Petrovych, A. "Huliaipil'skyi bat'ko i ukrains'ka entsyklopediia." VW-nyisvit (Winnipeg), August 8, 1966.

Pevnyi, P. Za voliu ta derzhavnist' [For freedom and statehood]. Stani-slav, 1920. Personal observations and documents about the winter campaign against the Bolshevik and Denikin forces from December 1919 through May 1920.

Pidmohyl'nyi, V. Tretia revoliutsiia [The Third Revolution]. Lvov, 1922.

Pipes, Richard. The Formation of the Soviet Union, Communism and Nationalism, 1917-1923. Rev. ed. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1964. A thorough and well-documented scholarly work dealing with the disintegration of the Russian Empire, the establishment of national states, and the subsequent formation of the Soviet Union. The emphasis is on the political aspects of the national movements by new states that later became part of the Soviet Union.

Podshivalov, I. M. Desantnaia ekspeditsiia Kovtiukha: Likvidatsiia vrangelevskogo desanta na Kubani v avguste 1920 g., takticheskii ocherk [The landing expedition of Kovtiuk: liquidation of Wrangel's landing in the Kuban in August 1920, a tactical sketch]. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo, 1927.

Pois, Robert A. "Friedrich Meinecke and Eastern Europe: A Study of the World War I Period." East European Quarterly l,no. 3 (1967): 249-60.

Pokrovski, Georgii. Denikinshchina: God politiki i ekonomiki na Kubani, 1918-1919 gg. [The Denikin movement: a year of politics and economics in the Kuban]. Berlin: Z. I. Grzhebina, 1923. Relations between the government of the Kuban Cossacks and the Volunteer Army from 1918 through 1920.

Pokrovskii, M. N. Ob Ukraine: Sbornik statei i materialov [About Ukraine: collection of articles and materials]. Kiev: Sotsekgiz. Ukrainy, 1935.

Polevoi. "Anarkhizm i makhnovshchina" [Anarchism and the Makhno movement]. PS, no. 43 (June 5, 1920), pp. 1-3. Author's opinion is that although the Makhno movement was not an Anarchist movement, it was deeply revolutionary and was being led by a group of Anarchists.

Polishchuk, Klym. Huliaipil'skyi "bat'ko" [The "father" from Huliai-Pole]. 2 vols. Kolomyya: Vyd-vo Oka, 1925-26. A novel about the Makhno movement.

Ponomarenko, P. M. "O politeke partii v ukrainskoi derevne v 1919- 1920 gg" [About the policy of the party in a Ukrainian village in 1919-1920]. Voprosy istorii (Moscow), no. 8 (1956), pp. 105-7.

Popov, I. "Vziatie Perekopa" [The capture of Perekop]. AR, nos. 2- 3 (1921), pp. 93-99.

Popov, N. A. "Uchastie kitaiskikh internatsional'nykh chastei v za-shchite Sovetskoi Respubliki v period Grazhdanskoi voiny, 1918- 1920 gody" [Participation of the Chinese international detachments in defense of the Soviet Republic during the civil war, 1918- 1920]. Voprosy istorii (Moscow), no. 10 (1957), pp. 109-23.

"Povstancheskoe dvizhenie na Ukraine" [The partisan movement in Ukraine]. Revoliutsionnaia Rossiia (Berlin, Prague), no. 11 (192-), pp. 22-25.

"Povstannia na Khersonshchyni proty Skoropads'koho" [Uprisings in the Kherson province against Skoropads'kyi]. Strilets'ka dumka (Starokonstantyniv), no. 61 (1919).

Premysler, I. "Razgom banditizma na Ukraine, 1921 g." [Defeat of banditry in Ukraine, 1921]. VIZ, no. 9 (1940), pp. 34-44. An account of partisan groups, including Makhno, against the Bolshevik regime and the Red troops in Ukraine in 1921.

Preobrazhenskii, E. "Evgeniia Bogdanova Bosh." PR, no. 2 (37) (1925), pp. 5-16. A detailed biography.

Primakov, V. "Bor'ba za sovetskuiu vlast' na Ukraine" [The struggle for Soviet power in Ukraine] ; In Piat'let Krasnoi Armii: Sbornik statei, 1918-1923, pp. 171-95. Moscow, 1923.

Primakov, V. M. "Konnyi boi u Perekopa" [Cavalry battle at Perekop]. Vennyi vestnik (Moscow), no. 5 (1923), pp. 41-43.

-----------. "Srazhenie pod Orlom: Oktaibr' 1919-noibr' 1919 goda"

[Battle at Orel: October 1919-November 1919]. Bor'ba klassov (Moscow), no. 2 (1931), pp. 50-60. Denikin's campaign against the Red Army in the region of Orel and Kursk in the second half of 1919; includes an account of Latvian and Estonian troops fighting Denikin and of Makhno's activities at his rear.

Prokhoda, V. "Sirozhupannyky v povstani proty uriadu het'mana Skoropads'koho" [Graycoats in the uprising against the government of Hetman Skoropadsky]. Tabor (Warsaw), no. 9 (1928), pp. 90-95.

"Protiv gotoviashchegosia prestupleniia russkogo i pol'skogo pravitel'-stv" [Against the preparation of the treason of the Russian and Polish regimes]. VO, no. 2 (1922), pp. 9-12.

Putsenko, V. "Povstanchyi zahin iampil'shchyny" [A partisan detachment of the IAmpil region]. Ukrains'ka strilets'ka hromada v Ka-nadi 1928-1938, pp. 157-59. Saskatoon: Nakl. Ukrains'koi stri-lets'koi hromady v Kanadi, 1938.

R. "Bredovskii pokhod" [Bredov's campaign]. Chasovoi (Brussels), no. 49 (February 15, 1931), p. 22.

R., J. G. "Machno, Nestor." The Mennonite Encyclopedia, pp. 430- 31. Scottdale, Pa., 1957.

Radziejowski, Janusz. "Ruch narodowy i rewolucyjny na Ukrainie w okresie dzialalnosci Centralnej Rady (Marzec 1917-Kwiecien 1918 r." [National and revolutionary movement in Ukraine during the period of the Central Rada, March 1917-April 1918]. Studia z dziejow ZSRR i Europy Srodkowej (Warsaw) 9 (1973): 53-84.

Rafes, Moissey G. Dva goda revoliutsii na Ukraine: Evoliutsiia i raskol "Bunda" [Two years of revolution in Ukraine: evolution and the split of the "Bund"]. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo, 1920. A valuable account of the Ukrainian Revolution and the development and attitude of the Jewish organization "Bund" toward Ukrainian statehood; written by one of its leaders, who was a member of the Central Rada and later a member of the Russian Communist Party.

Rakovskii, G. N. Konets bielykh; ot Dniepra do Bosfora: Vyrozhdenie, agoniia i likvidatsiia [The end of the Whites; from the Dnieper to Bosporus: degeneration, agony and liquidation]. Prague: Izd-vo "Volia Rossii," 1921. A sequel to the author's V stanie bieklykh, dealing with the final phase of the Russian Civil War in 1920.

-----------. V stanie bielykh: Ot Orla do Novorossiiska [In the camp of the Whites: from Orel to Novorossiisk]. Istanbul: Izd G. N. Rakov-skago, 1920, A competent, critical analysis of the Russian Civil War from 1918 to 1919 and the cause of its failure, by a Russian journalist associated with the information agency of the Volunteer Army.

Rakovskii, Kh. G. Bor'ba za osvobozhdenie derevni [The struggle of liberation of a village] . Kharkov: Izd. Politotdela Ukrsovtrudaarma, 1920. A unique account of the struggle of Bolshevik authorities and the Red Army against Ukrainian uprisings and peasant revolts during the Bolshevik invasion of Ukraine in 1919, based upon the records of the Red Army, the Cheka, and the Commissariat of Internal Affairs.

-----------."H'ich i Ukraina," LR, no. 2 (11) (1925), pp. 5-10. Lenin's Ukrainian policy from the summer of 1918 to the summer of 1919.

-----------. Otchet Raboche-Krest'ianskogo Pravitel'stva Ukrainy IV-mu Vseukrainskomu S'ezdu Sovetov Rabochikh, Krest'ianskikh i Krasnoarmeishkikh deputatov 16-20 maia 1920 gg. [A report of Workers-Peasants Government of Ukraine to the 4th All-Ukrainian Congress of the Soviets of Workers, Peasants, and Red Army deputies on May 16-20, 1920]. Kharkov: Vseukrainskoe izd., 1920.

Ravich-Cherkas'kyi, M. [Rabinovich]. Anarkhisty. Kharkov: "Prole-tarii, "1929.

-----------. "Fevral'-dekabr' 1917 g. v Ekaterinoslave: Ocherki" [February-December in Katerynoslav: sketches]. LR, no. 1 (1922), pp. 74-80. The activities of the Bolshevik activists among the workers and soldiers in Katerynoslav in 1917.

-----------. Makhno i makhnovshchyna [Makhno and the Makhno movement] . Ekaterinoslav: Vseukr. izd-vo, 1920.

-----------, ed. Zhovtnevyi zbirnyk: Revoliutsii roku VII, 1917-1924 [October collection: revolutions of the seventh year, 1917-1924]. Kiev: Derzh. vyd-vo Ukrainy, 1924.

Rebikov, N. "Latyshskie strelki v Rossii" [Latvian sharpshooters in Russia]. Chasovoi (Brussels), no. 500 (1968), pp. 17-18.

Reik. "Povest o pechal'nym kontsom (Eshche o Makhno)" [A story about the sad end (more about Makhno)]. Odesskii Nabat, no. 7 (June 16, 1919), pp. 2-3.

Remnev, M. I. "Deiatel'nost' Komitetov nezamozhnykh selian na Ukraine v 1920 godu" [Activities of the Committees of Poor Peasants in Ukraine in 1920]. VI, no. 4 (1954), pp. 93-103.

Repression de I'anarchisme en Russie sovietique. Paris, 1923. An account of the Russian Anarchists, of their persecution by the Soviet regime, and of Makhno's associates.

Reshetar, John S., Jr. The Ukrainian Revolution, 1917-1920: A Study in Nationalism. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1952. A thorough and well-documented scholarly work on the development of the Ukrainian Revolution and its origins in the mid-nineteenth century, stressing the relations with Central Powers, Entente, Volunteer Army, and Poland.

Richyts'kyi, And. Tsentral'na Rada, vid liutoho do zhovtnia: Narys z istorii ukrains'koi revoliutsii [The Central Rada, from February to October: a sketch of the history of the Ukrainian Revolution]. Kharkov: Derzh. vyd-vo Ukrainy, 1930.

Ripets'kyi, S. "Povstans'kyi rukh na Ukraini 1918-22" [The partisan movement in Ukraine 1918-22]. In Entsyklopediia ukraino-znavstva: Slovnykova chastyna, 6: 2117-22. Munich: "Molode zhyttia," 1970.

Romeyko, Marian. Przed i po Maju [Before and after the May (coup)]. 2 vols. Warsaw: Wydavvn. Ministerstwa Obrony Narodowej, 1967.

Rosenberg, William G. A. I. Denikin and the Anti-Bolshevik Movement in South Russia. Amherst: Amherst College Press, 1961.

Roshchin. "Kto takoi Grigor'ev?" [Who was Hryhor'iv?]. PKS, no. 1 (May 17, 1919), p. 3. A denunciation of Otaman Hryhor'iv as an agent of Denikin and a supporter of the "kulaks."

Rudenko, P. Na Ukraine: Povstanchestvo i anarchicheskoe dvizhenie [In Ukraine: partisan and anarchist movements]. Buenos Aires: Izd. Rabochei gruppy v Resp. Argentine, 1922. A general survey of the Makhno movement and the Anarchist organization Nabat.

Rudnev, V. V. Anark hie heskii kommunizm i marksizm [Anarchist communism and Marxism]. St. Petersburg: "Narodnaia polza," 1906.

-----------. Makhnovshchina [Makhno movement]. Kharkov: Knyhospilka, 1928. A general survey of the Makhno movement from the spring of 1918 to the summer of 1921, by a Bolshevik, formerly a Socialist Revolutionary, who occupied various official positions, including prosecutor of the Cheka-GPU. Although the author had access to the archival material, he lists no sources.

-----------. Makhnovshchyna: Populiarnyi narys [Makhno movement: a popular sketch]. Kharkov: Knyhospilka, 1928.

Runkle, Gerald. Anarchism, Old and New. New York: Delacorte Press, 1972.

Rybakov, M. "Deistviia letuchego korpusa tov. Nestorovicha" [Operations of a flying corps of comrade Nestorovich]. Sbornik trudov Voenno-nauchnogo obshchestva pri Voennoi akademii (Moscow), no. 4 (1923), pp. 104-34. A detailed account by a Bolshevik official describing the campaigns of the Red troops against Makhno during the winter of 1921 in Poltava province.

-----------. "Makhnovskie operatsii v 1920 g." [Makhno operations in 1920]. Krasnaia armiia (Moscow), no. 12 (1922), pp. 11-27. A detailed account dealing with the struggle of the Red troops against Makhno in 1920.

Rybalka, I. K. Rozhrom burzhnazno-natsionalistychnoi Direktorii na Ukraini [The destruction of the bourgeois-nationalistic directory in Ukraine]. Kharkov: Vyd-vo Kharkivs'koho universytetu, 1962.

Sadovs'kyi, V. "Shliakhy ukrains'koi revoliutsii" [The developments of the Ukrainian Revolution]. KD 1927, pp. 13-26.

Sakhno, V. "Delegatom vid povstantsiv, lystopad-hruden' 1919 r." [A delegate from the partisans, November-December 1919]. Tabor (Warsaw), no. 7 (1928), pp. 70-83.

Santil'ian, D. "Bakunizm i makhnovshchina" [Bakunism and the Makhno movement]. AV, nos. 3-4 (1923), pp. 23-25.

Savoika, Liubomyr. "IAk povstala armiia Halliera" [The origin of the Haller army]. Visti (New York), no. 122 (1966).

Semanov, S. G. "Makhnovshchina i ee krakh" [The Makhno movement and its collapse]. Voprosy istorii (Moscow), no. 9 (1966), pp. 37- 60. A well-documented and useful survey of the Makhno movement by a Soviet Russian historian.

Sereda, Mykhailo. "Kholodnyi IAr" [Cold Ravine]. LCK, no. 12 (1931),pp. 11-14.

-----------. "Kholodnyi IAr" [Cold Ravine]. Dilo (Lvov), August 4, 1934. An account of the meeting and subsequent assassination of Otaman Hryhor'iv by Makhno.

-----------. "Ostanni dni zbroinoi borot'by, 21, XI, 1920 r.-21, XI, 1921 r." [The last days of armed struggle, November 21, 1920-November 21, 1921]. LCK, no. 12 (1930), pp. 2-5.

-----------. "Otamanshchyna" [The otaman movement] . LCK, no. 3 (1929), pp. 22-24; no. 1 (1930), pp. 10-12; no. 2, pp. 6-8;no. 3, pp. 15-17; no. 4, pp. 12-14; no. 5, pp. 12-14; no. 6,pp. 17-20; nos. 7-8, pp. 21-25; no. 9, pp. 14-16; no. 10, pp. 15-17; no. 11, pp. 11-13; no. 12, pp. 18-20. Biographical sketches by a Ukrainian officer about a number of partisan leaders, including Palienko, Anhel, Bozhko, Volokh, Volynets', ShepeP, Liakhovych, and Tiutiunyk, which describes their campaigns against the Bolshevik and anti-Bolshevik Russian forces during the Revolution. The work is based mainly on the author's memoirs and on secondary sources.

-----------. "Storinka z istorii vyzvol'noi borot'by" [A page from the history of the struggle for liberation]. LCK, no. 11 (1931), pp. 15-17. An account of the Ukrainization of the 34th Army Corps under General Pavlo Skoropads'kyi in the summer of 1917 and the Corps' fight against the Bolshevik forces under Evgeniia Bosh, which threatened the Central Rada.

-----------. "Viis'kova narada v kabineti general'noho sekretaria Porsha dnia 18 (5 st. st.) sichnia 1918 r." [A military conference in the office of Secretary-General Porsh on January 18 (5 O. S.) 1918]. LCK, no. 5 (1937), pp. 2-3.

Sergeev, P. "Poltavskaia operatsiia protiv Makhno" [The Poltava operation against Makhno]. VR, no. 9 (1927), pp. 122-34. A detailed account of the Red Army operation in Poltava province during the first half of 1921, stressing Makhno's military tactics.

Sergent, Alain. Les anarchistes: Scenes et portraits presentes et com-mentes. Paris: F. Chambriand, 1951.

----------- and Claude Harmel. Histoire de I'anarchie. Paris: Le Portulan, 1949.

Shakhrai, Vasyl M. Revoliutsiia na Ukraini [The Revolution in Ukraine]. Saratov: Borba, 1919.

Shankovs'kyi, Lev. "Hryhorievshchyna-problema i literatura" [The Hryhor'iv movement-the problem and the literature]. Al'manakh kaliendar Providinnia, 1966.

-----------. Ukrains'ka armiia v borot'bi za derzhavnist' [The Ukrainian Army in the struggle for statehood]. Munich: Dniprova khvylia, 1958. A well-documented survey of the organization and activities of the Ukrainian armed forces, including the partisans, 1917-21.

-----------. "Za Ukrainu-proty Moskvy: Ukrains'kyi narodnii povstans'kyi rukhr proty Moskvy pid chas vyzvol'noi viiny 1917-1920 rr. i pislia zakinchennia viiny v 1921-1924 rr." [For Ukraine-against Muscovy: Ukrainian national partisan movement against Muscovy during the liberation war 1917-1920 and after the end of the war 1921 - 1924]. Al'manakh-kalendar Soiuzu Ukraintsiv Katolykiv Ameryky "Provydinnia" na rik 1971, pp. 111-26. Philadelphia, Pa.: Vyd-vo "Ameryka," 1970.

Shapoval, Mykyta. Velyka revoliutsiia i ukrains'ka vyzvol'na programa [The great revolution and the Ukrainian liberation program]. Prague: "Vil'na spilka," 1927. A valuable history of the Ukrainian Revolution based mainly upon the author's reminiscences, seen against the political and socioeconomic background.

-----------. Zanepad U. N. R. [The decline of the U. N. R.]. Prague: "Vil'na spilka," 1928.

----------- and O. Slobodych. Velykyi zryv: Narys istorii ukrainskoi revoliutsii, 1917-1920 [The great upheaval: a sketch of the history of the Ukrainian Revolution, 1917-1920] . Lvov: Vyd. Samoosvita, 1930.

Shatz, Marshall S., ed. The Essential Works of Anarchism. New York: Quadrangle Books, 1972.

Shchadenko, E. A. Grigor'evshchina: Bor'ba Krasnoi armii protiv Grigor'eva [The Hryhor'iv movement: the Red Army against

--------. "Grigor'evshchina" [The Hryhor'iv movement]. In Grazhdanskaia voina, 1918-1921, 1: 68-95. Edited by A. S. Budnov. Moscow, 1928-30.

Shekhtman, I. B. Pogromy Dobrovol'cheskoi armii na Ukraine: K istorii antisemitizma na Ukraine v 1919-1920 gg. [Pogroms of the Volunteer Army in Ukraine: about the history of anti-Semitism in Ukraine in 1919-1920]. Berlin, Ostjudisches historisches Archiv, 1932.

Shelygin, IA. Krasnaia armiia na Ukraine: Kratkii ocherk [The Red Army in Ukraine: a short sketch]. Kharkov: Izd-vo Knyhospilka, n.d.

-----------. "Partizanskaia bor'ba s getmanshchinoi i avstro-germanskoi okkupatsiei" [The partisan struggle against the hetman regime and the Austro-German invaders]. LR, no. 6 (33) (1928), pp. 61-101. A valuable, detailed survey, consisting largely of documentary quotations.

Shevchuk, H. M. Borot'ba trudiashchykh Radians'koi Ukrainy proty kontr-revoliutsii na Pivdni v 1920 r. [The struggle of the toilers of Soviet Ukraine against counterrevolution in the south in 1920]. Kiev: Vyd-vo Akademii nauk Ukr. RSR, 1956.

Shrag, N. "Ekonomicheskie predposylki interventsii Antanty na Ukraine" [Economic conditions before the intervention of the Entente in Ukraine]. In Chernaia kniga: Sbornik statei i materialov ob interventsii Antanty na Ukraine v 1918-1919 gg., pp. 13-27.

Ekaterinoslav: Gos. izd-vo Ukrainy, 1925. Shtein, B. "Iz istorii pervonachal'nogo perioda grazhdanskoi voiny" [From the history of the initial period of the civil war] . IM, no. 4 (80-81) (1940), pp. 12-35.

Shtif, N. I. Pogromy na Ukraine: Period dobrobol'cheskoi armii [The pogroms in Ukraine: the period of the Volunteer Army]. Berlin: "Vostok," 1922.

Shul'hyn, Olexander. "Ukraine and Its Political Aspirations." The Slavonic Review 13 (1935): 350-62.

Siedlecki, Krzysztof. " 'Brzesc Litewski'-rokowania pokojowe i traktaty" ["Brest-Litovsk"-negotiations of peace and treaties]. Bellona (Warsaw) 15, no. 2 (1924): 113-36; 15, no. 3: 239-58; 16, no. 1: 16-29.

Simonov, B. Razgrom denikinshchiny: Pochemu my pobedili v oktiabre 1919 g. [Destruction of the Denikin movement: why we triumphed in October of 1919]. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo, Otd-nie Voen. lit-ry, 1928. The Bolshevik campaign against Denikin in September and October 1919 and the causes of the latter's defeat.

Siropolko, St. "Dva areshtuvannia S. Petliury za het'mana P. Skoro-pads'koho" [Two arrests of S. Petliura during the time of Hetman P. Skoropads'kyi]. KD 1937.

Sivtsov, A. Kievskaia krasnaia gvardiia v bor'be za vlast' sovetov [The Kiev Red Guard in the struggle for Soviet power] . A well-documented work about the partisan struggle against the hetman and the Austro-German troops in 1918, stressing the Communists' role.

Skirda, Alexandre. Lcs Anarchistes dans la revolution Russe. Paris: Ed. Tete de Feuilles, 1973.

Skliarenko, IE. M. Borot'ba trudiashchykh Ukrainy proty nimets'ko- avstriis'kykh okupantiv i het'manshchyny v 1918 rotsi [The struggle of the workers of Ukraine against the German-Austrian invaders and the hetman regime in 1918]. Kiev: Vyd-vo Akademii nauk Ukr. RSR, 1960.

Skorovstans'kyi, V. [pseud.] . Revoliutsiia na Ukraine [The Revolution in Ukraine]. Saratov: Izd-vo Borba, 1919.

Slashchov, IA. Trcbuiu suda obshchestva i glasnosti: Oborona i sdacha Kryma [(I) demand a court of society and the public: defense and surrender of the Crimea] . Constantinople, 1920.

Slobodych, O. Borot'ba svitiv na Ukraini: Narys istorii Ukrains'koi revoliutsii, 1918-1920 r. [The struggle of the worlds in Ukraine: a sketch of the history of the Ukrainian Revolution, 1918-1920]. Lvov: Vyd-vo Samoos'vita, 1930.

"Smert' N. I. Makhno" [The death of N. I. Makhno]. PRO, nos. 47-49 (1934), pp. 1-2.

Smetanich, S. "1917-1918 gody na Poltavshchine" [1917-1918 in Poltava province]. In Oktiabr'-skaia revoliutsiia: Pervoe piatiletie, 1917-1922, pp. 259-75. Kharkov, 1922.

Smith, C. Henry. The Story of the Mennonites. Newton, Kans.: Mennonite Publications Office, 1950.

Smolenskii, S. Krymskaia katastrofa: Zapiski stroevoho ofitsera [The Crimean catastrophe: notes of a combatant officer] . Sofia: Rossiisko-Bolgarskoe knigoizd-vo, 1921. A survey of Wrangel's fighting against the Bolsheviks and his subsequent defeat in the Crimea.

Smolinchuk, P. I. Bol'sheviki Ukrainy v bor'be za Sovety, mart 1917-ianvar 1918 gg. [The Bolsheviks of Ukraine in the struggle for the Soviets, March 1917-January 1918]. Lvov: Izd-vo L'vovskogo un-ta, 1969.

Sokolov, A. "Povstanchestvo i bol'shevizm: Prichiny razgroma bol'she-vikami revoliutsionnogo povstanchestva" [The partisan movement and bolshevism: reasons for the defeat by the Bolsheviks of the revolutionary partisan movement]. Nabat (Kharkov), no. 22 (July 7,1919), P. 2.

Solovei, Dmytro. Vasylenko, Miliukov i samostiinist' Ukrainy v 1918 r.: Sproba kharakterystyky z nahody 45-richchia vid chasu proholo-shennia tret'oho i chetvertoho universaliv Tsentral'noi Rady [Vasylenko, Miliukov, and the independence of Ukraine in 1918: an attempt at characterization on the 45th anniversary of the proclamation of the Third and Fourth Universals of the Central Rada.

"Souiz Makhno-Vrangel' " [The Makhno-Wrangel alliance]. Volia Rossii (Prague), September 25, 1920.

Spiridonov, P. I. Bol'sheviki v tylu belogvardeishchiny [The Bolsheviks in the rear of the White Guards]. Kerch: "Kerchenskii rabochii," 1940.

Stachiw, Matthew [Matvii Stakhiv]. Ukraina v dobi Dyrektorii UNR [Ukraine in the period of the Directory of UNR]. Scranton, Pa.: Ukr. naukovo-istorychna biblioteka, 1962-66. A multi-volume work on the Ukrainian Revolution from November 1918 to November 1920, stressing the directory's endeavor to gain international recognition and military support from the Entente.

----------- and Jaroslaw Sztendera. Western Ukraine at the Turning Point of Europe's History. New York: The Shevchenko Scientific Society, 1971.

Stebnyts'kyi, Petro [P. Smutok, pseud.]. Pomizh dvokh revoliutsii: Narysy politichnoho zhyttia za rr. 1907-1918 [Between two revolutions: sketches of political life for the years of 1907-1918]. Kiev: "Chas," 1918.

-----------. Ukraina v ekonomike Rossii [Ukraine in the Russian economy]. Petrograd, 1918.

Stefaniv, Zenon. Ukrains'ki zbroini syly 1917-21 rr. [Ukrainian armed forces, 1917-21]. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Munich: SUV, 1947.

Stewart, George, The White Armies of Russia: A Chronicle of Counterrevolution and Allied Intervention. New York: Macmillan, 1933. The Russian anti-Bolshevik movement from 1918 to 1922 and Allied intervention; based mainly on secondary sources, it contains a number of factual errors.

Stolnikov, K. A. Pamiatnaia zapiska k istorii Simferopol'skogo offitser-skogo polka [A memorable note about the history of the Simferopol Officers' Regiment]. Sofia (?), 1921-22. A study based on documents, diaries, and memoirs of eyewitnesses of the organization and campaigns of the Simferopol Officers' Regiment against Makhno and the Ukrainian troops on the Right Bank during the second half of 1919.

"Strategiczna Sytuacja na Ukrainie w r. 1919" [The strategic situation in Ukraine in 1919]. Rzad i Wojsko (Warsaw), no. 9 (February 29, 1920), pp. 7-9; no. 10 (March 7), pp. 9-10; no. 11 (March 14), pp. 9-10.

Struve, Petr. Razmyshleniia o russkoi revoliutsii [Reflections on the Russian Revolution]. Sofia: Rossiisko-bolgarskoe knigoizd-vo, 1921.

Sukhov, A. A. Inostrannaia interventsiia na Odeshchine v 1918-1919 gg. [Foreign intervention in the Odessa region]. Odessa: Izd. Istpart. Otdel Odesskogo Obkoma KP(b)U, 1927.

Sukiennicki, Wiktor. "Moskwa a Ukraina po klesce Niemiec w 1918 r." [Moscow and Ukraine after the defeat of Germany in 1918]. Zeszyty historyczne (Paris), no. 5 (1964), pp. 133-43.

Sullivant, Robert S. Soviet Politics and the Ukraine, 1917-1957. New York: Columbia University Press, 1962. A study of the Russian Communist Party's nationality policy in Ukraine, stressing the relationship of industrial-agrarian and the nationality questions.

Suprunenko, N. I. "Bor'ba ukrainskikh partizan protiv denikinshchiny" [The struggle of the Ukrainian partisans against the Denikin movement] . Istoricheskiizhurnal (Moscow), no. 5 (1942), pp. 27-37.

-----------. Ocherki istorii grazhdanskoi voiny i inostrannoi voennoi interventsii na Ukraine, 1918-1920 [Sketches of the history of the civil war and foreign military intervention in Ukraine] . Moscow: Nauka, 1966. A well-documented but subjective study of the Ukrainian Revolution and foreign intervention in Ukraine.

-----------. "Ustanovlenie sovetskoi vlasti na Ukraine" [The establishment of the Soviet regime in Ukraine]. Voprosy istorii (Moscow), no. 10 (1957), pp. 49-70.

Szpinger, Stefan. Z Pierwsza Konnq [With the First Cavalry] . Lodz: Wydawn. Lddskie, 1967.

Tavricheskii, A. "U Makhno ne bylo programy" [Makhno had no program]. NRS, April 8, 1969.

Teper, I. [Gordeev, I.] . Makhno: Ot "edinogo anarkhizma" k stopam rumynskogo korolia [Makhno: from a "united anarchism" to the feet of the Romanian king]. Kharkov: Molodoi rabochii, 1924. An interesting account by a former Anarchist and follower of Makhno of the internal policies of the Makhno movement; includes biographies of its leaders.

Teslar, Kazimir Valerian. "Gulai-Pole." La revue anarchiste (Paris), no. 15 (1923), pp. 19-20.

Teslenko, P. "K vospominaniiam V. Belasha" [To the memory of V. Belash]. LR, no. 3 (30) (1928), pp. 228-30.

Tiutiunyk, IUrko. Zymovyi pokhid 1919-20 rr. [The winter campaigns of 1919-20]. New York: Vyd-vo Chartoryis'kykh, 1966. An authoritative, subjective account of the Ukrainian Army's guerrilla warfare in the rear of the Denikin and Bolshevik forces from December 1919 to May 1920, stressing the political aspects of the campaign, by a high-ranking officer.

Tolokol'nikov, Grigorii Abramovich. Aleksandr Parkhomenko. Moscow: Znanie, 1962.

Tragediia kozachestva: Ocherk na temu, Kozachestvo i Rossiia [Tragedy of the Cossacks: a sketch on the subject, the Cossacks and Russia]. Vol. 3. Paris, 1936.

Trifonov, I. IA. Klassy i klassovaia bor'ba v SSSR v nachale NEPa, 1921-1923 gg. [Classes and class struggle in SSSR at the beginning of NEP, 1921-1923]. Vol. 1. Leningrad, 1964.

Trypils'kyi, 01. "Na pivdennykh stepakh" [On the southern steppes]. Chervonyi shliakh (Kharkov), no. 6 (1924), pp. 97-107.

Tsapko, Ivan. "Partyzany na Skhidnii Ukraini: Starobil'skyi partyzan-s'kyi zahin" [Partisans in East Ukraine: Starobil'sk partisan detachment] . Visti (New York), no. 109 (1963), pp. 6-8; no. Ill, pp. 85-89.

Turkul, A. V. Drozdovtsy v ogne: Kartiny grazhdanskoi voiny 1918-20 gg. [Drozdov men in battle: pages from the civil war of 1918-20]. Munich: "IAv i byl," 1948.

Tychyna, V. IE. "Kolonial'ne pohrabuvannia Ukrainy nimets'kymy okupantamy u 1918 rotsi" [Colonial pillage of Ukraine by the German invaders in 1918] . Pytannia istorii narodiv SRSR (Kharkov), no. 7 (1968), pp. 12-22.

Tymoshenko, M. V. "Diialnist' sil'skykh orhaniv Radians'koi vlady na Ukraini po rozviazanniu zemel'noho i prodovol'choho pytan, 1920 r." [Activities of the village organs of the Soviet regime in Ukraine after the dissolution of land and provision problems, 1920]. Pytannia istorii narodiv SRSR (Kharkov), no. 6 (1969), pp. 46-56.

-----------. "Komnezamy Ukrainy ta ikh rol' u zmitsneni orhaniv Radians'koi vlady na seli v 1920 rotsi" [Committees of Poor Peasants of Ukraine and their role in strengthening the organs of the Soviet regime in the village in 1920]. Pytannia istorii narodiv SRSR (Kharkov), no. 7 (1968), pp. 32-41.

"Ubiistvo Grigor'eva" [Assassination of Hryhor'iv]. LR, no. 2 (1924), pp. 232-34.

Udovychenko, Oleksander. Tretia Zalizna dyviziia: Materiialy od istorii viis'ka Ukrains'koi Narodn'oi Respubliky, rik 1919 [The Third Iron Division: materials on the history of the forces of the Ukrainian People's Republic, 1919] . Vol. 1. New York: Chervona Kalyna, 1971. A history, based on archival material and the author's own recollections, of the Third Iron Division and its campaigns against the Bolsheviks and Denikin from April to December 1919. The last chapters were written by General O. Vyshnivs'kyi.

-----------. "Vid Dnistra do linii peremyrria i vidvorot za Zbruch: Boiovi chyny pravoi grupy armii UNR" [From the Dniester to the line of armistice and retreat to the Zbruch: military actions of the right wing of the UNR army]. Za Derzhavnist' (Kalisz) 5 (1935): 76-123; 6 (1936): 77-109; 7 (1937): 152-64.

"Ukraina." Volia (Vienna), vol. 4, no. 5 (1920).

Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopaedia [UE]. Prepared by Shevchenko Scientific Society. Edited by Volodymyr Kubijovyc. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1963.

"The Ukrainian Peasants." Soviet Russia 3, no. 22 (November 27, 1920): 529.

Ukrains'ka RSR v period hromadians'koi viiny, 1917-1920 rr. [Soviet Ukraine during the period of the civil war] . Kiev: Vyd-vo polit. lit-ry Ukrainy, 1967. A one-sided collective work dealing largely with the struggle of the Bolshevik and anti-Bolshevik Russian forces for power in Ukraine from March 1917 to November 1920.

Ukrainskii vopros [The Ukrainian question] . By the editors of the journal Ukrainskaia zhizn'. St. Petersburg: Elektro-tip. N. IA. Stoikovoi, 1914.

Umnov, A. S. Grazhdanskaia voina i srednee krest'ianstvo, 1918-1920 gg. [The civil war and the middle peasantry]. Moscow: Voen. izd-vo, 1959.

VaP, E. G. F. K istorii bielago dvizheniia: Deiatel'nost' general-ad'iu-tanta Shcherbacheva [About the history of the White movement: the activity of General Shcherbachev] . Tallin, 1935.

-----------. Kak Pilsudskii pogubil Denikina [How Pitsudskii defeated Denikin]. Tallin, 1938.

-----------. Znachenie i rol' Ukrainy v voprosie osvobozhdeniia Rossii ot bol'shevikov na osnovanii opyta 1918-1920 gg. [The significance and role of Ukraine in the question of Russia's liberation from the Bolsheviks on the basis of experiences of 1918-1920]. Tallin, 1937.

Valiis'kyi, A. "Povstanchyi rukh v Ukraini i otamaniia" [The partisan movement and the otamans' movement]. SV, no. 54, March 21, 1957. A lecture by a high-ranking officer about the partisan movement in Ukraine, including Makhno, from 1917 to 1922, reported by Ivan Kedryn.

-----------. "Povstans'kyi rukh v Ukraini v rokakh 1917-1922" [The partisan movement in Ukraine during the years 1917-1922]. VK, no. 4 (1961), pp. 12-16.

Villiam, Georgii. Raspad "dobrovol'tsev"; "pobezhdenye": Iz mate-rialov belogvardeiskoi pechati [Disintegration of the "volunteers"; "defeated": from materials of the White Guards publications]. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo, 1923. A critical account of the disintegration of the Denikin regime and the army. Published also in vol. 6 of Arkhiv russkoi revoliutsii (1922).

Vladimirova, Vera. God sluzhby 'sotsialistov' kapitalistam: Ocherki po istorii kontr-revoliutsii v 1918 godu [A year of service of 'socialists' for the capitalists: sketches on the history of the counterrevolution in 1918]. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo, 1927.

Vol'fson, B. "Izgnanie anglo-frantsuzskikh interventov iz Kryma i pervye shagi Sovetskoi vlasti" [The expulsion of the Anglo-French interventionists from Crimea and the first steps of the Soviet regime]. IM, nos. 4-5 (80-81) (1940), pp. 36-52.

-----------. Konets avantiury barona Vrangelia [The end of Baron Wran- gel's adventure]. Simferopol: Krymgiz., 1940. A survey of Wrangel's domestic and foreign policies and the struggle of the partisans in the rear of Wrangel's forces.

Volin, S. [Eichenbaum, V. M.; Voline]. "Delo 'Nabata': K voprosu ob organizatsii nashikh sil" [The affair of "Nabat": to the question about the organization of our strength]. DT, nos. 7-8 (1925-26), pp. 4-6.

-----------, Don i Dobrovol'cheskaia armiia: Ocherki nedavnaigo proshlago [The Don and the Volunteer Army; sketches of the recent past]. Rostov-on-Don: B. A. Suvorin, 1919.

-----------. "Eshche neskol'ko slov po povodu ob organizatsii nashikh sil" [A few more words in connection with the organization of our strength]. DT, no. 9 (1926), pp. 10-11.

-----------. Men'sheveki na Ukraine, 1917-1921 [Mensheviks in Ukraine]. New York, 1962. A valuable and well-documented survey about Menshevik political activity in Ukraine, set against the background of the Ukrainian Revolution. Numerous quotations are integrated into the text.

-----------. "Nasha positsiia" [Our position]. Kharkovskii Nabat, no. 6 (1919).

-----------. "Nestor Makhno." DT, no. 82 (1934), pp. 4-8.

-----------. Nineteen-Seventeen: The Russian Revolution Betrayed. London: Freedom Press, 1954. A translation, mainly of the second part of the author's La Revolution inconnue, that deals with the events and failures of the February Revolution and makes indictments of the October counterrevolution.

-----------. "O 'partizanshchine'" [About the partisan movement]. Nabat (Kharkov), no. 17 (June 2, 1919), pp. 2-3.

-----------. La Revolution inconnue, 1917-1921: Documentation in edite sur la revolution russe. Paris: Amis de Voline, 1947. An interesting work by a Russian anarchist about the Russian revolutionary movement from the Decembrist uprising in 1825 to the end of the civil war in 1921, including the Makhno movement.

-----------. The Unknown Revolution (Kronstadt, 1921, Ukraine, 1918- 1921). London: Freedom Press, 1955. Translation of the third part of La Revolution inconnue. Most of the work deals with the Makhno movement; however, it is largely quotations from Arshinov.

Volkonsky, P. M. The Volunteer Army of Alexeiev and Denikin: A Short Historical Sketch of the Army from its Origin to November 1/4, 1918. London: Russian Liberation Committee, 1919.

Voloshyn, Rostyslav. "Polityka bol'shevykiv na Ukraini za Tsentral'noi Rady" [Bolshevik policy on Ukraine during the Central Rada]. Vistnyk (Lvov) I, no. 3 (1937): 192-201.

Vorob'ev, A. "Ocherki iz istorii Belogo dvizheniia" [Sketches from the history of the White movement]. Russkaia mysl' (Paris), no. 2978 (December 20, 1973), p. 7.

Vynar, Liubomyr. "Prychynky do rann'oi diialnosty Nestora Makhna v Ukraini, 1917-18" [Materials pertaining to the early activities of Nestor Makhno in Ukraine, 1917-18]. Rozbudova derzhavy (Montreal), no. 2 (10) (1953), pp. 14-20. Makhno's activities and his attitudes toward the Central Rada.

-----------. "Zv'iazky Nestora Makhna z armieiu U. N. R., 1918-1920" [Relations of Nestor Makhno with the U. N. R. army, 1918-1920]. Rozbudova derzhavy (Montreal), no. 3 (11) (1953), pp. 15-18. An attempt to trace the relationship between Makhno and the Ukrainian Army.

Vyshnivs'kyi, Oleksander. "Otaman i otamaniia" [The otaman and the otamans' movement]. SV, no. 6 (1951), pp. 113-17. A valuable account by a high-ranking officer about the role of the Ukrainian partisans during the Revolution.

-----------. Povstans'kyi rukh i otamaniia: Zbirnyk [The partisan movement and the otaman movement: collection] . Detroit: Kapitula vidznaky khresta zaliznoho stril'tsia, 1973.

-----------. "Rozhrom Vseukrains'koho povstans'koho komitetu i samo-

hubchyi reid" [The destruction of the All-Ukrainian Partisan Committee and the suicidal raid]. Visti (New York), no. 106 (1961), pp. 51-52.

Vyslots'kyi, Ivan, ed. Het'man Skoropads'kyi v osvitlenni ochevydtsiv [Hetman Skoropads'kyi as interpreted by contemporaries] . Toronto: Vyd-vo "Ukrains'koho robitnyka," 1940.

Vytanovych, Illia. Agrarna polity ka ukrains'kykh uriadiv, 1917-1920 [The agrarian policy of the Ukrainian governments] . Munich, 1968.

-----------. "Agrarna polityka ukrains'kykh uriadiv rokiv revoliutsii i vyzvol'nykh zmahan', 1917-20" [The agrarian policy of the Ukrainian governments during the Revolution and the struggle for liberation, 1917-20]. UI, nos. 3-4 (15-16) (1967), pp. 5-60.

Weinstein, H. R. "Land Hunger and Nationalism in the Ukraine, 1905- 1917." Journal of Economic History 2 (1942): 24-35.

Wheeler-Bennett, John W. The Forgotten Peace: Brest-Litovsk. New York: W. Morrow & Co., 1939.

Wojna, Romuald. "Nestor Makhno: 'Anarchizm czynu'" [Nestor Makhno: "anarchism of action"]. Z pola walki (Warsaw) 13, no. 2 (50) (1970): 45-76. A well-documented general survey of the Makhno movement, its relations with the peasants and with the Anarchist organization "Nabat."

-----------. "Z trzeciego okresu wojny domowej w Rosji: Problemy polityczne i spoleczne (Grudzien 1918 r.-Grudzien 1920 r.)" [From the third period of the civil war in Russia: political and social problems (December 1918-December 1920)]. Studia z dziejoiv ZSRR i Europy Srodkowej (Wroclaw), vol. 3 (1967); vol. 6 (1971); vol. 9 (1973).

Wolfdieter, Bihl. "Beitrage zur Ukraine-Politik Osterreich-Ungarns 1918." Jahrbiicher filr Geschichte Osteuropas (Munich), n.s., 14, no. 1 (1966): 51-62.

-----------. "Einige Aspekte der osterreichisch-ungarischen Ruthenen- politik, 1914-1918." Jahrbiicher fur Geschichte Osteuropas (Munich), n.s., 14, no. 3 (1966): 539-50.

-----------. "Die Tatigkeit des Ukrainishchen Revolutionars Mykola Zaliznjak in 'Osterreich-Ungarn.'" Jahrbucher fur Geschichte Osteuropas (Munich), n.s., 13, no. 2 (1965): 226-30.

Woodcock, George. Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements. Cleveland: The World Publishing Co., 1962. A valuable general history of anarchism, including the Makhno movement.

"Z armiieiu generala Pavlenka" [With the army of General Pavlenka]. In Kaliendar kanadiis'koho ukraintsia na zvychainyi rik 1921, pp. 86-98. Winnipeg, 1921.

Zadoianyi, Vasyl'. Natsiia v borot'bi za Ukrainu [The nation in a struggle for Ukraine]. 2 vols. New York, 1968.

-----------. "Stanovyshche v Ukraini do i pislia prykhodu Austro-Nimets'kykh viis'k, berezen'-kviten' 1918 r." [Conditions in Ukraine before and after the arrival of the Austro-German troops, March-April 1918]. TR, no. 69 (1972), pp. 14-21. An objective account of sociopolitical and military conditions in Ukraine in spring 1918.

Zahora, Feliks. "Pomoc niemiecka Ukrainie w 1918 r.: Na tie zrodel niemieckich" [The German assistance for Ukraine: on the basis of German sources]. Problemy Europy Wschodniej (Warsaw) 1, no. 4 (1939): 235-41.

Zahors'kyi, P. S. and P. K. Stoian. Narysy istorii komitetiv nezamoz-nykh selian [Sketches of the history of the Committee of Poor Peasants]. Kiev: Vyd-vo Akademii nauk Ukrains'koi RSR, 1960.

Zaitsov, Arsenii A. 1918 g.: Ocherki po istorii russkoi grazhdanskoi voiny [1918: sketches on the history of the Russian Civil War]. Paris, 1934. A well-documented account by a former Russian officer.

Zalezhskii, V. Anarkhisty v Rossii [Anarchists in Russia]. Moscow: "Molodaia gvardiia," 1930.

Zaliesskii, P. I. "Glavnyia prichiny neudach Bielago dvizheniia na IUgie Rossii" [The main reasons for the failure of the White movement in South Russia]. BA, nos. 2-3 (1928), pp. 151-69. An account of the causes of the defeat of the anti-Bolshevik Russian movement in the south, set against the background of the past, by General Zaliesskii, the governor of Kharkiv province during the hetman period.

-----------. Prichiny russkoi katastrofy [The causes of the Russian disaster] . Berlin, 1925. A critical account by a Russian general, governor of Kharkiv province during the hetman period, of the causes of the defeat of the Russian anti-Bolshevik movement during the civil war.

Zastavenko, G. Krakh nimetskoi interventsii na Ukraini v 1918 r. [The defeat of the German intervention in Ukraine in 1918]. Kiev: Derzh. Vyd-vo polit. lit-ry, URSR, 1959. A one-sided account of the Austro-German policy in Ukraine in 1918.

Zavads'kyi, V. "Znadibky do istorii 1-ho Ukrains'koho polku im. het'mana Bohdana Khmel'nyts'koho" [Materials concerning the history of the 1st Ukrainian regiment in the name of Hetman Bohdan Khmel'nyts'kyi]. KD 1927, pp. 113-16. An account of the formation of a regiment out of Ukrainian soldiers serving in the Russian Army, set against a background of political conditions in Ukraine.

Zhyvotko, Arkadii. IAk sovits'ka Moskva zvoiuvala Ukrainu [How Soviet Muscovy conquered Ukraine]. Lvov: Nak. Soimovohu Kliubu U. S. R. P., 1933.

Zolotarev, A. Iz istorii Tsentral'noi Ukrains'koiRady [From the history of the Ukrainian Central Rada]. Kharkov: Gos. izd-vo Ukrainy, 1922.

Zozulia, IAkiv. "Vseukrains'ki viis'kovi z'izdy v 1917 r." [The All-Ukrainian Military Congress in 1917]. VK, no. 4 (28) (1967), pp. 29-34.

-----------, comp. Velyka Ukrains'ka revoliutsiia: Materiialy do istorii vidnovlennia ukrains'koi derzhavnosty; kalendar istorychnykh podii za Hut. 1917 r.-ber. 1918 r. [The Great Ukrainian Revolution: materials on the history of the restoration of Ukrainian statehood; calendar of historical events for February 1917-March 1918]. 2nd ed. New York, 1967. An authoritative, well-documented chronology of the Ukrainian Revolution from February 1917 to March 1918, listing correct dates, both New and Old Styles, its participants, and documentary material.