Wesley C. Salmon, Logic (1963).
For Further Reading
This book gives, at best, a glimpse into the nature of logic. In its brevity it excludes much important material. If your curiosity about logic has been aroused, further reading will be helpful in two ways. First, you may want lengthier and more detailed discussions of topics we have treated only briefly. Second, you may want to expand your view of the field by learning something about subjects we have had to omit entirely. There are many excellent books on logic that will serve either or both of these purposes. The following are easily available and are among the best.
GENERAL INTRODUCTIONS TO LOGIC
 Beardsley, Monroe C.
 Thinking Straight, 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: PrenticeHall, Inc., 1966.
 Brody, Baruch
 Logic: Theoretical and Applied. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: PrenticeHall, Inc., 1973.
 Cohen, Morris R., and Ernest Nagel
 An Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1934.
 Copi, Irving M.
 Introduction to Logic, 6th ed. New York: Macmillan, Inc., 1982.
 Eaton, Ralph M.
 General Logic. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1931.
 Fogelin, Robert J.
 Understanding Arguments. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1978.
 Kahane, Howard
 Logic and Contemporary Rhetoric, 3rd ed. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Publishing Co., Inc., iy8U.
 Michalos, Alex C.
 Principles of Logic. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: PrenticeHall, Inc. 1969.
INTRODUCTIONS TO SYMBOLIC LOGIC
If you would like to learn more about deductive logic as a modern formal science, the following books will be helpful. They presuppose no previous acquaintance with logic, but they go far beyond our brief survey of symbolic techniques.
 Hunter, Geoffrey
 Metalogic. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1973.
 Kalish, Donald, and Richard Montague
 Logic: Techniques of Formal Reasoning, 2nd ed. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1980.
 Massey, Gerald J.
 Understanding Symbolic Logic. New York: Harper and Row, Publishers, Inc., 1970.
 Mates, Benson
 Elementary Logic, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1972.
 Mendelson, Elliott
 Introduction to Mathematical Logic. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1964.
INDUCTIVE LOGIC
Unlike deductive logic, inductive logic is not a welldeveloped discipline with standard systems one can learn. The following books will help you to see the present state of understanding of the problems in the field.
 Giere, Ronald N.
 Understanding Scientific Reasoning. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1979.
 Hempel, Carl G.
 Philosophy of Natural Science, Chaps. 14. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: PrenticeHall, Inc. [The Foundations of Philosophy Series], 1966.
 Salmon, Wesley C.
 The Foundations of Scientific Inference. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1967.
 Skyrms, Brian
 Choice and Chance, 2nd ed. Belmont, Calif.: Dickenson Publishing Co., Inc., 1975.
LOGIC AND LANGUAGE
Although all the books previously listed as general introductions to logic contain discussions of material contained in our Chapter 4, the following books are excellent supplementary sources.
 Alston, William P.
 Philosophy of Language. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: PrenticeHall, Inc [Foundations of Philosophy Series], 1964.
 Hospers, John
 An Introduction to Philosophical Analysis, 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: PrenticeHall, Inc., 1967.
PHILOSOPHY OF LOGIC
If you would like to penetrate more deeply into the philosophical problems at the basis of deductive logic, the following book by Quine is unsurpassed. The book edited by Copi and Gould is an anthology of classic readings in the philosophy of deductive and inductive logic.
 Copi, Irving M., and James A. Gould, eds.
 Readings on Logic, 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan, Inc., 1972.
 Quine, Willard van Orman
 Philosophy of Logic. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: PrenticeHall, Inc. [Foundations of Philosophy Series], 1970.
