Philip Taft and Philip Ross, "American Labor Violence: Its Causes, Character, and Outcome," The History of Violence in America: A Report to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, ed. Hugh Davis Graham and Ted Robert Gurr, 1969.
References* This research has been supported by a grant from the Ford Foundation.
Philip Taft was a member of the economics department at Brown University from 1937 to 1968 and in 1968-69 was visiting professor at the State University of New York at Buffalo. He has contributed to scholarly journals, served on wage boards and State government commissions, and has written seven books and coautnored four others. Among them are History of Labor in the United States, 1896-1932, with Selig Perlman (New York: Macmillan, 1935); Organized Labor in American History (New York: Harper & Row, 1964); Labor Politics American Style (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1968); and two volumes on the American Federation of Labor.
Philip Ross is professor of industrial relations, State University of New York at Buffalo. He has served as a consultant to a number of Government and State agencies, including the National Labor Relations Board and the U.S. Departments of Commerce and Transportation. His publications include The Government as a Source of Union Power (Providence: Brown University Press, 1965) and The Labor Law in Action: An Analysis of the Administrative Process (Washington, D.C.: National Labor Relations Board, 1966), as well as numerous articles.
1. For a long period of time strikebreakers were not regarded as replacements.
2. Jean Maitron, Histoire du Mouvement Anarchiste en France (Paris. Societe Universitaire D'Editions et de Libraire, 1961), pp. 67-69.
3. Rudolf Rocker, Johann Most, Das Leben Eines Rebellen (Berlin: "Der Syndikalist," Fritz Kater, 1924), pp. 127-128.
4. Maitron, op. cit., pp. 103-104; Henry David, History of the Haymarket Affair (New York: Russell & Russell, 1958), pp. 63-66.
5. Quotation is from David, op. cit., p. 73; see also John R. Commons and associates, History of Labour in the United States (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1918), pp. 291-293.
6. David, op. cit., pp. 98-100; Commons, op. cit., pp. 294-296; Rocker, op cit., pp. 148-149.
7. See Maitron, op. cit., 168-241, for description of the violence against persons and property and the reaction of the French Government.
8. During World War I many members of the IWW were arrested, and 165 leaders were indicted in the Federal courts in Chicago for conspiring to violate the espionage law. Similar indictments were found against group tried in Sacramento, Calif., and at Kansas City, Kans. An examination of the record of the trial shows that the prosecution was able to present few instances in which the IWW was guilty of serious violence. Most instances were trivial and, moreover, showed no organized tendency in that direction. William D. Haywood, among others, denied that the IWW advocated such a principle. See Philip Taft, "The Federal Trials of the I.W.W.," Labor History, Winter 1962, pp. 57-92.
9. Walker C. Smith, The Everett Massacre (Chicago: I.W.W. Publishing Co., 1917), deals with the issue from the IWW point of view. Also, Perlman and Taft, op. cit., pp. 390-392.
10. Ralph Chaplin, The Centralia Conspiracy (Chicago: I.W.W. Publishing Co., 1924); The Centralia Case, Joint Report on the Armistice Day Tragedy at Centralia, Wash., Nov. 11, 1919, issued by the Department of Research and Education of the Federal Council of Churches, tha Social Action Department of the National Catholic Welfare Council,  and the Social Justice Committee of the Central Conference of American Rabbis, 1930; Ben Hur Lampman, Centralia Tragedy and Trial (Tacoma, Wash., 1920).
11. Eldridge Foster Dowell, A History of Criminal Syndicalism (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1939), p. 17.
12. The exchange of letters between Governor Mathews and the President are in Federal Aid in Domestic Disturbances, 1877-1903. S. Doc. 209, 57th Cong., 2d session, p. 315.
13. Letters in ibid., p. 317.
14. Gerald G. Eggert, Railroad Labor Policy (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1967), p. 9.
15. Report of the Committee to Investigate the Railroad Riots in July, 1877 (Harrisburg: Lane and Hart, State Printers, 1878), pp. 39-40.
16. See Robert V. Bruce, 1877: Year of Violence (Indianapolis: Bobbs Merrill, 1959); J. A. Dacus, Annals of the Great Strikes (St. Louis: Schammell & Co., 1877); Edward Winslow Martin, The History of the Great Riots (Philadelphia: National Publishing Co., 1877).
17. Fifth Biennial Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Kansas, 1885-86, pp. 53-54.
18. Investigation of Labor Troubles in Missouri, Kansas and Texas and Illinois, H. Rept. 4174, 49 Cong. 2d sess., 1887, pp. IV-V.
19. Biennial Report of the Adjutant General of Illinois to the Governor and Commander-in-Chief, 1885-86, pp. 21, 22, 27, 30, 32.
20. Ibid., pp. 34-35.
21. Labor Troubles in the Anthracite Region of Pennsylvania, H. Rept. 4147, 50th Cong., 2d sess., 1889, p. LXXXV.
22. Annual Report of the Adjutant General of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for the Year Ending December 31, 1875, pp. 17-18.
23. Speech of Gen. C. H. Grosvenor of Athens County to Ohio House of Representatives, Mar. 10, 1875, pp. 3, 9; 15.
24. Quotation is from Investigation of Labor Troubles. U.S. S. Rept. 1280, 52d Cong., 2d sess., pp. XII, XIV. See also Employment of Pinkertons, H. Rept. 2447, 52d Cong., 2d sess.
25. Report of the United States Industrial Commission, Washington, 1901, vol. XII, p. 490; George Edgar French. "The Coeur d'Alene Riots," Overland Monthly, July 1895, pp. 33-34; Selig Perlman and Philip Taft, History of Labor in the United States (New York: Macmillan Co., 1935), vol. TV, pp. 17-173.
26. Annual Report of the Adjutant General to the Governor of the State of Ohio for the Fiscal Year Ending Nov. 15, 1894, pp. 5-6; Ninth Biennial Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Kansas, 1893-94, p. 13.
27. Biennial Report of the Adjutant General of Illinois to the Governor and Commander-in-Chief, 1893 and 1894, pp. XII, XIII.
28. Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Indiana for the Year Ending October 31, 1894, p. 9; Report of the Adjutant General to the Governor of Iowa for the Biennial Period Ending November 30, 1895, pp. 19-21.
29. Quotation from Almont Lindsey, The Pullman Strike (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1942), p. 263. Also see Federal Aid in Domestic Disturbances, pp. 194-195. President Cleveland, who had sent troops to Chicago during the strike, believed that "a comparatively insignificant quarrel between the managers of an industrial establishment and their workmen was joined by the large army of the Railway Union. It was the membership of these workmen in the Railway Union . . . that gave it the proportions of a tremendous disturbance, paralyzing the most important business interests, obstructing the functions of the Government, and disturbing social peace." Grover Cleveland, The Government in the Chicago Strike of 1894 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1913), p. 6.
30. Resolution of the General Manager's Association is found in the Report on the Chicago Strike of June-July 1894 by the United States Commission appointed by the President, July 25, 1894, under the provisions of sec. 6 of ch. 1063 of the laws of the United States passed Oct. 1, 1888. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1895), p. 250.
31. Appendix to the Annual Report of the Attorney General of the United States for Year 1896 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1896), pp. 221-222. 
32. Report of the Special Committee of Assembly Appointed to Investigate-the Causes of the Strike of the Surface Rail Roads in the City of Brooklyn (Albany: J. B. Lyon, 1895).
33. Report of the Adjutant General of New York State, Jan. 8, 1896, app. A.
34. A. C. Hutson, Jr., "The Coal Miners' Insurrection of 1891 in Anderson County, Tennessee," The East Tennessee Historical Society's Publications, No. 7, 1935, pp. 103-121.
35. Robert David Ward and William Warren Rodgers, Labor Revolt in Alabama: The Great Strike of 1894 (Southern Historical Publications No. 9, University of Alabama, 1965), p. 68.
36. Biennial Report of the Adjutant General of Alabama, 1894, pp. 52, 62; Ward and Rodgers, op. cit., p. 111.
37. Biennial Report of the Adjutant General of Illinois to the Governor and Commander-in-Chief, 1899-1900, pp. 6-7; Eighteenth Annual Report of the Illinois Bureau of Labor-Statistics, 1899, pp. II-III.
38. See Vernon H. Jenson, Heritage of Conflict (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1950), pp. 13-14; Selig Perlman and Philip Taft, History of Labor in the United States, 1896-1932 (New York: Macmillan Co, 1935), vol. IV, pp. 184-186; Report of the United States Industrial Commission, vol. XII, pp. 469-470; Coeur d'Alene Mining Troubles, S. Doc.v 140, 56th Cong., 1st sess., p. 65; Coeur d'Alene Labor Troubles, H. Rept. 1999, 56th Cong., 1st sess., pp. 69-125.
39. The Molly McGuires, a terrorist organization that operated in the anthracite area at this time, was not a bargaining organization. Made up of Irish miners, it exercised vengeance against arrogant mine bosses of British origin and others who came into its disfavor. It did not direct demands for improvements in working conditions, although it issued warnings against oppressors. Whatever its connection with the labor movement may have been, we know that this group was destroyed and many of its leaders hanged.
40. Frank Julian Warne, The Coal Mine Workers (New York: Longmans, 1905).
41. New York World, Sept. 11-12, 1897; Also see Edward Pinkowski, The Latimer Massacre (Philadelphia: Sunshine Press, 1950).
42. New York Tribune, Sept. 23, Sept. 27, 1900.
43. New York Tribune, Sept. 30, 1902; Perlman and Taft, op. cit., p. 44: Robert J. Cornell, The Anthracite Coal Strike (Washington: Catholic University Press, 1957); Frank J. Warne, The Slav Invasion and the Mine Workers (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1904); Report to the President on the Anthracite Coal Strike of May-October, 1902, Anthracite Strike Commission (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1903).
44. A Report on Labor Disturbances in the State of Colorado from 1880 to 1904, S. Doc. 122, 58th Cong., 3d sess., p. 112.
45. Ibid., pp. 182-187.
46. Ibid., pp. 192-193.
47. Ibid., p. 295.
48. Ibid., p. 325.
49. Ibid., pp. 168-169, 200-201, 205.
50. Ibid., p. 325.
51. See Vernon Jensen, Heritage of Conflict (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1950); Benjamin McKie Rastall, The Labor History of Cripple Creek District, University of Wisconsin Bulletin No. 198 (Madison, 1908).
52. Coast Seamen's Journal, Sept. 21, 1901; Ira B. Cross, History of the Labor Movement in California (Berkeley: University of California, 1935), p. 243.
53. The information on violence is from the police reports sent to the Bureau of Labor by Frank L. Palmer and Ethelbert Stewart, both of whom were present at different times during the strike in Chicago, and reported regularly to the Commissioner of Labor. These papers were examined in the National Archives, Washington, D.C. They are in the Papers of Ethelbert Stewart.
54. Coast Seamen's Journal, Dec. 5, 1909, p. 2; Perlman and Taft, op. cit., pp. 144-149.
55. Statement of James Tyson, a shipper, in Report of Commission on Industrial Relations, vol. VII, pp. 5252-5253.
56. Report of the Adjutant General of the State of New York, 1902, pp. 61-62. 
57 Report of the Adjutant General, Quartermaster-General and Surgeon General of Rhode Island, 1902, p. 113.
58. Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Louisiana, 1902, pp. 11-13.
59. Report of the Adjutant General of Connecticut to the Commander-in-Chief, 1903, pp. VIII, IX.
60. Nineteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, State of Connecticut Public Document N. 23, 1903, p. 386.
61. The two quotations are from Street Railway Journal, July 6, 1907, p. 45, and The Outlook, May 11, 1907, p. 88.
62. The Public, Mar. 18, 1910, p. 253.
63. Harold J. Howland, "The War in Philadelphia," The Outlook, Mar. 5, 1910.
64. Electric Traction Weekly, Sept. 10, 1910, p. 993.
65. Ibid., p. 994.
66. Annual Report of the Adjutant General to the Governor of the State of Ohio, 1910, p. 5.
67. Louis Levine, The Women's Garment Workers (New York: B. W. Huebsch, 1924); Report of United States Commission on Industrial Relations, S. Doc. 415, 64th Cong., 1st sess, vol. II, pp. 1031 ft.
68. The Clothing Workers of Chicago, 1910-1922 (Chicago: Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, 1922); Perlman and Taft, op. cit., pp. 304-308. A year later, the Cleveland garment workers sought recognition, and their efforts were accompanied by rioting and shooting, including the killing of a picket. C. E. Ruthenberg, "The Cleveland Garment Workers," International Socialist Review, Sept. 1911, p. 136.
69. Peonage in Western Pennsylvania. Hearings before the' Committee on Labor of the House of Representatives, 62d Cong., 1st sess., on H- Res. 90, p. 8.
70. Report on the Miner's Strike in the Bituminous Coal Field in Westmoreland County, Pa., H. Doc. 847, 66th Cong., 2d sess., p. 82.
71. Report on Strike at Bethlehem Steel Works, South Bethlehem, Pa., S. Doc. 521, 61st Cong., 2d sess., pp. 10-16.
72. Labor Conditions in the Anthracite Regions of Pennsylvania, 1887-1888, H. Rept. 4147, 50th Cong., 2d sess., pp. 136-167.
73. J. P. Shalloo, Private Police (Philadelphia: The American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 1933), p. 61.
74. See report of the Committee on Education and Labor Pursuant S. Res. 266 (74th Cong.), S. Rept. 6, Part 2, 76th Cong., 1st sess., 1939; Report of United States Commission on Relations, S. Doc. 415, 64th Cong., 1st sess., 1916, pp. 92-98.
75. Report of the Adjutant General of the State of New Jersey for the Year Ending October 31, 1902, p. 25.
76. U.S. H. Doc. 607, 60th Cong., 1st sess., p. 17.
77. Ibid., p. 22.
78. Ibid., p. 23.
79. Ibid., p. 23. The quotation is from a report of Lawrence O. Murray, Herbert Knox Smith, and Charles P. O'Neil, who were appointed by President Roosevelt to investigate the Goldfleld violence.
80. Report of the Adjutant General of the State of New Jersey for the Year Ending October 31, 1909, pp. 15-16.
81. Biennial Report of the Adjutant General of California, 1910, pp. 50-51.
82. Luke Grant, The National Erectors' Association and the International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers (Washington: U.S. Commission on Industrial Relations, 1915), especially pp. 107-148.
83. Ibid., p. 125.
84. Ibid., p. 130.
85. Ibid., pp. 136-137.
86. "A Policy of Lawlessness: A Partial Record of Riot, Assault, Murder, Coercion, and Intimidation Occurring in Strikes of the Iron Molders Union During 1904, 1905, 1906, and 1907" (Detroit: National Founders Association, no date).
87. Report of the United States Commission on Industrial Relations (testimony of Charles F. Markham, president of Illinois Central), vol. X.
88. The violence is described in sections dealing with the Harriman and Illinois Central strikes in ibid.
89. Annual Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Louisiana for the Year Ending December 31, 1912, pp. 7-8.
90. Annual Report of the State Board of Conciliation and Arbitration in Massachusetts, 1912, p. 31; Report of Massachusetts Adjutant General  for 1912, p. 7; Report on Textile Strike in Lawrence, Massachusetts, S. Doc. 870, 62d Cong., 2d session; Hearings on the Strike at Lawrence, Massachusetts, H. Doc. 671, 62d Cong., 2d sess.
91. Report of the United States Commission on Industrial Relations, vol. 3, pp. 2534, 2547.
92. Report of the Adjutant General of the State of California, 1914, pp. 45-46; Proceedings of the 15th Annual Convention of the Convention of the California State Federation of Labor, 1914, pp. 72-73.
93. Henry F. Grady, "The Open Shop in San Francisco," The Survey, May 25, 1916, p. 193.
94. Law and Order in San Francisco: A Beginning (San Francisco Chamber of Commerce, 1916), pp. 8-11.
95. Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Florida for the Year 1912, app. B.
96. Annual Report of the Adjutant General of the State of New York for the Year 1913, p. 6.
97. Annual Report of the Adjutant General of the State of New York for the Year 1913, p. 6; The Outlook, Apr. 19, 1913, p. 129.
98. The Miners' Magazine, Oct. 1, 1912, pp. 8-9.
99. The Public, Jan. 14, 1916, p. 35; Jan. 21, 1916, p. 63; John A. Fitch, "Arson and Citizenship," The Survey, Jan. 22, 1916.
100. The Public, Aug. 29, 1913, p. 825; Nov. 7, 1913, pp. 1064-1065.
101. Report of the Indiana Adjutant General of the State of Indiana for the Fiscal Years Ending September 30, 1913 and 1914, p. 170.
102. The Survey, May 3, 1913, p. 163.
103. The Public, June 20, 1913, p. 588; J. S. Biscay "The Ipswich Strike," International Socialist Review, Aug. 1913, p. 91.
104. The New York Times, Jan. 29, Feb. 4, 1913.
105. The Miners' Magazine, May 29, 1913, pp. 8-9.
106. Quote is from The Survey, Jan. 30, 1915, p. 458; The Public, Jan. 29, 1915, p. 107; New York Times, June 7, 1913.
107. The Survey, July 31, 1915, p. 387.
108. Literary Digest, Aug. 7, 1915, p. 237.
109. John A. Fitch, "When a Sheriff Breaks a Strike," The Survey, Aug. 7, 1915, pp. 414-415.
110. John A. Fitch, "The Explosion at Bayonne," The Survey, Oct. 21, 1916, pp. 61-62; New York Times, Oct. 11, 14, 1916.
111. Strike in the Copper Mining District of Michigan, S. Doc. 381, 63d Cong., 2d sess.; Perlman and Taft, op. cit., pp. 348-351.
112. Investigation of Conditions in Paint Creek Coal Fields of West Virginia in Pursuance of S. Res. 37, S. Rept. 321, 63d Cong., 2d sess., contains the commission's report. Quotation is on p. 238.
113. George P. West, Report on the Colorado Strike (Washington: U.S. Commission on Industrial Relations, 1915), p. 31.
114. Ibid., p. 133.
115. West, op. cit., p. 135. West was an investigator for the U.S. Commission on Industrial Relations and was acquainted with the facts. The figure on the dead women from Luke Grant, "The National Erectors Association," p. 131.
116. Perlman and Taft, op. at., pp. 336-342; Philip Taft, Organized Labor in American History (New York: Harper & Row, 1964), pp. 259-262; Final Report and Testimony Submitted to Congress by the Commission on Industrial Relations, vols. VI, VIII, IX. Also Barron B. Beshoar, Out of the Depths (Denver: Golden Press, n.d.), pp. 180-194.
117. Monthly Labor Review, Sept., 1941, p. 569.
118. Statement by the Mine Operators of the District Arizona Chapter American Mining Congress, 1917, pp. 8-9.
119. Transcription of the Hearing of the President's Mediation Board. Held at Bisbee, Ariz., Nov. 1-5, 1917, pp. 239-240.
120. Ibid., p. 160.
121. Ibid., p. 160.
122. Journal of the Senate, Third Legislature, First Special Session, State of Arizona, 1918, p. 11.
123. Report on the Bisbee Deportations Made by the President's Meditation Commission to the President of the United States, Nov. 6, 1917.
124. West Virginia Coal Fields. Hearings before U.S. Senate Committee on Education and Labor, 67th Cong., 1st sess., pp. 7, 52, 873.
125. Ibid., p. 6. See also Winthrop D. Lane, Civil War In West Virginia (New York: Huebsch, 1921). 
126. Biennial Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Colorado, p. 22.
127. Quadrennial Report of Adjutant General of Alabama, 1922, pp. 29-30.
128. United Mine Workers Journal, Aug. 15, 1922, pp. 7-8, 9-10.
129. Monthly Labor Review, Sept., 1924, p. 570.
130. Paul M. Angle, Bloody Williamson (New York: Knopf, 1952) deals with this episode.
131. Quoted by Orville Thrasher Gooden, The Missouri and North Arkansas Strike (New York: Columbia University Press, 1926), p. 231. See also Rev. J. K. Farris, The Harrison Riot or the Reign of the Mob (Wynne, Ark.: J. K. Farris, 1924), which deals with the strike sympathetically.
132. Report of the Adjutant General of Missouri, Jan. 10, 1921.
133. Annual Report of the Chief of the Militia Bureau, 1923, pp. 58-65.
134. The information is from the Bill of Complaint Exhibit No. 3, U.S. Railway Employees Department, American Federation of Labor, etc., in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois Eastern Division, pp. 123-124.
135. Ibid., pp. 124-128, 139-143.
136. Appendix to Annual Report of Attorney General of the United States for the Fiscal Year 1922 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1924), p. 20. 137.
138. Ibid., p. 21.
139. Ibid., p. 21.
140. Ibid., p. 23.
141. A History of Organized Felony and Folly, the Record of Union Labor in Crime and Economics (New York, no publisher, 1923, pp. 62-65). This work claims that the U.S. Attorney General charged that the death of 25 people could be directly attributed to the shopmen's strike.
142. 11th Biennial Report (Colorado), Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1919-20, p. 26.
143. The Denver Tramway Strike of 1920: Report by Edward T. Devine, Rev. John A. Ryan and John A. Lapp (Denver: The Denver Commission on Religious Forces, 1921), pp. 2, 21, 32-33.
144. Annual Report of the Chief of the Militia Bureau, 1922 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1922), pp. 45-47; Report of the Adjutant General State of Minnesota, 1922, pp. 11-14; Biennial Report of the Adjutant General of the State of North Carolina, 1921-1922, p. 47.
145. Annual Report of the Chief of the Militia Bureau, 1922, p. 47.
146. See Royal E. Montgomery, Industrial Relations in the Chicago Building Trades (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1927).
147. United Mine Workers Journal, Mar. 15, 1926, p. 11; Harriet L. Herring, "12 Cents, the Troops and the Union," The Survey, Nov. 15, 1923, pp. 199-200; Annual Report of the Chief of the Militia Bureau, 1927, p. 68.
148. Daniel J. McClurg, "The Colorado Coal Strike of 1927 -- Tactical Leadership of the IWW," Labor History, pp. 82-85; Biennial Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Colorado to His Excellency the Governor, 1928, pp. 26-28.
149. Conditions in the Coal Fields of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio. Hearings before the Committee on Interstate Commerce, U.S. Sen., 70th Cong., 1st sess., pursuant to S. Res. 105.
150. Report of the Adjutant General of the State of North Carolina, July 1, 1926, to Dec. 31, 1927.
151. New York Times, Oct. 3-5, 12, 1929; The Marion Murder (New York: National Executive Committee of the Conference for Progressive Labor Action, 1929).
152. Justice North Carolina Style (American Civil Liberties Union, 1931), pp. 11-14.
153. New York Times, May 6, Nov. 7, 9, 1931, and Feb. 11, Mar. 24-31, 1932; The Kentucky Miner's Struggle (New York: American Civil Liberties Union, 1930).
154. The Struggle for Civil Liberty on the Land (New York: American Civil Liberties Union, no date), pp. 24-25, 27-28.
155. Walter Wilson, Call Out the Militia (New York: American Civil Liberties Union, 1938), p. 27.
156. Captive mines produced coal only for the use of owners, such as steel and public utility companies.
157. New York Times, Oct. 5, 10, 11, 1933.
158. Pittsburgh Press, July 26-30, Aug. 2-6, Nov. 1-5, 1933.
159. Violation of Free Speech and Rights of Labor: Private Police Systems, Harlan County, Kentucky, report of the Committee on Education and Labor pursuant to S. Res. 266 (74th Cong.). A resolution to investigate violations of the right of free speech and assembly and interference with the right of labor to organize and bargain collectively, Feb. 13, 1939, pp. 47-48.
160. Ibid., P. 53.
161. Ibid., p. 79.
162. Ibid., p. 83.
163. Ibid., p. 94.
164. Ibid., pp. 98-104.
165. Ibid., pp. 111-112.
166. Ibid., p. 112.
167. Harriet D. Hudson, The Progressive Mine Workers of America: A Study in Rival Unionism (Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1952), pp. 119-120; McAlister Coleman, Men and Coal (New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1943), p. 177.
168. Philip Taft, Organized Labor in American History (New York: Harper & Row, 1964), pp. 488-489.
169. Congressional Record, Mar. 13, 1958, p. 4098.
170.Report of the Adjutant General of the State of North Carolina, January 1, 1933-December 31, 1935, p. 12.
171. Ibid., pp. 447-449. See also New York Times through August and September 1934 for detailed coverage of the textile strike situation.
172. Wilson, op. cit., p. 28.
173. New York Times, Feb. 1, 15, Mar. 31, May 14, Oct. 27, 1935.
174. New York Times, Oct. 29-31, 1935.
175. Labor Fact Book III, pp. 173-175.
176. Wilson, op. cit., p. 15.
177. New York Times, Sept. 3-8, 1935.
178. Report of the Chief of the National Guard, 1936, p. 16.
179. Wilson, op. cit., p. 29.
180. New York Times, July 24, Sept. 27, Nov. 30, 1936.
181. New York Times, June 30, July 12-13, 1936.
182. Ibid., June 2-4, 1936.
183. Labor Fact Book, 1938, pp. 125-126.
184. President Thomas Girdler, of the Republic Steel Co., testified before the La Follette Committee in August 1938, and stated that his industrial relations policy had succeeded. Senator Robert M. La Follette commented: "Mr. Girdler, in connection with the success of his industrial-relations policy, the record of this investigation shows that the steel strike of 1937 cost the country sixteen lives and 307 persons were injured." Hearings before a Subcommittee on Education and Labor, U.S. Senate 75th Cong., 3d sess., pt. 34, p. 13889.
185. The Chicago Memorial Day Incident. S. Rept. 46, pt. 2, 76th Cong., 1st sess., 1937, p. 3.
186. Ibid., p. 18.
187. Ibid., p. 18.
188. Ibid., p. 39.
189. Youngstown Vindicator, June 20, 1937. See testimony of witnesses on the riot in Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Education and Labor, 75th Cong., 3d sess., pursuant to S. Res. 266, 74th Cong., pt. 29, pp. 11183-12014.
190. Hearings Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Education and Labor, U.S. Senate, 75th Cong., 3d sess., pt. 25, p. 10689.
191. New York Times, July 27, 1937.
192. Hearings Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Education and Labor, U.S. Senate, 75th Cong., 3d sess., pt. 34, p. 13968.
193. Ibid., pt. 28, p. 11497.
194. New York Times, July 8-12, 1937.
195. New York Times, June 26, July 1-3, 1937.
196. New York Times, July 1, 1937.
197. Philadelphia [Pa.] Bulletin, June 29, 1937.
198. Chicago Tribune, Mar. 2, 3, 1938.
199. Houston [Tex.] Chronicle, Sept. 15, 1938; Voice of the Federation, Sept. 22 1938
200. Houston [Tex.] Press, July 1, Aug. 5, 1938.
201. Biennial Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Iowa for the Fiscal Years 1939 and 1940, pp. 9-10. 
202. Ibid., pp. 10-11.
203. New York Times, July 17, 28, Aug. 29, Nov. 9, 11, 939.
204. New York Times, Aug. 8, 21, 23, 1939.
205. Denver Post, May 23, 1940.
206. Newark News (N.J.), Sept. 23, 1946.
207. St.. Louis Dispatch, July 25, 1940.
208. New Yok Times, Apr. 16, 1941.
209. Los Angeles Times, June 9, 1940.
210. The St. Louis Post Dispatch, Oct. 23, 1940.
212. New York Times, Apr. 16, 1941.
213. New York Times, Apr. 16, 1941.
214. Ibid., Dec. 15, 1941.
215. Quadrennial Report of the Adjutant General of Alabama, 1942, pp. 87-88.
216. New York Times, May 10, 1940.
217. St. Louis Dispatch, July 25, 1940.
218. Brooklyn Eagle, Sept. 24, 1940.
219. Detroit Times, May 13, 1941.
220. San Antonio Light, June 12, 1941; San Antonian Express, June 15, 1941.
221. Detroit Times, Feb. 16, 1942; Feb. 17, 1942.
222. Charleston Post, Apr. 2, 1943.
223. Arkansas Gazette, Feb. 2, 1945.
224. Oklahoma City Oklahoman, Apr. 21, 1946.
225. NLRB v. Drivers, etc., 362 U.S. 274 at 290.
226. Perry Norvell Co., 80 NLRB 225 at 239.
227. We have examined all of the Board's case files in which a finding has been made of union-caused violence or coercion.
228. Wall Street Journal, Oct. 30, 1968.
229. The Hobbs Act inhibits the use of or threat of force to transport money in interstate commerce.
230. Slason Thompson, "Violence in Labor Disputes," World's Work, Dec. 1904.
231. Final Report and Testimony of the Commission on Industrial Relations, S. Doc. 415, 64th Cong., 1st sess. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1916), vol. I, pp. 242-244.
232. "We Work at Ford's -- A Picture History," UAW-CIO Ford Dept., Detroit, Mich., 1955, p. 45.
233. National Labor Relations Board v. Fansteel Metallurgical Corp., 306 U.S. 240.